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Word Salad

  • What is word salad?  Well it is a bunch of historical paper clippings that were scanned in and archived.  The problem with having these historical articles archived is that the image content is not index-able by google and the content is not human searchable. 

     

    It is important to note, that Word Salad is not intended to be read like a blog or article.  It is quite frankly unreadable.  Many of the images we imported using Optical Character Recognition were so poor that only some of the text is legible.

     

    How To Use Word Salad

    The best thing to do is use the following keyboard short cut “ctrl+f” this will bring up a search box and allow you to search the text on the page.  Also many browsers have a “find” or “find on page” feature that can be used to search the text on a webpage. 

     

    Once you bring up your search box enter a search keyword.   Examples:

     

    • Search word “Guns” Brings up several hits on Bill Clinton and others talking about restricting the 2nd Amendment.
    • Search Word “Mexico” Brings up how Mexico was instrumental in killing CA Proposition l87 as well as other interesting things.
    • Search Word “Clinton” Brings up a lot, including the nugget - The Clinton Administration Is leading a bi-partisan effort in the House and Senate lo Implement a one billion dollar program to vaccinate all children in the US

    Now once you find something interesting you can get the original source material at this archive - http://www.devvy.com/reading_room_orig.html

     

    zPatriot will continue the Word Salad initiate as we find more content in scanned or image form that should be made searchable text.  If you have a source or lead for some content, please comment below.

    Word Salad

    7582 start and made a lot of no1e in the press and the propia back home lhuhL every body. more or less, wanted Lo io to war. and they had no medium of exiress’oiI. But when the America First Committee came along and American people found that othet were thlnlrrn the same way, they have been holding meeungs all over thc Country. I Luye talked to docns of them, and J have never talked to an audience of America First where the room was not lull. Only within the last week or 10 days I talked to 8.000 in MII wiuikec and 4.000 In SL Louis. Erery. where eLse I spoke tht hails were packed. and there was art ocerflow audience. Why? Because the American people want some medium of expression, and (hey want to hnve some organization that ta for America first itnd that wants Lo keep us out of war. They liad a meet lag in Philadelphia about 2 weeks ago. and not a single pasr carried any Item that I was to be (here. All the large newspapers, 9 or 10 of thczh, are Inter Yeiitionists, and the smaller and rural papers are about equally divided, Nonc of the Philadelpitla newspapers mentioned my comtr,g there. It was held In an old Masonic auditorium. which had gone bankrupt and now La called the Forum ot the Cfly or Phila delphia—a perfectly beautiful building, a great forum. with three tiers of seats. In spite of the press, the buildtn was packed with over 3.000 people, wtth an overflow audience, and it was held under the auspices al the Antrlca First Corn. mittcc. It was p.cìed because they wintcd to htar this Iasue diacustd, and what price war meurs to the American people. That was I discussed with them, and yet when he intezentIonlsIs speak. Senator PEri’rS and others, they have only three or leur hundred people. When the America First Committee hcc2s a meeting the whole building is packed, becau;e the poopie want a chance to hear that id of th iue. I am for this commitite 0m two grounds. one of national den.te, and the othe keeping America out of war. Mr. SAUTHO?F. Mr. Speaker, will the gentleman yield? Mr. FISH. Yes. Mr. SAUT?40F7. I merely want to Interject here into U’.e gentlemans re marks. that General Wood. the head of the America First Committee, Is a veteran of two of our wars, while the gentleman who Is speaking went through the ilrst World Var ar4 served In France as u captalit, and has now recently come back from camp. where he served In the Reserves and is ready serve again, I wonder if Mr. Ingersoh of the PM can show the reccrd elthe or General Wood or of the gentleman who now has the floor? Mr. FISH. Mr. Speaktr, may I add to that that among the other directors of he America First Cornrnntee is Mr. IZan- ford McNider. of los’s. a pase national commander o! the Ar.’ertcnn Legion. a veteran with a disUnguished war record, who was decorated by practically ail the Allied governments during the 12at War for gallantry in action, and there s General Hammond tr.d several others On the executive comrnius(. In conclusion I naked pertnls%lon to speak on this matter of personal privi. lego because of what was published In the tVasluIngtoiu Post and PM—HAM PThii snatches Iclence wanted In United States NaZI hunt.” That is what was cir culated all around New York, and that Is what I wanted to ansiver. J bave tried (o present to this House a detailed, cute goilcal answer to the eflect that I never snatched any evidence, that I have never received our of (lirse bags, nor have I ever heard from these parties concerned: thitt I know nothing about It, xccpt what L have read in the press and heard from my secretaries, wito refused to accept the bags of speeches. Yet they deliberately say that I have snatched evidence that the United StAtes wants in a Nazi hunt. Of course, I was required after those Charges to come here arid answer uliern. but, as far as I am concerned, they can hut all the NazIs la (he country on ‘sh1p and send them bucle to Germany on a One- way ticket, and at the same time they can send all of the Comiutujiista away on an other boat to SovIet Russia, and let them fight for their reapedilve countries. ¡ hati do everything that I can to help de port these Nazis and Communists and Lo stop nil Nazi and Communist actIvities In America, but I do bopv from now on that these pro-war newspapers will not rush ints Print and try to hare some Members of Congress pilloried or smeared simply bacause they Are trying in accordance with their convictiona lo keep the UnIted States out of war unl nu,ack4 by some foreign power. -rr:szo Or REMARKS Mr. BlOOM. Mr. Speaker. T ask unanimous consent to extend my re inarkg In the Rccouo by Insertion of a speech delivered by Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler. The SPEAIcg, Is there objection? There was no objr’ction. THE ATlOAI. DE31’ The SPEAKZI(, Under previous order o( (he house, the gentlyinan hum Texas (Mr. PArM.tl Is recognized ¡or ¡5 ruin- tites. WILl, COST GO”(I%,EN? $ie.005.Øea,êCo TO CAT DES? OF *5S.COa.OGO,000 Mr. PATMAN. Mr. Speaker, our Gov ernment debt at this time is approxi mately S50.000.000.000. fly the time that Is paid it will aggrelnte S100.003,000,000. When we talk about a debt of a certain size we should double the amount If we want to keep lu mind what will actually have to be paid before tIse debt Is lIqull dated. This amount of 100 percent is duc to the interest charges, I am not op posed to individuals and corporations paying interest, They should pay inter eat (or the use of money that lucy hire f rom olhcr people, but when our Federal Government, that has the exclusive power to create money, creates that money and then goes Into tise open mar ket and borrows It and pays interest 1er the use of its own money, IL occurs to me that that is going too tir. I llave never yet had anyone who could, through the use vi logic and reason, justify the Federal GOvermuent borrowing the use of Its own money. SEPTL.MM 29 Por tic first 123 years of our cou1nt-’$ exIstence the national debt was snuli. It was only about $3,000,000 year— s’ery small. ‘flic in (crest chni’-s mnonntcd to a u’ery InsignIficant sum. cxccptlnu duiirsg (lic War bttcn tile States, when the national de5t run up to twenty- flrc or thirtI’ mIllion dollars, But that was only ior 2 or 3 years, and It was small in compurson. 34owevcr,stc thc World War in 1937—18. our notional debt issus been Ial-ge, and today wc sure paying at tite rte o! 51,300.000000 n year interest on our Government obhg:stloqi, DOl-trI)ItWT SNOULS ND? tract ¡tIINO rO?4 IL Is true that if we contract a cleot we should pay it. If the Government sells bonds, the Government should pay thOse bonds. If the Government promises lo pay interest at a certain rate ott those bonds, the Gornment ¡hould carry out Its obiigntion. But 1 am saying to you in all sIncerity nd with till the earnesLness that J possess. It Is absolutely wrong for the Government to issue Interest-bearsiug obhigut tons. It is not only wrong: it Is extravagant. It is not only extravagant. It is wasteful. IL Is absolntrly unnec essai-y. Two days ago Mr. Henry Morgenthau Secretary of the Treasury, was on tlsc witness stand belote the Committee on BankIng and Csrrency on lise price con trol bill. I astsd lihn qursLlor.s about ‘ this. It is in the heanrigs. ccnsmc-ncing at page 1005. Mr. Morgcntruau admitted in this testiinca that ii (he Government were to Issue 51.000.000 in bonds and Ìl those bonds which arc non-interest-bear ing and clelk’e7ed those bonds LO the 12 Federal Reser’e banks anti received ciedit fer them that he, as Secretary of the Treasury. ecld tusen Issue the same kind of checks against tIsaI money, and the people recerng the checks would re ceive the same haci of money as if he had issued a rutiLan ctIar in bonda and sod them o the ecaimercial bants of the country and agreed to pny the comnier cluE banks a ce:aiis i-ate o! interest. It would not increase the money supply one ‘ penny. Anyor;? r.-ho aigues that It LS in f,ationary does r.sr know what lue is talk ing about. It not Inflationary. It is not nearly as La.atioiuauy itS our present system of seil:g bonds and paying in terest us much as you pay principal. I have In rr,y ;ossculon a letter from the Secretary er the Trcaswy, Mr. Mer gcnthau, In repLy to a letter 1 had written to him. I asked h:ns how much the Clos’ ernment would py in intereSt chances on the $758.900.00 4”.-lcrcent TrCII4nIrY ‘ bonds that sure ;a’abIe in 1947 to 1952. His reply was that the amount would he about S987,700.f’OG. Now, mind you, that Is where we Isiirst those bonds during LIse World War, a:acunting to $758.000.000, and we sure paying in Intetest on those bonds. in add;::on to the principal. 5957 700 .000, Now, take the Panama Cariai bonds. They nniountetl to a lIthe less than $50000,000—$49 !00.000. By the time they are paid te Government will have paid $75 000.009 in interest on bonda of less thais 550,000030. So the Government is paying out 5t25.000.000 to obtain LitC use of $49.800,003. That is th way it has CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—IIOUSEwnrkvd all alonig. That is our pohcy. Tii.it is our syatem. The questiot, is. Should that policy be conhinLied? Is it sane? ¡s Ii r sonabe? Is IL rtcht or ii it wrong? 1f IL Is wrong. It should be changed. Mr. ‘OORItIS cl California, Mr. Speaker. will the gentleman yteld’ Mr, PATMAN. I woitld rather the cnLErmen wait LinUl I have finished. Now. I beUevc the system should be rliriiged The CcinsiItLition 01 il’h United Sities (loes nfl give ihe bnks the power to create money. The Con. stilution says that Congress shall lince the power to create money, but now under cur system we Will sell bonds to commercial banks and cbtain credit (rom thc’ee banks. We do not receive money (or the bonds. The bank creates credit, and, as Mr. Mc’rgentliau said in reply to my question. they create the money In (hat way, and they have mt. ready created $20.000,000.000 and bought 320 .000,000.000 of Oosrrnm!nL bonds. Therefore, if we do not change that sys tem we are. In cIted. farming out the credIt of this Nation ar.d paying a bent’s or tribute to people rho do not have anything in the world to oiler i. They hare nothing of value. They liare nth. inç to give us that we do not already hire, and yet here we era paying over a billion dollars a year Icr the us of It. I.IOT,C I?Itz.S( ¡ beiIeijhe ‘time will come when peo. / pie will demand that this be changed. ‘ f r believe the time will come In-thLscoun ¡ try: when tises will actually: blame, jotE and me and everyone else connected with this Congress (or sitting idly by and per mlttlng euch an idiotic system to con• tinuc. I malce that statement alter years of study. I have talked to the Secretary of the Treasury and members 01 the Federal fleseri-c Oaard end o(hcr people who arr supposcd to know tbout I the innney system of our country. TIwy knoi’ this can be clone easily and con• i’enlently. and it will saie money: but their one reply is, “IL will have a bd psS’cholo3icai dtect.” IVeil, ¡ Cm not think it would have a bad psychoioical elfcçt to save the pcop 50 percent nf their national debt. I rIo not thInk It would have a bad psychological eflect to save the people over a bIllion dollars n year in Interest. I do net think it would. IL would certainly have a bad effect on the people who ave collecting interest on 11w Govarnment’a money. rrezL RCUeiPC PP.IWATE1.T OWN We have what Is known as the Ferlerai Rek’rve Bank System. That system S not owned by the Government, Many peorIc think that it is, because It says “Federal Reserve.’ it belongs to (he private banks, pnratc corporations. So we hate (armed oui to tr Fedei’Ol Reserve Banking System that Is ovned exclusively, wholly, tOO percent by the private banks—we have farmed f out to them the prIv*ieg. of issuing the Goi’crnrner.rs money. H we were to take this privilege back Irom theft we could f save Lite amount of money that I have lnciicated lu naimotts Interest charges. We have today abouL $fl.000.000.fl0O In gold. Tills gold Is. nf course, owncd by the Govcrnmcnt—titc LO li is in tite Gee. crnrtwnt. Many pcopte say the Fnderal RE.WL’VC banks oua lt but (hey rio not ownS it. Cotigress passed a lw SavIn; that the rirht. tItle, arid Interest in and (o (hat gold la in the Government. but for coiwentcrice and In Order to carry osaI this prcsenl monetary policy, the TrensiLrY ha issued what I, known as goUt ceit.flcates and has turned over to (lie Federal flesere baiik.i these gold cerilflcates, So today we hold about 523000,000,000 In gold, Under Clic old a»tem 01 IMuln $250 In currencr t every $1 of gold on the theory (baL . 40’ percent gold base would always be sale, you could take that $23,000,000,000 of gold and Issue two and one-halt Clines that much moud under our present sys tem. This twonid amount to fi! Ly.seven or flfty.elh billions of dollars that could b issued oit that gold; and then the banks receIving (tie money could Issue all the ray front I to 20 t 1. You can thus see what a great potential threat of inflation is there it 1: were exercised. but it will not be c’erc,sed because the peo ple who liare charge of the monetary astem will not permit It to be exercised. The point I went to try Lo make is that the ¡2 Federal Reserve banks have in their custody these gold certificates which are used he reine sa gold. which are sumctetit (o more than pcty oil tite en- tire r.alional debt. X am not advccatkn; that tins be donc ciutckly or suddenly. I am not advocating that any change l:k thU br made quickly. (or it would prob be disLurblr to the country: but li the Government cxned these I Fed erat Reserve banks. as It should—thiti’ should be jug as nuch a part of this Government as 11w Trrasury itself—then ercz.tual!y the nat.,,nal debt could be aiaaorbed by them and this interest bar. den could be taken c,t our shoulders. Ti’. WHITE. Mr. Speaker. nu the . gcr.iler.tiln yield’ lr. PATMAN. ¡ ‘yield, Mr. WHITE, The vntleinan statci thai the $23.000.003 0GO in gold whilt Is s.ioied In Ke.ttuCy. o: wherever it tflSj tse stored. is owned eddy y tile Govern rcnt. How does h’ gentleman ciassilý the Stl.000cOO000 ol gold certificates to the crelt 01 (he ficard 01 Governors of the Federal Reserve bank’ What class do they fall into? What are they? Mr. PATMAN. They ran be used ‘n international transeelions. The Federal Reserve banks cannot get gold unless the gold Is needed for ene ol the purposes spectltcd in the tau’, and one of those pur. poses Is to aetUe balances with foreirfn countries. Hr. WHI’T. Under the gentleman’s ewsi statement, then :hose very gold cer tiflcates are a ciraIt ‘,vhqn properly ever clscd en tite gold that is now in the pos’ seMlon of the Pircieral Government. Mr. PATMAN A lImited draft. a t!raIt only for 11w purposes speciñe by the ice’, Mr. V)1ITE. ¡t w assume there arr ennuch tercian batanees to drain oft the S?! .000.000.000 in gold then ills “o ioncer tite propriy of Lite Government but must flott’ Cut to redeem these gold certIficates. Mr. PATMAN. That Is right regard Ic:s of whether the Federal Reserve 7533 claimed the gold or whethutr lite ‘Fre.rst,rr s’iaimcd it. Ir nur batanees were srs un favarable is (o drain that Ji’)td oft il,at is what would hrinpen. Mr. WHITE. ‘I’hl. wentlc’ntnn knoita that hundreds of millions of dolhir.š’ worth of torolIn gold has been bçuught over into (his country (or Slot ase. frp’ safekeeping; and dice, Ihis einerçcncy of war is over this gold will P0*’ out again. Mr. PATMAN. Th.tt will di’pvnd on (rade baLnces. Mr. WHITE. It Li poJaiI,lc that It may flow out. Those çold cei’(iflcatcs will then be a demand n, (hat Cold which muss be honored. lun I right’ Mr. PATMAN. Yes; and they expect to honor them if they go to settle inter naticr.al balanccj, bcuac thc law says goi4 cannot be released except to tire the arts, trades, sciences, to settle Inter national balances and possibly other tes sons but these are the principie ones. Mr. tVI4ITE. ! am talking flow oc ths gold that is In storage supposed to be cwræd b)’ Oie Federal Government, ihe law as t understand It requires (list tite issuance of reclerid Iteserve currency musc be backed by 40 percent gold. How Is lite currency new In eircUiato:t backed’ E ttttni IL IS £1.000.030.000, s it not, Mr. PAT,tMi, Nm’ billion dollars. Mr. W2I!T. Ts that bckcd uy 40-per cent gold? Mr. PATMAN. ¡Lis backed by much more than 40 percent: itis backed by 200 percer.t. Mr. WHTTE. The a’ntleinan iis juig stated that tite gold ass not oc-fierS by the Federal G3vernme:t. Mr. P.TMAN Thr title to it is in lite Federal Government. The same Govern nient ;hat ot’ns the gold IsuC$ the mOnv’. and the Goter,,mt’nt that natirs (lie :noney has S23.OO0.OO.0OO In goct. So the;e is nioe’e than Q0-percent resere behind the out:taeiciinç currency. Mr. WHITE. I must have mLsunder. stood the gentleman beosute he tstd the batiks acte exercising the prerogative ol the Government In bauttig money, Mr PATMAN. ‘tllvv are issuing ¡t for lIte Goveinment on the Gover,ijr,ent’s credit: ye:. t suggest that, this r.tatter :hould :- crUe the attention of the :.teinbcrs of lite House. (heme the ,veI tell.l AOJOUflNSIENT OVEn Mr. MCcORMACK Mt. Spak’r. I ask iir,aiinioua consent that when Osa House adjourns tcday It adjourn to mnoct on Th’j’scmy next. ‘flic S?IAKER. Is there objection to the raquest of tIte geatlemsi, 1,’omn Massachusetts? Tbte was no objection. Onorn OP OCSII4!SS Mr. ‘icCOR1iIACK. ).ir. Speaker, I ask unar,tmous consent that on Monday next affrr the call of b.lls ou (lie Unani mous Conseett Calendar, that WIls on tite Private Calendar, which would ordinarIly be called Gn Tuesday unless dIspensed with be called after ‘he call ol the Con tnL Calendar on Monday, 1911 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—HOUSEworLed all aion. That Le Gut POliCY. TILfl is our system. The atwstion is. Shatild that policy be ccmlisued? la IL sane? is IL îç.iOil31’Jti? 15 iL rtchL or ft it wroisg? 11 IL Is wLOISV. IL hoviiI be chinged, Mr. OORH1S at CaWornin. Mr. Speaker. vitl the genueman yield? Mr. PATMAN. I would rather the cr:t3cniin wait until I have flni.hed. Now. I believe the system should be changed- ‘nie Coirstituflon of the United Stores itcic: rIl)t give the batikS tise power lo Create nioiicy. The Con st;ta,tiOn says (hat Congress shall have the poster to create money, but now oct cur systetii we ttill sell bonds to commercial banks and cbtain credit from thcae banks. We do not receive money for the bonds. The bank creates ciedli, and, as Mr. Mc’rgenihau said In reply to my question. they Create tise money in that way, and they liase al ready created $0.000,Oi30.0*0 and bought S2O.000.000000 of OorrrnmnL bonds. Therefore, if we do not chinge that sys tem we are. In cited, lairiling out lise credit of thu Nation rir.d paying a bonus or tribute Lo people who rió not have anything In the world lo offer us. They liare nothIng of s’alite. They have nuth. tn; to give us that do not alrccicly hase, and yet here we rt-e paying oser n billion doil.r a year ter the us. of It. erOTIC ¡TStZM t believe the time will come when peo—.. f pie will demand that this be changed. f ¡ believe this Lime will come hnthhacoun ¡ try When they will actually blame you! J and me and everyone rise connected with this Congress for stLLtn Idly by and per rnitting ¡uth an Idiotic system to con- ¿ tiare. I make that st5tcmcni after : years of study, t have talked to the Secretary of the Treasury rind rner,sL,ers of the Federal Reserve Dard rind vtl’r people whQ are supposrd Lo know rout j the ,nonei syscettt of cinc counity They I knos titis can be clone easily rind eon• venlenliy. and it will save .nor.cy; hut their one reply Is. — wdl hive a bai psychol4;icsl cftCct” Well, t sto flot think it would lsave a bid psych’o1n:c:ii eltc-ct to lV5 the people 50 percent of their national debt. I do not think It would hat’s a bad psychological effect tu sate the people over a billion cllars a ‘ year n interest. I do nut think it would. ft wCuld certainly have a bad effect ors the people who are collcctlng intercst on the Gov?rn,nent’l mor,ey. ricino. aeseava ?prviti.r .;a W have what Is known a 111e I’ecleral Reserve Bank System. that. ‘vsteni is not owned by the Government. ¡blOtti people rhink (liaI it la, bcaus It says •‘F’eOeral Reserve,” f’” IL bebn to the private banks. prIvate corpotattons, So we have (armed out to tl Federal Reserve Banking Sýs’em that Is oned exctusivcly. wholly. 100 percent by lise pns’ste banks—we have (armed oui to them the privilegi’ of Issuing the Goserisrner.t’s money. H nc itere to take tisis privilege back (rons them wc cuid saie the amount of ino:iey that I have indicated lu enur moiti hiiteren charges. We have today about SJI,000000.OCO in gold. This gold is, nf course, owned by the Gosen1mcnt—t1Ic to It Is tri (lic Gos ernnwrit. Many people say the Frdenil Restive hgiks own It. hut they do not own II. Coisyrera priased a law .saying that tiic right, title, arid interest In and (o that gold Ls In the C,esernment. but for cOili’eriIrflCe and in order lo raiii out this present monetary poiles’, the Treasury lias lssuej what ¡ known as gold csrrttflcates and has turned ever . lise Fech.’rai Riser.e batiks these gold certificates. So t’xiay ‘na hold shoOt 523000.000.000 in grill. tJtider the old systeni cit Is.suhirt f!50 in currency (o cccii $1 of gold on the theory that a 40’ percent gold base would always be sate. you could take that S23.000.000.000 of gold anti lisuc tito and one-half times that much moiscy under our present is’s- tens. This would amount to flfLy•serce or Mhy-eiphr billioni of dollars that could be Issued on thin gold; and then the biuiks receiving ihe money could Issue all the asy Irons I to 10 lo 1. You cnn thus ace whpt a great potential thr.t of Inflation s there It ft were exercised. bol ¡t lhi ncc be exercised, because Lise pee pie who have cnir;e of the monetary aystem will not permit it lo be exercised. The point I want to try Lo make Is that the 12 Pecleral Reserve bank: hare In lheir cs$Lod>’ these gold eertlflcrites whicis are used the same s.s gold. which are sufUetcist (O otore than pay oft the en tire nahonni debt t orn not ndvccsting tItas lhii L’,.t ct’ne cuicisly or sucidcr.s’. X am not advOCi;ifl ClInt any change lkt this be mridc quicky, or it would prab be diaturbirs; to the cotmLry but il the Oovern.nerst cr.vned these l Fed eral Reserve honks. as It shu1d—they should be just as much a part of thts Guvernment. a: the T:easury itself—then ever.IUIIIY the natnal debt could be ahiorbed by them and this Interest bur den could be taken oft our shoulders. .lr. WHITE M: Speaker, will the gecilernan yield’ lr. PATMAN. I yI1d. Mr. VHTTE ‘The i’ntIe,nan cIstes tisa’ the 513 000 000 0GO in gold which Is stored In Kentucky. o: wherever It may be stored. is owned ealely by the Govern. ment, How does ttu gentleman clasisfy the 5t7000,000000 o! geld certifiCatCi 10 ib, credit ul the Heard of Governors of hr Federal Reserve bank? Whet class do Lhey fall iiito’ tvhat are they’ llr. PATMAN. Thep can be used un international transactions. The Federal Renne banks cannot get gold unless the gold Is needed for ene of lise purposes spectfled (rs the isw. arid one of those pur poses Is to settle balance: with tore1It countrIes. Mr WHITE. Under the gentleman’s cars ntrilement, then. those very gold cer tifieslea are a draft when properly eei’ chard cmi he gold that is now i the pos sesitOil of the Prderal Government Mr. PATMAN A lImited draft, a crn(t only (or lise purposes specifled bi tise law’ Mr WHITE. ft we assume there are ennuis foreign balances fo drain off 533 000.000 -000 tn gold then ¡tus no lancer the praperly of the Government but must t)otv cut to redeem thOse gold certificates. ¡‘Ir PATMAN. ‘That is right u’ettard. lcs oC whether Llt Federal Reserve T33 claimed the gold or whthr lite ‘re,ssury rinimeci It, It ¿tir batanees win.’ ‘n un favarable as tu tirails (hat riLuI oit ihat Is what a’ciuild hri!mpetl. )h’. Whlt’(t. ‘rit.’ knows diM hundreds of millions ni cIO)Iii. worth of (oreltn gold ha* is.eir bn.ust over into tIsis country (or stoi’tsc for safekeeping; and wui?ti tISIS etncrprnc’ of war Is over ths gold will flow out again. 1i4r. PATAIAN. ‘riit will tieia.i.i oit trade bsI’pcca. Mr. 5VIIETE. It is possible that it may floe’ out. Those çokl cemtìflcates scill then be a clcrnand (sa (hat fruid wl»c’h muai be honored. Am I right? Mr. PATMAN. Yes: and Ibey expect to hc’rsor them it they go to settle inter_ iinti,pr.a) balances, beçiu thIs low says gold cannot be released except lo use in the arts. trades, sciences, to setlIc 1111cr- national lMiincCS and possibly other rea sons but these are the principie ones Mr. WHiTE. I am tiLkung now of thu gold that Is In stOr3g aupiz,sed (O be cnr,cd by 15e Federal Governmeni, The law as I flderstand It requires that the lsstianci of Federal Reserve currency :nust be, backed by 40 percent gold How is Ihc currency ne’s’ In eircuLcon hinted’ I thInk IL is T,0Q0.@i 000, is Il. na ¡bit. PAThLti Nine tsIlhlo,i douars. 1k. WHITE. Is that backed bi 40-per. cent gold? ¡bIt. PATMAN. It is badced by much more iban 40 percemut: lits barked h.t’ 200 percer.t, ¡bit, WHITE. The ;ciitlensnn has just stated (hat clue gold sas not oe.ned by the PderaI Gavernnsen‚ Mr. PKtMAN. Thr title to 11 is In the Federal Government. Tise asume Gevirn ment ;ls( Owns 11w gold iitiC Hic , mosiec. anti the Go”e:nment thai wuss he zrioney lies S23.000.030.000 in ioil. So the:e Is nioie Iban 00-r.ercent reserve behind the oulatandung currency. Mr. WHtT’. I in’ist have muui,ch’t atoad ube gentleman bc’ause lie :atd tli hank: eeC CCerC45Ifl5 (tie prerogalIt of tIse Gaernmcnl un ua’u:nç money, Mr PATMAN. ‘thcy arc issuing li for the Gcsernmein on she Governme,ul’n - cm’ectir. yes. I shigest that lhu.s matter ,hjuitd rr. I ceis’e the attemitlon of the iensIses’s o( the HCitse. tHere the gavel fell.) ADJOUft’ð.Ì CNT OVfl Mr. McCORiIIeCK. ¡bIt, Sp:akt’r I ask unsmnotis consent that when ils.’, House adjourns teday it adjourn to mnrt on Thui sdiy next. The S?AKUL. ta there oblr’ctiori Lo th regneaL nsf (lie g.tatlemrsii hotu Mnssnc’husclts’ Thci was no objection onocri OP tsUS1!iSS ¡‘Ir ¡‚lcCOR.-lACK. ¡‘It. Speaker, I ask u,sa,:Imcuts coarsene, that Ois Mond,y nect. after the call of h;lhs on (he Unaril mous Consemut Calendar, that bills on the Private Calendar. which would c.rclldarlly be railed cts TunadaS’ sinless dispensed wills be called a(tcr the call cf ihci Coil’ sent Calendar on Monday. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—HOUSEThTie National Transporhion Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Aircraft Regtration Number N9253N Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Most Critical Injury: FATAL Occurrence Type: Accident investigated By: NTSB LocationlTime Nearest City/Place VINEYARD HAVEN Accident Location: Off Air Aircraft Information Summary Aircraft Manufacturer Model/Series Piper PA-32R-301 Type of Aircraft Airplane Sightseeing Flight: No Air Medical Transport Flight: No Narrative Bri.q ,wrebq nent o fads, tjoc, w cici.anc to t accIic.* HISTORY 0F FUGHT On July 16, 1999, about 2141 eastern daylight time, a Piper PA-32R-301, Saratoga II, N9253N, was destroyed when it crashed into the Atlantic Ocean approximately 7 1/2 miles southwest of Gay Head, Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. The certificated private pilot and two passengers receved fatal injuries. Night visual meteorological conditions (VMC) prevailed, arid no flight plan had been filed for the personal flight conducted under the provions of 14 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 91. The flight originated from Essex County Airport (CDW), Caidwell, New Jersey, and was destined for Bamstable Municipal-Boardman/Polando Field (HYA), Hyannis, Massachusetts, with a scheduled stop at Martha’s Vineyard Airport (MW), Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts. During Interviews, witnesses stated that the purpose of the flight was to fly to Martha’s Vineyard to drop off one passenger and then continue to 1-IVA. An employee of a fixed-base operator (F60) at CDW stated that he had called the pilot about 1300 on the day of the accident to verify that the pilot intended to fly the airplane, N9253N, over the weekend. The pilot informed the employee that he did plan to fly the airplane and that he would arrive at the airport between 1730 and 1800. The employee informed the pilot that he would have the airplane parked outside of the hangar. Witnesses who were at CDW on the night of the accident stated that they saw the pilot and a female near the accident airplane. The wItnesses also reported that they saw the pilot using crutches and loading luggage into the airplane. One witness stated that he watched the pilot perform an engine run-up and then take off about 2040. The witness further stated that “takeoff and right downwind departure seem[ed] normal.” According to air traffic control (ATC) transcripts from CDW’s tower, about 2034, the pilot of N9253N contacted the ground controller and stated, “...saratoga finer two five three november ready to taxi with mike.. .right turnout northeast bound.” The ground controller instructed the pilot to taxi to runway 22, which the plot acknowledged. At 2038:32, the pilot of N9253N contacted the tower controller and advised that he was ready to take off from runway 22. At 2038:39, the tower controller cleared N9253N for takeoff, at 2038:43, the pilot acknowledged the clearance. A few seconds later, the tower controller asked the pilot if he was heading towards Teterboro, New Jersey. The pilot replied, “No sir, I’m uh actually I’m heading a little uh north of it, uh eastbound.” The tower controller then instructed the pilot to “make it a right downwind departure then.” At 2038:56, the pilot acknowledged the instruction stating, “right downwind departure two two.” No records of any further communications between the pilot and ATC exist. (Continued on Next Pe’) FACTVAL REPORT - AVIATION pis.ETik spe tr bbifrg National Transportatioa Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSBID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) According to radar data, at 2040:59, a target transmitting a visual flight rules (VFR) code was observed about 1 mile southwest of CDW at an altitude of 1,300 feet. The target proceeded to the northeast, on a course of about 55 degrees, remaining below 2,000 feet. The target was at 1,400 feet when it reached the Hudson River. When the target was about 8 mlles northwest of the Westchester County Airport (HPN), White Plains, New York, it turned north over the river and began to dimb. After proceeding north about 6 miles, the target turned eastward to a course of about 100 degrees. The target continued to dimb and reached 5,500 feet about 6 miles northeast of HPN. When the target’s course was plotted on a New York ‘1FR navigational map, the extended course line crossed the island of Martha’s Vineyard. The target continued eastward at 5,500 feet, passing just north of Bridgeport, Connecticut, and crossed the shoreline between Bridgeport and New Haven, Connecticut. The target ground track continued on the 100-degree course, just south and parallel to the Connecticut and Rhode Island coastlines. After passing Point Judith, Rhode Island, the target continued over the Rhode Island Sound. A performance study of the radar data revealed that the target began a descent from 5,500 feet about 34 miles west of MW. The speed dunng the descent was calculated to be about 160 knots indicated airspeed (KIAS), and the rate of descent was calculated to have varied between 400 and 800 feet per minute (fpm). About 2138, the target began a right turn in a southerly direction. About 30 seconds later, the target stopped ¡ts descent at 2,200 feet and began a dimb that lasted another 30 seconds. During this period of time, the target stopped the turn, and the airspeed decreased to about 153 KIAS. About 2139, the target leveled off at 2,500 feet and flew in a southeasterly direction. AboUt 50 seconds later, the target entered a left turn and dimbed to 2,600 feet. As the target continued In the left turn, it began a descent that reached a rate of about 900 fpm. When the target reached an easterly direction, it stopped turning; its rate of descent remained about 900 tm. At 2140:15, whIle still in the descent, the target entered a right turn. As the target’s turn rate increased, Its descent rate and airspeed also increased. The target’s descent rate eventually exceeded 4,700 fpm. The target’s last radar position was recorded at 2140:34 at an altitude of 1,100 feet. (For a more detailed description of the target’s [accident airplane’s] performanœ, see Section, “Tests and Research,’ Subsection, “Aircraft Performance Study.”) On July 20, 1999, about 2240, the airplane’s wreckage was located in 120 feet of water, about 1/4 mile north of the target’s last recorded radar position. The accident occurred during the hours of darkness. In the area of and on the night of the accident, sunset occurred about 2014. CivIl twilight ended about 2047, and nautical twilight ended about 2128. About 2140, the moon was about 11.5 degrees above the horizon at a bearing of 270.5 degrees and provided about 19 percent illumination. The location of the accident wreckage was about 41 degrees, 17 minutes, 37.2 seconds north Latitude; 70 degrees, 58 minutes, 39.2 seconds west longitude. PILOT INFORMATION The Pilot obtained his private pilot certificate for “airplane single-engine land” in April 1998. He did not possess an instrument rating. He received a “high performance airplane” gn-off In his Cewia 182 in June 1998 and a ‘complex airplane” sign-off in the acddent airplane In May 1999. His most recent Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) second-class medical certificate was issued on December 27, 1997, with no limitations. (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONTwi .. roe bing National Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) A copy of the pilot’s logbook that covered from October 4, 1982, to November 11, 1998, was provided to the Safety Board. The plot’s most recent logbook was not located. The Board used the copied logbook, records from training facilities, copies of flight instructors’ logbooks, and statements from instructors and pilots to estimate the pilot’s total flight experience. The pilot’s estimated total flight experience, excluding simulator training, was about 310 hours, of whIch 55 hours were at night. The pilot’s estimated experience flying without a certified flight instructor (CFI) on board was about 72 hours. The pilot’s estimated flight time In the accident airplane was about 36 hours, of whIch 9.4 hours were at night. ApproxImately 3 hours of that flight time was without a CFI on board, and about 0.8 hour of that time was flown at night, which induded a night landing. In the 15 months before the accident, the pilot had flown about 35 flight legs either to or from the Essex County/Teterboro, New Jersey, area and the Martha’s Vineyard/Hyannis, Massachusetts, area. The pilot flew over 17 of these legs without a CFI on board, including at least 5 at night The pilot’s last known flight in the accident airplane without a CFI on board was on May 28, 1999. Pilot Training On October 4, 1982, the pilot started receiving flight Instruction. Over the next 6 years, he flew with six different CFTs. During this period, the pilot logged 47 hours, consisting of 46 hours of dual instruction and 1 hour without a CFI on board. The pilot made no entries In his logbook from September 1988 to December 1997. In December 1997, the pilot enrolled in a training program at Flight Safety International (FSI), Vero Beach, Florida, to obtain his private pilot certificate. Between December 1997 and April 1998, the pilot flew about 53 hours, of whIch 43 were flown with a CFI on board. The CFI who prepared the pilot for his private pilot checkride stated that the pilot had “very good” flying skills for his level of experience. On April 22, 1998, the pilot passed his private pilot flight test. The designated pilot examiner who administered the checkrlde stated that as part of the flight test, the pilot conducted two unusual attitude recoveries. The pilot examiner stated that In both cases, the pilot recovered the airplane while wearing a hood and referencing the airplane’s flight Instruments. After receiving his private pilot certifIcate, the pilot flew solo in his Cessna 182 and received instruction in It by CFIs local to New Jersey. He also received instruction at Million Air, a flight school in New Jersey, and flew their airplanes. During calendar year 1998, the pilot flew approximately 179 hours, IncludIng about 65 hours without a CFI on board. On March 12, 1999, the pilot completed the FAA’s written airplane instrument examination and received a score of 78 percent. On April 5, 1999, the pilot returned to FSI to begin an airplane instrument rating course. During the instrument training, the pilot satisfactorily completed the first 12 of 25 lesson plans. The pilot’s primary CFI during the instrument training stated that the pilot’s progression was normal and that he grasped all of the basic skills needed to complete the course; however, the CFI did recall the pilot having difficulty completing lesson 11, whIch was designed to develop a students knowledge of very high frequency omnidirectional radio range (VOR) and nondirectional beacon operations while working with ATC. It took the pilot four attempts to complete lesson 11 satisfactorily. After two of the attempts, the pilot took a 1-week break. After this break, the pilot repeated lesson 11 two more times. The CFI stated that the pilot’s basic instrument flying skills and simulator work were excellent However, the CFI stated that the pilot had trouble managing multiple tasks while flying, which he felt was normal for the pilot’s level of experience. . (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONTh ip.cs ta, bbal National Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION 1NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07 Occurrence Type: Aocident Narrative (Continued) The pilot attended this training primarily on weekends. During this training, the pilot accumulated 13.3 hours of flight time with a CFI on board. In addition, the pilot logged 16.9 hours of simulator time. The pilot departed from FSI for the last time on AprIl 24, 1999. The pilot continued to receive flight instruction from OEls in New Jersey in his newly purchased Piper Saratoga, the acodent airplane. One CFI flew with the pilot on three occasions. One of the flights was on June 25, 1999, from CDW to MW. The CFi stated that the departure, en route, and descent portions of the flight were executed in VMC, but an instrument approach was required into MW because of a 300-foot overcast ceiling. The CFI requested an instrument flight rules (1FR) clearance and demonstrated a coupled instrument landing system (ILS) approach to runway 24. The CFI stated that the pilot performed the landing, but he had to assist with the rudders because of the pilot’s injured ankle. (For additional information about the pilot’s ankle Injury, see Section, Medlcal and Pathological Information.”) The CFI stated that the pilot’s aeronautical abilities and his ability to handle multiple tasks while flying were average for his level of experience. A second CFI flew with the pilot between May 1998 and July 1999. This CFI accumulated 39 hours of flight time with the plot, includIng 21 hours of night flight and 0.9 hour flown in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). The pilot used this CFI (br instruction on cross-country flights and as a safety pilot, On July 1, 1999, the CFI flew with the pilot In the acddent airplane to MW. The flight was conducted at night, and IMC prevailed at the airport. The CFI stated that, during the flight, the pilot used and seemed competent with the autopilot. The instructor added that during the flight the pilot was wearing a nonplaster cast on his leg, which required the CFI to taxi the airplane and assist the pilot with the landing. The CFI stated that the pilot had the ability to fly the airplane without a visible horizon but may have had difficulty performing additional tasks under such conditions. He also stated that the pilot was not ready for an Instrument evaluation as of July 1, 1999, and needed additional training. The CFI was not aware of the pilot conducting any flight in the accident airplane without an instructor on board. He also stated that he would not have felt comfortable with the accident pilot conducting night flight operations on a route similar to the one flown on, and In weather conditions similar to those that existed on, the night of the accident. The CFI furtherstatedthathehadtalkedtothepilotonthedayoftheaccídentandofferedtoflywithhimonthe accident flight, l-le stated that the accident pilot replied that “he wanted to do It alone.” A third CFI flew with the plot between May 1998 and July 1999. This CFI accumulated 57 hours of flight time with the pIlot, IncludIng 17 hours of night flight and 8 hours flown In IMC. The pilot also used this instructor for instruction on cross-country flights and as a safety pilot. This CFI had conducted a acomplex airplane” evaluation on the pilot and signed him of? In the accident airplane in May 1999. According to the CFI, on one or two occasions, the airplane’s autopilot turned to a heading other than the one selected, which required the autopilot to be disengaged and then reengaged. He stated that it seemed as if the autopilot had Independently changed from one na’slgation mode to another. He also stated that he did not fe that the problem was significant because It only happened once or twice. The CFI had made six or seven flights to MW with the pilot in the accident airplane. The CFI stated that most of the flights were conducted at night and that, during the flights, the pilot did not have any trouble flying the airplane. The instructor stated that the pilot was methodical about his flight planning and that he was very cautious about his aviation decision-making. The CFI stated that the pilot had the capability to conduct a night flight to MW as long as a visible horizon existed. (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONT Natkmal Transpoilation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MAI78 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Contkiu.d) AIRCRAFT INFORMATION The accident airplane, N9253N, was a Piper PA-32R-301, Saratoga II, single-engine, low-wing airplane with retractable landing gear. The airplane was originally certificated by Piper Airaaft Corporation on June 9, 1995. The airplane was sold to Skytech, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, on June 16, 1995, and then resold to Poinciana LIC, Wilmington, North Carolina, on January 5, 1996. A review of records from an engine overhaul facility revealed that during a 100-hour and annual inspection of the airplane in May 1998, corrosion was observed on the Interior surfaces of the engine cylinder walls. Additionally, pitting was observed on the surfaces of several valve tappets. At that time, the engine had a total time since new of 387.1 hours. The documents also revealed that the engine was shipped to the overhaul facility in June 1998, where the engine was disassembled, inspected, and reassembled (parts were replaced as necessary) In June and July 1998. The engine was also run in a test cell before it was shipped and was reinstalled In the airplane In July 1998. On August 25, 1998, the airplane was purchased by Raythn Aircraft Company, Wichita, Kansas, and then resold the same day to Air Bound Aviation, Inc., Fairfield, New Jersey. The airplane was sold on August 27, 1998, to a palot in New Jersey. On AprIl 28, 1999, the airplane was sold to Columbia Aircraft Sales, Inc., Groton, Connecticut. On the same day, the airplane was sold back to Air Bound Aviation and then to the accident pilot, operating as Random Ventures, Inc., New York, New York. According to maintenance personnel at CDW, the pilot kept the airplane’s maintenance records Inside of the airplane. The maintenance records were not recovered during the wreckage recovery operation. According to FAA records, work orders, and a statement from an employee of a maintenance facility, a prepurchase Inspection of N9253N was conducted on AprIl 16, 1999. AccordIng to the maintenance facilIty employee, “the aircraft was found to be In very good condition, with only a few minor discrepancies.” According to the records and the maintenance facility employee, an annual Inspection was completed on June 18, 1999, at a total airframe time of 622.8 hours, and the airplane was returned to service on June 25, 1999. The records and maintenance facility employee also revealed that the airplane’s return to service was delayed because of an error on the airplane’s registration form about Its exact make and model. A new registration form with the correct information had to be sent to the pilot for his signature. A July 13, 1999, work order revealed that a “swing” of the compass and the horizontal situation Indicator (HSI) were completed. No total airframe time was recorded on that work order. The tachometer recovered in the wreckage indicated 663.5 hours. A review of other plots’ logbooks revealed that they had flown the airplane without the accident pilot on board. However, ¡t could not be accurately determined how many other pilots might have flown the airplane without the pilot on board or how many flight hours they might have added on to the airplane. METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION The following airport designators (and those previously defined) are used in this section: ACK - Nantucket Memorial Airport, Nantucket, Massachusetts. (Continued on Next PeI FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONNational Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA 178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) BOR - Iqor I. Sikorsky Memorial Airport. Bridgeport, Connecticut. BID - Block Island State Alrport. Block Island, Rhode Island. BLM - Allaire Airport, Belmar-Farminqdale. New Jersey. EWB - New Bedford Municipal Airport. New Bedford, Massachusetts. EWR - Newark International Airport, Newark, New Jersey. FMH - Otis ANGB, Falmouth, Massachusetts. FOI( - Francis S. Gabreski Airport, Westhampton Beach, New York. FRG - Republic Airport. Farminqdale, New York. Isp - Long Island MacArthur Airport, Islip, New York. JFK - John F. Kennedy International Airport. New York. New York. PVD - Theodore Francis Green State Airport. Providence, Rhode Island. TAN - Taunton Municipal, Taunton, Massachusetts. TEB - Teterboro Airport, Teterboro, New Jersey. ACK Is located about 27 nautical miles (nm) east-southeast of MW. HYA is located about 22 nm northeast of MW. Pilot Preflight Weather Requests According to Weather Service International (WSI) personnel, a search of their briefing logs indicated that the Ølot, or someone using his user code, made two weather requests from WSIs PILOTbrief Web site on July 16, 1999. The first request, made at 1832:59, was for a radar image. The second request, made at 1834:18, was for a route briefing from TEB to HYA wlth MW as an alternate. The information provided to the requester included en route weather observations from BID, BLM, EWB, EWR, FMH, FOlK, FRG, ISP, JFK, PVD, and TAN. These observations indicated that visibilities varied from 10 miles along the route to 4 miles in haze at CDW. The lowest doud ceiling was reported at 20,000 feet overcast at PVD. These observations were made about 1800. Observations for ACK, CDW, HYA, and MW were also included. Excerpts from these observations indude the following: ACK 1753. ..Clear skies; visibility 5 miles in mìst; winds 240 degrees at 16 knots. CDW 1753...Clear skies; vIsibility 4 miles in haze; winds 230 degrees at 7 knots. HYA 1756...Few clouds at 7,000 feet; vIsibility 6 miles in haze; wInds 230 degrees at 13 knots. MVY 1753...Oear skies; vIsibility 6 mlles in haze; winds 210 degrees at 11 knots. Also Included were the following terminal forecasts for ACK and HYA: ACK (July 16 at 1400 to July 17 at 1400)...July 16... 1400 to 2000...Clear skies; visibility greater than 6 miles; winds 240 degrees at 15 knots. Becoming 2000 to 2100, winds 260 degrees at 13 knots. HYA (July 16 at 1400 to July 17 at 1400).. .July 16... 1400 to 2200. ..Clear skies; visibility greater than 6 miles; wInds 230 degrees at 10 knots. According to W5I, the pilot, or someone using his user code, did not access the National Weather Service (NWS) Area Forecast. (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION‘FWI II tOE National Tranportatlon Saîety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Acadent Narrative (Continued) Aviation Forecasts and Surface Weather Observations Area Forecasts (FA) Excerpts from the Boston FA, issued July 16 about 2045 and valid until July 17 about 0200, included the following: Coastal Waters (includes area of MVY); Scattered douds at 2,000 feet. Occasional visibility 3 to 5 miles in haze. Haze tops 7,000 feet Excerpts from the Boston FA, issued July 16 about 2045 and valid until July 17 about 0900, included the following: Coastal Waters (Includes area of MVY); North of 40 degrees north latItude... Scattered cirrus. Occasonal visibility 4 to 5 miles In haze. Haze tops 8,000 feet. Aviation Terminal Forecasts (TAF) NWS does not prepare TAFs for MW. Excerpts from TAFs pertinent to the accident indude the following: The TAF for ACK, issued July 16 about 1330 and valid from July 16 about 1400 to July 17 about 1400, was as follows: July 16 at 1400 to July 17 at 1100...Clear skies; visibility greater than 6 miles; winds 240 degrees at 15 knots. Becoming July 16 at 2000 to July 16 at 2100, wInds 260 degrees at 13 knots. The TAF for ACK, issued July 16 about 1930 and valid from July 16 about 2000 to July 17 about 2000, was as follows: July 16 at 2000 to July 17 at 0200...Winds 240 degrees at 15 knots; visibility 4 miles, mist; scattered douds at 25,000 feet. Temporary changes from July 16 at 2100 to July 17 at 0100...douds 500 feet scattered; visblity 2 miles, mist The TAF for HYA, issued July 16 about 1330 and valid from July 16 about 1400 to July 17 about 1400, was as follows: July 16 at 1400 to July 17 at 1100...Cle.ar skies; visibility greater than 6 miles; winds 230 degrees at 10 knots. Winds becoming July 16 at 2200 to July 17 at 0000...250 degrees at 8 knots. The TAF for HYA, issued July 16 about 1930 and valid from July 16 about 2000 to July 17 about 2000, was as follows: July 16 at 2000 to July 17 at 0200.. .Wìnds 230 degrees at 10 knots; visibility 6 mIles, haze; scattered clouds at 9,000 feet. Temporary changes from July 16 at 2000 to July 17 at 0000.. .Visibility 4 miles, haze. In-flight Weather Advisones No airmen’s meteorological information, significant meteorological information (SIGMET), or convective SIG1ETs were issued by the NWS Aviation Weather Center In Kansas City, ssouri, for the time and area of the accident. No In-flight weather advisories were in effect along the route between CDW and MW from 2000 to 2200. Surface Weather Observations MW had an Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS), which was edited and augmented by ATC tower personnel if necessary. The tower manager at MW was on duty on the night of the accident for an 8-hour shift, which ended when the tower closed, about 2200. During an interview, the tower manager stated that no acbons were taken to augment or edit the ASOS during his shift. He also stated the following: (Continued on Next Pane) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONni. .. National Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) “The visibility, present weather, and sky condition at the approximate time of the accident was probably a little better than what was being reported. I say this because I remember aircraft on visual approaches saying they had the airport in sight between 10 and 12 miles out. I do recall being able to see those aircraft and I do remember seeing the stars out that night...To the best of my knowledge, the ASOS was working as advertised that day with no reported problems or systems log errors.” ASOS observations for the night of the accIdent indude the following: ACK 2053. ..Clear at or below 12,000 feet; visibilIty 4 miles, mist; winds 240 degrees at 11 knots; temperature 21 degrees [Celsius] C; dewpoint 20 degrees C; altimeter setting 30.10 inches of [mercury] Hg. 2153...Clear at or below 12,000 feet; visibility 4 miles, mist; winds 240 degrees at 12 knots; temperature 21 degrees C; dewpoint 20 degrees C; altimeter setting 30.11 inches of Hg. BDR 2054. ..Clear at or below 12,000 feet; visibility 8 miles, haze; winds 230 degrees at 4 knots; temperature 27 degrees C; dewpoint 21 degrees C; altimeter setting 30.08 inches of Hg. CDW 1953. ..Clear at or below 12,000 feet; visibility 4 miles, haze; winds 230 degrees at 4 knots; temperature 33 degrees C; dewpoint 18 degrees C; altimeter settIng 30.07 Inches of Hg. 2053...Clear at or below 12,000 feet; visibility 5 miles, haze; wInds 220 degrees at S knots; temperature 31 degrees C; dewpoint 19 degrees C; altimeter setting 30.08 inches of Hg. HPN 2045. ..7,500 feet broken, 15,000 feet overcast, visibility 5 miles haze; winds 140 degrees at 4 knots; temperature 28 degrees C; dewpoint 22 degrees C; altimeter setting 30.08 inches of Hg. HYA 2056. ,.Few douds at 7,000 feet; visibility 6 miles, mist; winds 230 degrees at 7 knots; temperature 23 degrees C; dewpoint 21 degrees C; altimeter setting 30.07 inches of Hg. 2156...Few douds at 7,500 feet; vIsibility 6 miles, mist; wInds 230 degrees at 8 knots; temperature 23 degrees C; dewpoint 22 degrees C; altimeter setting 30.08 inches of Hg. MW 2053...Clear at or below 12,000 feet; visibIlity 8 mIles; wInds 250 degrees at 7 knots; temperature 23 degrees C; dewpoint 19 degrees C; altimeter 30.09 Inches of Hg. 2153...Oear at or below 12,000 feet; visibility 10 miles; winds 240 degrees at 10 knots, gusts to 15 knots; temperature 24 degrees C; dewpoint 18 degrees C; aftimeter 30.10 inches of Hg. ____ (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONT..c.twbbdb. . National Tramportatton Safety Board NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 FACTUAL REPORT Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 AVIATION Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) U.S. Coast Guard Station (USCG) Weather Observations Safety Board staff reviewed weather observations from USCG stations. Excerpts pertinent to the accident include the following: Point Judith, Rhode Island 1700.. .Cloudy, 3 mires visibilIty In haze, winds south-southwest at 10 knots. 2000. ..Cloudy, 3 miles visibility in haze, winds south-southwest at 10 knots. 2300.. .Cloud’y, 2 mIles visibility, winds southwest at 10 knots. Brant Point, Massachusetts 1700...Ciear, 8 miles visibility. 2000. ..Overcast, 6 miles visibility. 2300. ..Scattered clouds, 6 miles visibility. The Brant Point report stated that two observations were reported by ships. About 2000, a ship 1 nm north of buoy 17, which was about 8 mlles north of Martha’s Vineyard, reported that the seas were 2 to 3 feet and that the visibility was 5 nm. About 2300, another ship reported that the winds were west-southwest at 10 to 15 knots, the seas were 2 to 3 feet, and the visibility was 6 nm in light haze. Pilot Weather Observations Three pilots who had flown over the Long Island Sound on the night of the accident were interviewed after the accident One pilot kept his twin turboprop airplane at TEB, and on the evening of the accident, he flew from TEB to ACK. The pot stated that he drove to TEB from New York City and that the traffic was the second heaviest he had seen in 15 years. The pilot stated that he had called the TEB F80 and estimated that his arrival time would be about 1850; however, he did not arrive until between about 1930 and 2000 because of traffic. The pilot also stated that this delay changed the flight from one that would have been conducted entirely during the day to one that would have to be conducted partially at night. The pilot further stated, HOur car took route 80 to Teterboro 4êjrport Caldwell Airport, where [the accident pilot] flew from is another 14 minute drive west on route 80 past TEB.” Before departing the city, the pilot had obtained current weather observations and forecasts for Nantucket and other points in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. He stated that the visibility was well above VFR minimums. He also stated that he placed a telephone call to a flight service station (FSS) before leaving the city, while driving to TEB. Regarding the telephone call, he stated the following: “I asked if there were any adverse conditions for the route TEB to ACK. I was told emphatically: ‘No adverse conditions. Have a great weekend.’ I quened the briefer about any expected fog and was told none was expected and the conditions would renain VFR with good visibility. Again, I was reassured that tonight was not a problem.N The pilot stated that he departed TEB N•• .in daylight and good flight conditions and reasonable visibility. The (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT. AVIATIONfls spi fo# bIig National Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIAT ION NTS8 ID: NYC99MAI78 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) horizon was not obscured by haze. I could easily pick our land marks at least five [miles] away. The pilot also stated that he did not request or receive flight Information after his departure from TEB. Once dear of the New York Class B airspace, he stated that he dimbed his airplane to 17,500 feet and proceeded towards Nantucket. He reported that above 14,000 feet, the visibility was unrestricted; however, he also reported that during his descent to Nantucket, when his global positioning system (GPS) receiver indicated that he was over Martha’s Vineyard, he looked down and .. .there was nothing to see. There was no horizon and no light... .1 turned left toward Martha’s Vineyard to see ¡f it was visible but could see no Ughts of any kind nor any evidence of the ¡sland...I thought the island might [have] suffered a power failure.” He stated that he had his strobe lights on during the descent and that at no time did they Illuminate douds or fog. He also stated, “I had no visual reference of any kind yet was free of any clouds or fog.” The pilot stated that when he contacted the ACK tower for landing, he was instructed to fly south of Nantucket about 5 miles to join the downwind for runway 24; however, he maintained a distance of 3 to 4 miles because he could not see the island at 5 miles. The pilot stated that, as he neared the airport, he had to make a 310-degree turn for spacing. He stated that, during the turn, “I found that I could not hold altitude by outside reference and had to use my [vertical speed indicator] VSI and HSI to hold altitude and properly coordinate the turn.” Another pilot had flown from Bar Harbor, Maine, to Long Island, New York, and crossed the Long Island Sound on the same evening, about 1930. This pilot stated that during his preflight weather briefing from an FSS, the specialist indicated VMC for his flight. The pilot filed an 1FR flight plan and conducted the flight at 6,000 feet. He stated that he encountered vlslbillties of 2 to 3 mIles throughout the flight because of haze. He also stated that the lowest visibility was over water, between Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and eastern Long Island. He stated that he did not encounter any douds below 6,000 feet. A third pilot departed TEB about 2030 destined for Groton, Connecticut, after a stopover at MW. He stated that, after departure, he flew south of HPN and, remaining dear of the Class B airspace, he dimbed to 7,500 feet He also stated that, while en route, he monitored several ATC frequencies, but did not transmit on any of them until he neared MW. His route of flight took him over the north shore of Long Island to Montauk, New York. He stated that he then crossed over Block Island, Rhode Island, and proceeded directly to MW. He stated that the entire flight was conducted under VFR, with a visibility of 3 to 5 miles In haze. He stated that, ove- land, he could see lights on the ground when he looked directly down or slightly forward; however, he stated that, over water, there was no horizon to reference. He stated that he was not sure if he was on top of the haze layer at 7,500 feet arid that, during the flight, he did not encounter any cloud layers or ground fog during dimb or descent. He further stated that, between Block Island and MW, there was still no horizon to reference. He recalled that he began to observe lights on Martha’s Vineyard when he was In the vicinity of Gay Head. He stated that, before reaching MW, he would have begun his descent from 7,500 feet and would have been between 3,000 and 5,000 feet over Gay Head (the pilot could not recall his exact altitudes). He did not recall seeing the Gay Head marine lighthouse. He was about 4 miles from MW when he first observed the airport’s rotating beacon. He stated that he had an uneventful landing at MW about 2145. About 2200, the pilot departed MW as the controller announced that the tower was closing. After takeoff, he proceeded on a heading of 290 degrees, climbed to 6,500 feet, and proceeded directly to Groton. The pilot stated that, during the return flight, the visibility was the same as that which he had encountered during the (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION .-T?s e toe b National Transportation Safety Board FACT UAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) flight to MW, which was about 3 to 5 miles in haze. Mother pilot at CDW had stated to the news media that he cancelled his planned flight from CDW to MW on the evening of the accident because of the “poor weather. In a written statement he stated the following: From my own judgement visibility appeared to be approximately 4 miles-extremely hazy. Winds were fairly light. Based only on the current weather conditions at CDW, the fact that I could not get my fnends to come with me, and the fact that I would not have to spend money on a hotel room in Martha’s Vineyard, I made the decision to fly my airplane to Martha’s Vïneyard on Saturday.” COMMUNICATIONS No record exists of the pilot, or a pilot using the airplane’s registration number, receMng a weather briefing or filing a flight plan with any FAA FSS for the accident flight. Further, no record exists of the pilot, or a pilot using the airplane’s registration number, contacting any F55 or Alt tower or fadllty during the duration of the flight, except for those at CDW. The MW ATC tower tape revealed that, during the period of time from when the acddent airplane departed CDW until the tower closed and the recorder was turned off (about 2200), no contact was attempted by the pilot, the call sign of N9253N, or any unknown station. TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLlISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (TCAS) ALERT NEAR HPN According to the Aeronautical Informational Manual (AIM), definitions for Class B and D airspace are as follows: Class B Airspace: Generally, that airspace from the surface to 10,000 feet MSL [mean sea level], surrounding the nations busiest airports in terms of 1FR operations or passenger enplanements.. .An ATC dearance is required for all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that are so deared receive separation services within the airspace... Regardless of weather conditions, an ATC clearance Is required prior to operating within Class B airspace... Class D Airspace: “Generally, that airspace from the surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower...Two-way radio communication must be established with the ATC facility providing Alt services prior to entry and thereafter maintain those communications while In the Class D airspace....” The following TCAS alert occurred during the approach of a commercial airplane to HPN, which was located within published Class D airspace and the New York Class B airspace. On July 16, 1999, about 2049, American Airlines flight 1484, a Fokker 100, was inbound for landing at HPN. According to the transcripts of communications between flight 1484 and the New York approach controller, at 2049:33, flIght 1484 was level at 6,000 feet. At 2049:48, the controller instructed flight 1484 to descend and maintain 3,000 feet, which flight 1484 acknowledged. At 2050:32, the controller Issued an approach clearance to flight 1484, which flIght 1484 also acknowledged. The following is an excerpt of the communications transcript between flight 1484 and the controller regarding the TCAS: (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATiON‘ia. spac. tct bmmg National Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Contktued) 2052:22, the controller, “American fourteen eighty four traffic one o’clock and five miles eastbound two thousand four hundred, unverified, appears to be dimbing.” 2052:29, flight 1484, “American fourteen eighty four we’re looking.” 2052:56, the controller, “fourteen eighty four traffic one o’clock and uh three miles twenty eight hundred now, unverified.” 2053:02, flight 1484, “urn yes we have uh (unintelligible) I think we have him here american fourteen eighty four.” 2053: 10, flight 1484, “I understand he’s not in contact with you or anybody else.” 2053:14, the controller, “uh nope doesn’t not talking to anybody.” 2053:27, flight 1484, “seems to be dimbing through uh thirty one hundred now we just got a traffic advisory here.” 2053:35, the controller, “uh that’s what It looks like.” 2053:59, flight 1484, ‘uh we just had a.” 2054:12, the controller, “American fourteen eighty four you can contact tower nineteen seven.” 2054:15, flight 1484, “nineteen seven uh we had a resolution advisory seemed to be a single engine piper er commanche or something.” 2054:21, the controller, “roger.’ The event occurred outside of the New York Class B and the HPN Class D airspace, and no corrective action was reported to have been taken by the controller or flight 1484. A review of the radar data correlated the unknown target with the track of N9253N. AIRPORT INFORMATION MW had a field elevation of 68 feet. The hours of operation for the contract-operated tower were from 0600 to 2200. MVY had two runways. Runway 06/24 was asphalt-surfaced, 5,500 feet long, and 100 feet wide. Runway 15/33 was asphalt-surfaced, 3,297 feet long, and 75 feet wide. A VOR-distance measuring equipment (DME) navigation aid was located on the airport. The VOR was listed with a normal anticipated interference-free service of 40 nm, up to 18,000 feet with DME ILS, VOR, and GPS Instrument approaches were published for the airport. MW was located about 10 mIles east of Gay Head. Gay Head had a lighthouse for marine navigation at 41 degrees, 20.9 minutes north latitude; 70 degrees, 50.1 minutes west longitude. According to USCG personnel, the top of the lighthouse was 170 feet above mean low water and operated 24 hours-a-day. The rotating beacon ran on a 15-second cycle, 7.3 seconds white and 7.3 seconds red. The expected range of (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION PegeThu ipac. fae National Transportation Safrty Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MAI78 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Arej-ft Narrative (Continued) the white light was 24 mIles, and the expected range of the red light was 20 mIles. FUGHT RECORDERS The airplane was quipped with a Flightcom Digital Voice Recorder Clock, DVR 300i. The unit contained a digital dock, was wired nto the radio communications drcuits, and could record conversations between the airplane and other radio sources, ground, or air. The unit was voice activated, and the continuous loop could record and retain a total of 5 minutes of data. The unit had a nonvolatile speech memory that ruired a 9-volt backup battery to preserve the speech data. When the unit was located in the wreckage, it was crushed, its backup battery was missing, and it had retained no data. WRECKAGE INFORMATION On July 20, 1999, the airplane wreckage was located by U.S. Navy divers from the recovery ship, USS Grasp, at a depth of about 120 feet below the surface of the Atlantic Ocean. According to the divers, the recovered wreckage had been distributed in a debris field about 120 feet long and was oriented along a magnetic bearing of about 010/190 degrees. The main cabin area was found in the middle of the debris field. A Safety Board investigator was present on the USS Grasp during the salvage operation, On July 21, 1999, the main cabin area was raised and placed aboard the USS Grasp. On July 22, 1999, the divers made five additional dives, and the wreckage retrieved from these dives was also placed aboard the USS Grasp. On July 23, 1999, about 2100, the wreckage was transferred from the USS Grasp to the Safety Board at a naval base in Newpcwt, Rhode Nand. The wreckage was then transported to the USCG Air Station at Otis Air Force Base, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, the evening of July 23, 1999. The wreckage was examined by Board Investigators in a hangar at the USCG Air Station on July 24, 25, and 26, 1999. Follow-up examinations were conducted on August 1 and 2, 1999. According to the Airworthiness Group Chairman’s Report, the engine was found separated from the engine mount truss. The structural tubing on the right side of the engine mount truss was missing. The engine mount truss was deformed to the right and fractured in numerous locations. The upper left engine mount ear and both lower mount ears were fractured. The upper right engine mount ear was bent. The engine and propeller were retained for additional examination. About 75 percent of the fuselage structure was recovered. A section of the aft cabin roof, about 5 feet long by 3 112 feet wide, had separated from the fuselage; this section induded the airframe-mounted hinge of the left-side cargo door and a partial frame of the left-side cabin door. The left side of this section exhibited accordion crush damage In the aft direction and contained multiple folds about 5 inches deep. No fuselage structure from the left or right side of the cabin area was recovered, except for a piece of skin, about 2 feet by 2 feet, located beneath the left-side passenger window frame. The belly skin and floor structure of the fuselage were intact aft of the wing spar box carry-through section. The recovered floor structure forward of this section was fragmented. Portions of five of the six seats were found inside the fuselage. The sixth seat was not recovered. Most of the fuselage structure aft of the cabin area was recovered. About 60 percent of the right wing structure was recovered, including the entire span of the main spar. The right wing had separated into multiple pieces and exhibited more damage than the left wing. The right wing main spar had separated into three pieces. The wing spar had fractured at its attachment to the main (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION P.geTh spac. o. bwbdm. National Tramportaion Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIAT ION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Typé: jç Narrative (Continued) carry-through section. The upper spar cap fracture exhibited tension on its forward edge and compression on Its aft edge. The spar web exhibited aft bending and tearing in this area. The outboard portion of the wing leading edge exhibited rearward accordion crush damage and was separated from the remainder of the wing. No evidence of upward spar bending damage was found. No evidence of metal fatigue was found in any of the fracture surfaces. The entire span of the right flap was recovered; it had separated into two sections (chordwise fracture), and both sections had separated from the right wing. Neither flap section exhibited bowing, bulging, or planar deformation. About 33 inches of the right aileron was recovered, and the leading edge of this section exhibited rearward crush deformation. About 80 percent of the left wing structure was recovered, including the entire span of the main spar. The left wing main spar had separated into several pieces and exhibited less deformation than the right wing. The wing spar was fractured near the left edge of the main carry-through section. The upper and lower spar cap fractures in this area exhibited tension on the forward edges and compression on the aft edges. The spar web also exhibited aft bending and tearing in this area. No evidence of upward spar bending damage was found. No evidence of metal fatigue was found in any of the fracture surfaces. About 90 percent of the upper and lower wing skin between the main and rear spars was recovered. The upper skin near the left wing tip was flattened out. The leading edge skin near the inboard portion of the left wing, near the stall warning port, exhibited damage consistent with uniform hydrodynamlc deformation In the aft direction, A 27-inch inboard section of the wing flap section was recovered, and the leading edge of this section exhibited aft accordion crush damage. The flap section did not exhibit any bowing, bulging, or planar deformation. The entire span of the left aileron was recovered; it had separated into two pieces. The outboard section of the aileron was curled downward. The vertical stabilizer and rudder had separated from the aft fuselage. The stabilator had separated from the aft fuselage attach points and had fractured into five pieces. Two of the pieces consisted of left and right outboard sections, about 22 inches long, and exhibited symmetrical aft crush marks that were semicircular, with diameters of about 5 inches. The fracture surfaces of the left outboard section exhibited tearing in the aft direction. The fracture surfaces of the right outboard sections exhibited forward and upward tearing. The left inboard section of the stabilator was more intact than the right inboard section. The leading edge of the right stabilator section exhibited rearward uniform crush damage along its entre leading edge. The lower portion of the rudder had separated from the vertical stabilizer fin structure and remained attached to the torque tube belicrank assembly and fin aft spar. The rudder was folded over toward the right side of the airplane. The vertical stabilizer was also twisted, bent, and curled around toward the right. The structure surrounding the dorsal fin area was deformed symmetrically upward. All three landing gear assemblies had separated from the airframe and were recovered. The retraction/extension actuating cylinders associated with the nose gear and the left main gear were found in the fully retracted position. The retraction/extension actuating cylinder for the right main gear was not recovered. _____ (ContInua on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONT7i s, fmi bIdç National transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) Examination of the aileron control cable circuit and associated hardware did not reveal any evidence of a preexisting jam or failure. Flight control cable continuity for the entire right aileron control circuit, including the entire balance cable that links the right aileron to the left aileron, was established. The control cable continuity for the l&t aileron could not be established because of impact damage and fragmentation. All of the ends of the separations of the aileron control cable circuits exhibited evidence of tensile overload. The stops for the ailerons were examined; no evidence of severe repetitive strike marks or deformations was noted. Examination of the stabilator control cable circuit and associated hardware did not reveal any evidence of a preexisting jam or failure. Flight control cable continuity for the stabilator was established from the control surfaces to the cockpit controls. The stabilator balance weight had separated from the stabilator, and the fractures associated with the separation were consistent with tensIle overload. The stops for the stabilator were examined; no evidence of severe repetitive strike marks or deformations was noted. Examination of the stabilator trim control cable circuit and associated hardware did not reveal any evidence of a preexisting jam or failure. Control cable circuitry for the stabilator trim was established from the control surfaces to the cockpit area. An examination of the stabilator trim barrel jackscrew revealed that one full thread was protruding out of the upper portion of the trim barrel assembly housing. The barrel assembly was free to rotate and had the trim control cable wrapped around It. The two cable ends were separated about 41 inches and 37 inches, respectively, from the barrel assembly winding. Examination of the separations revealed evidence consistent with tensile overload. Examination of the rudder control cable circuit and associated hardware did not reveal any evidence of a preexisting jam or failure. Flight control cable continuity for the rudder was established from the control surfaces to the cockpit controls. The stops for the rudder were examined; no evidence of severe repetitive strike marks or deformations was noted. The electricaLly driven wing flap jackscrew actuator was not recovered. The flap switch in the cockpit was destroyed. The throttle and propeller controls were found In the FULL-FORWARD position. The mixture control was broken. The alternate air control was found in the CLOS position. The key In the magneto switch was found in the BOTH position. The tachometer needle was found intact, fixed in place, and pointed to 2,750 rpm. The red line on the tachometer began at 2,700 rpm. The hour register Inside the tachometer read 0663.5 hours. The manifold pressure gauge needle was found fixed in place and indicated 27 inches Hg. The fuel flow gauge needle was found slightly loose and indIcated 22 gallons per hour. The exhaust gas temperature gauge needle was found loose and indicated 1,000 degrees Fahrenhet (F). The oil temperature gauge was found fixed and IndIcated 150 degrees F. The oIl pressure gauge was found fixed and indicated about 17 pounds per square inch (psi). The cylinder temperature gauge needle was not found. The fuel quantity gauges were destroyed. The altimeter needle was found fixed and Indicated 270 feet. The altimeter setting was found fixed at 30.09 Hg. The top of the VOR indicator heading card was found at the 097-degree bearing. Examination of all recovered electrical wiring and components did not reveat any evidence of arcing or fire. The circuit breaker panel was deformed and impact damaged. All of the breakers were found in the tripped position, except for the flap, transceiver, and DME. The circuit breaker that provided protection for the (Continued on Next Paqe) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONTh .p. f.( National Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) transponder, Which provided the VFR code and altitude readout to radar facilities down to 1,100 feet, was also found tripped. The ñ.,el selector valve was recovered, and the bottom of the valve was missing. All three fuel line connections were broken off. The valve had separated from the fuselage attach points. The selector valve linkage was deformed, and the valve was found in the OFF position. A liquid that had a s1mllar color, odor, and texture as 100 low-lead avIation gasoline was found in the fuel selector valve sump. The electrically driven fuel boost pump was able to function when electrical power was applied to ¡t. The airplane had been equipped with six seats. The seats had been configured in a ciub style” arrangement, with two forward-facing seats ¡n row 1 (Induding the pilot’s seat), two aft-facing seats In row 2, and two front-facing seats in row 3. The five recovered seats had separated from the floor structure. Examination of the aluminum backs of both aft-facing seats revealed that they were deformed (bulged) in the forward direction. The left and right front seats were equipped with lap belts and shoulder harnesses. None of the belts for these seats could be identified in the wreckage. The four seats in rows 2 and 3 were also equipped with lap belts and shoulder harnesses. Both sections of the lap belt for the left-side aft-facing seat were found and exhibited evidence of stretching. The Inboard section of the lap belt for the right-side aft-facing seat in row 2 had been deanly cut about 3 inches from the male-end of the latch, and the outboard section of lap belt for this seat exhibited evidence of stretching. All of the lap belt sections for the seats in row 3 were identified and none exhibïted evidence of stretching, The shoulder harnesses for the rear seats could not be Identified in the wreckage. MEDICAL AND PAThOLOGICAL INFORMATION On July 21, 1999, examInations were performed on the pilot and passengers by Dr. James Weiner, Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The results indicated that the pilot and passengers died from multiple injuries as a result of an airplane accident. Toxicological testing was conducted by the FAA Toxicology Accident Research Laboratory, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The toxicological tests were negative for alcohol and drugs of abuse. Medical Information According to medical records, on June 1, 1999, the pilot fractured his left ankle in a ‘hang gliding” accident, and on June 2, 1999, he underwent surgical “open reduction internal fixation of left ankle fracture.” On June 23, 1999, the piLots leg was removed from a cast and placed in a “Cam-Walker.” On July 15, 1999, the pilot’s Cam-Walker was removed, and on July 16, 1999, he was given a ‘straight cane and instructed In cane usage.” The medical records noted that the pilot was “fullwelght bearing with mild aritalglc gait. During Interviews, the pilot’s physical therapist stated that the pilot did not have full dorsiflexion (bending upward of the foot) and that he could not determine whether the pilot’s gait was caused by his slight limitation of motion or by mild pain. The pilot’s orthopedic surgeon stated that he felt that, at the time of the (Continued on Next Paqe) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONNational Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIAT ION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) accident, the pilot would have been able to apply the type of pressure with the left foot that would normally be required by emergency brake application with the right foot in an automobile. According to 14 CFR Section 61.53, “ProhibItion On Operations During Medical Deficiency,” in operations that required a medical certificate, a person shall not act as a pilot-in-command while that person, “(1) Knows or has reason to know of any medical condition that would make the person unable to meet the requirements for the medical certificate necessary for the pilot operation. According to an FM medical doctor, a pilot with the type of ankie injury that the accident pilot had at the time of the accident would not normally be expected to visit and receive approval from an FAA Medical Examiner before resuming flying activities. TESTS AND RESEARCH Engine and Propeller ExamInations On July 26, 1999, the engine was examined at the Textron-Lycoming Facility, Willlamsport, Pennsylvania, under the supervision of a Safety Board powerplants investigator. On July 28, 1999, the propeller hub and blades were examined at the Hartzell Propeller Facility, Piqua, Ohio, under the supervision of a Safety Board powerplants investigator. Parties to the investigation were present during both examinations. According to the Powerplants Group Chairman’s Factual Report, the examinations of the engine and propeller did not reveal evidence of any preexisting failures or conditions that would have prevented engine operation. The report further stated that ‘the Investigation team found Impact marks on one of the propeller blades and the top of the engine, witness marks inside the propeller, arid the engine controls and instruments in the cockpit that indicated high engine power output.” Autopilot Operation The airplane was equipped with a BendiKing 150 Senes Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), which was approved for use in Piper PA-32R-301 model airplanes by the FAA on November 1, 1982. The AFCS provided two-axis control for pitch and roll. It also had an electric pitch blm system, which provided autotrim during autopilot operation and manual electric trim for the pilot during manual operation. The AFCS installed on the accident airplane had an altitude hold mode that, when selected, allowed the airplane to maintain the altitude that It had when the altitude hold was selected. The AFCS did not have the option of allowing the pilot to preselect an altitude so that the autopilot could fly to and maintain the preselected altitude as it climbed or descended from another altitude. The AFCS had a vertical blm rocker switch installed so that the pilot could change the airplane’s pitch up or down without disconnecting the autopilot. The rocker switch allowed the pilot to make small corrections In the selected altitude while in the altitude hold mode or allowed the pitch attitude to be adjusted at a rate of about 0.9 degree per second when not In altitude hold mode. The AFCS Incorporated a flight director, which had to be activated before the autopilot would engage. Once activated, the flight director could provide commands to the flight command indicator to maintain wings level and the pitch attitude. To satisfy the command, the pilot could manually fly the airplane by referencing the (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONa.e VW National Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) guidance received ¡n the flight command indicator, or the pilot could engage the autopilot and let ¡t satisfy the commands by maneuvering the aircraft in a similar manner via the autopilot servos. The AFCS incorporated a navigation mode that could provide guidance to the pilot, or the autopilot, about intercepting and tracking VOR and GPS courses. While engaged in this mode, the AFCS could receive input signals from either the selected VOR frequency and course or from GPS course data selected for presentation on the pictorial navigation indicator. The flight command indicator could then command the bank required to maintain the selected VOR or GPS course with automatic crosswind compensation, and the autopilot, if engaged, would satisfy those commands. The AFCS incorporated a heading select mode that allowed the pilot to select a heading by moving a “bug” on the outer nng of the pictorial navigation Indicator. Once the bug was moved to the desired heading with the heading select button engaged, the autopilot could command the airplane to that heading at a bank angle of about 22 degrees. The AFCS had a control wheel steering (CWS) button mounted on the control yoke that allowed the pilot to maneuver the aircraft in pitch and roll without disengaging the autopilot. According to AlliedSignal, when the CWS button was released, the autopilot would resume control of the aircraft at the heading and altitude that had been selected at the time the CWS button was released. According to the FM and Bendix/King, the trim system was designed to withstand any single in-flight malfunction. Trim faults were visually and aurally annunciated In the cockpit. Through the use of monitor circuits, aircraft control would automatically be returned to the pilot when a fault was detected. After the AFCS had been preflight tested, it could be engaged and disengaged either manually or automatically. The following conditions would cause the autopilot to automatically disengage: power failure, internal flight control system failure, loss of a valid compass signal, roll rates greater than 14 drees per second, and pitch rates greater than 8 degrees per second. Avionics Examinations On July 29 and 30, 1999, the avionics were examined at the AlliedSignal/ King Radios Facility, Olathe, Kansas, under the supervision of a Safety Board investigator. On October 13 and 14, 1999, a follow-up examination of the navigation and communications transceivers and all three autopilot servos was also performed at the AlliedSignal/King Radios Facility under the supervision of a Safety Board Investigator, parties to the investigation were present during both examinations. The accident airplane’s AFCS was examined. Examination and functional testing of the AFŒ pitch, pitch trim, and roll servos did not reveal any evidence of a preimpact malfunction or jam. The accident airplane was equipped with a GPS receiver, Bendix/King model KLN-90B. The GPS was capable of presenting moving map displays; bearings and distances to programmable destinations, such as airports and waypoints; airport information; ground speed; and other Information. The GPS was also capable of interfacing with the AFCS arid the pictorial navigation indicator. Examination of the GPS unit revealed that it was crushed vertically. The display in the front face of the unit (Continued on Next Page) ____ FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION7W, i. 1 National Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) was destroyed. The ON/OFF switch was found in the ON position. The navigation database indicated that it was effective on October 8, 1998, and that It expired on November 4, 1998. A wire that connected the circuitry of a 3.6-volt lithium battery was separated. According to AlliedSdgnal, the lithium battery provided electrical power to retain the nonvolatile memory of the GPS receiver and required a minimum of 2.5 volts to retain memory. The battery voltage was measured to be 0.2 volt, and It was determined that the memory had not been retained. Examination of the Bendix/King model KR-87, automatic direction finder, revealed that the rec8v&s primary frequency was set at 400 kilohertz (kHz) and the secondary frequency was set at 200 kHz. Both of the airplane’s communication/navigation transceivers received severe impact damage and could not be powered up. The nonvolatile memory circuit chips were extracted from the transceivers, placed n a test unit, and powered up. The following information was noted about each of the transceivers: Transceiver No. 1, KX-165 The in-use communication frequency was set at 132.02, which was the same frequency as the TEB automatic terminal information service (ATIS). The standby communication frequency was set at 135.25; the CDW ATIS had a frequency of 135.5. The in-use navigation frequency was set at 109.80, which was the same frequency as the New Haven, Connecticut, VOR. The standby navigation frequency was set at 113.10, which was the same frequency as the LaGuardia Airport, New York, VOR. Transceiver No. 2, KX-165 The in-use communication frequency was set at 121.40, which was the same frequency as the MW tower. The standby communication frequency was set at 127.25; the MW ATIS had a frequency of 126.25. The in-use navigation frequency was set at 108.80, which was the same frequency as the BDR VOR. The standby navigation frequency was set at 110.00, which was the same frequency as the Norwich, Connecticut, VOR. Safety Board Materials Laboratory Examinations An examination of the accident airplane’s components was conducted in the Safety Board Materls Laboratory in Washington, D.C. The flight command Indicator (Bendix/King model KI-256) was deformed, and its glass faceplate was missing. The center portion of the pictorial display was partially embedded in the side of the housing in a position that Indicated a right turn with a bank angle of about 125 degrees and a nose-down pitch attitude of about (Continued on Next Pate) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONtW. .. toe National Transportation Safrty Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) 30 degrees. The air-driven gyro housmg inside of the flight command indicator was corroded but not deformed. Disassembly and inspection of the gyro did not reveal any scoring marks on the spinning mass gyro and mating housing. The turn coordinator was deformed, and Its glass was missing. The display was captured in a position indicating a steep right turn. The electrically driven gyro assembly inside of the instrument was removed and found free to rotate with no binding or case interference. No scoring marks were found on either the spinning mass gyro or mating housing. The pictorial navigation indicator (BendbçfKing model KI-525A) was deformed, and its glass faceplate was missing. The heading indicator was pointing to 339 degrees. The center navigational display needle was oriented along the 300/120-degree bearing. The heading flag was displayed. The heading bug was located at the 095-degree mark. The slaved gyro assembly was partially separated from its mounting, and its case exhibited minor deformation. The gyro housing and internal rotor were disassembled. The interior surface of the case and the exterior surface of the sprnnlng mass rotor did not exhibit any deformation, Impact marks, or rotational scoring. The engine-driven vacuum pump drive shear shaft was intact. The drive end was removed to expose the internal rotor and vanes. The rotor showed several cracks between the bottom of the vane slots and the center of the rotor. All six vanes were removed intact. The rotor was removed in several pieces, and the housing was examined. Examination revealed no evidence of scoring or rotational damage. A metal straight-edge was placed along the long ends of each vane, and no warping or wear was noted. The electrically driven vacuum pump drive shear shaft was intact. The pump was opened from the motor drive end to expose the rotor and internal vanes. Several cracks were noted in the rotor between the vane slots and the center shaft area. Five of the six vanes were removed and found intact with no fractures or edge chipping. The sixth vane was found wedged and stuck in the rotor, which was stuck inside the housing. Approximately half of the rotor was removed, and examinatIon of Its housing revealed no evidence of scoring or rotational damage. A metal straight-edge was placed along the long ends of the removed vanes, and no warping or wear was noted. Disassembly and examination of the vacuum system filter did not reveal any evidence of contaminants or blockages. The airspeed indicator was damaged, and ïts glass faceplate was missing. The needle position was found off-scale near the right edge of the density altitude adjustment window, it could be moved, however, when released, it spring-loaded to its as-found position. Magnified examination of marks on the instrument face revealed an outline similar to the size and shape of the needle. This mark was located about two needle widths above the 210-knot marking, which was the maximum marking on the indicator. The location of the needle mark on the airspeed indicator was consistent with the maximum mechanical needle travel position for the airspeed Indicator design. The VSI needle was missing. Magnified examination of marks on the instrument face revealed an outline similar to the size and shape of a needle. This needle mark was pointed at the down-limit position of 2,000 fpm descent. Microscopic examination of the AFCS light bulbs on the front face of the unit was performed. None of the light bulbs exhibited evidence of filament stretch, induding the autopilot engage, flight director, or trim failure light bulbs. An examination of all recovered light bulbs from the airplane’s main and landing gear annunciator panels revealed no evidence of filament stretch. (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION -114 1c, la, bleng Naticoal Transportation Safcty Board FACT UAL REPORT AVIATION NTS8 ID: NYC99MA 178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) Aircraft Performance Study An aircraft performance study was performed by a Safety Board specialist using the Board’s computer simulation program. According to the specialist’s report, airplane performance data for the final portion of the flight were calculated using radar, aircraft, and weather data. Performance parameters were then computed for the fInal 7 minutes of the flight. The calculated parameters showed the airplane initially descending from 5,500 feet at descent rates varying between 400 and 800 fpm, at 2133:40. At 2137:20, the airplane attained a steady descent rate of close to 600 fpm as the airplane passed through 3,000 feet. During the entire descent from 5,500 feet, the calculated airspeed remained near 160 KIAS, and the flightpath angle remained dose to -2 degrees. About 2138, the airplane started to bank in a nght-wlng-down (RWD) direction toward a southerly direction. Calculated parameters indicated an almost constant roll angle of 13 degrees RWD and a vertical acceleration of 1.09 Gs while executing the turn. About 30 seconds after the turn was initiated, at an altitude of 2,200 feet, the airplane stopped descending. The airplane then dimbed for the next 30 seconds, attaining a maximum climb rate of 500 fpm. During the ascent, the airplane finished the turn to a southeasterly direction, reduced speed slightly to 153 KIAS, and returned to a wings-level attitude by 2138:50. By 2139, the airplane leveled at 2,500 feet and then flew in a southeasterly direction with wings level while increasing airspeed back to 160 KIAS. At 2139:50, the airplane entered a left turn, while slightly Increasing altitude to 2,600 feet. The airplane reached a maximum bank angle of 28 degrees left-wing-down (LWD) and a maximum vertical acceleration of 1.2 Gs In this turn. When the maximum LWD bank angle was obtained, the altitude started to decrease at a descent rate dose to 900 fpm. The LWD attitude was maintained for approximately 15 seconds until the airplane was heading towards the east. At 2140:07, the airplane bank angle returned to wings level. At 2140:15, with the airplane continuing toward5 the east, it reestablished a descent dose to 900 fpm and then started to increase its bank angle in a RWD direction at nearly a constant rate. As the airplane bank angle increased, the rate of descent increased, and the airspeed started to Increase. By 2 140:25, the bank ane exceeded 45 degrees, the vertical acceleration was 1.2 Gs, the airspeed increased through 180 knots, and the flightpath angle was close to 5 degrees airplane nose down. After 2140:25, the airplane’s airspeed, vertical acceleration, bank, and dive angle continued to increase, and the right turn tightened until water Impact, about 2141. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Cell Phones The cell phone records for the three occupants of the airplane reflected one out-going call, about 2025. No calls were listed as being made from, or recved by, the cell phones from the time of the takeoff through the estimated time of the accident Preflight Briefing The AIM, published by the FAA, is the official guide to basic flight Information and ATC procedures. Under the Section, PreflIght Briefing,” ¡t states that FSSs are the primary source fôr obtaining preflight briefings (Continued on Next Page) - FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION7W. s. fc, National Transportatkm Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB $0: NYC99MA178 / 16/99 Occurrence Date: 07 jOunœ Type: ldent Narrative (Continued) and in-flight weather information. The AIM states that a standard briefing should be requested any time a pilot ¡s planning a flight and has not received a previous briefing or has not received preliminary information through mass dissemination media. The standard briefing should include the following information: Adverse Conditions: Significant meteorological and aeronautical Information that might influence the pilot to alter the proposed flight. VFR Flight Not Recommended: When VFR flight is proposed and sky conditions or visibdities are present or forecast, surface or aloft, that in the briefer’s judgment would make flight under VFR doubtful, the briefer will describe the conditions, affected locations, and use the phrase “VFR flight not recommended.” Current Conditions: Reported weather conditions applicable to the flight will be summarized from all available sources. En Route Forecast: Forecast en route conditions for the proposed route are summarized in logical order (for example, departure/dimbout, en route, and descent). Destination Forecast The destination forecast for the planned estimated time of arrival. Any significant changes within 1 hour before and after the planned arrival are Included. Winds Aloft: Forecast winds aloft will be provided using degrees of the compass. The briefer will interpolate wind directions and speeds between levels and stations as necessary to provide expected conditions at planned altitudes. The AIM also states that a standard briefing should include synopsis, notices to airmen, and ATC delays. Spatial Disorientation A review of 14 CFR Part 61, “Certification: Pilots, Flight Instructors, arid Ground Instructors, revealed that no specific training requirements exist regarding spatial disorientation. According to the FAA Practical Test Standards, an applicant for a private pilot rating must exhIbit knowledge of spatial disorientation. In addition, the publication states that “the examiner shall also emphasize stall/spin awareness, spatial disorientation...” A review of training records from F51 revealed that while the pilot was preparing for his private pilot certificate, he received instruction on the symptoms, causes, and effects of spatial disonentation and the correct action to take f it occurred. In addition, the pilot received unusual attitude training while attending the private pilot and instrument training courses at FSI. According to an FAA Instrument Flying Handbook, Advisory Circular 61-27C (AC) (Section II, “Instrument Flying: Coping with Illusions in Flight”), one purpose for instrument training and maintaining instrument proficiency is to prevent a pilot from being misled by several types of hazardous illusions that are peculiar to flight The AC states that an illusion or false Impression occurs when information provided by sensory organs is misinterpreted or inadequate and that many illusions In flight could be created by complex motions and certain visual scenes encountered under adverse weather conditions and at night. It also states that some illusions may lead to spatial disorientation or the inability to determine accurately the attitude or motion of (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATIONP • I bmdig Nationai Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) the aircraft in relation to the earth’s surface. The AC also states that spatial disorientation as a result of continued VER flight into adverse weather conditions is regularly near the top of the cause/factor list in annual statistics on fatal aircraft accidents. The AC further states that the most hazardous illusions that lead to spatial disonentation are created by information received from motion sensing systems, which are located in each inner ear. The AC also states that the sensory organs in these systems detect angular acceleration in the pitch, yaw, and roll axes, and a sensory organ detects gravity and linear acceleration and that, in flight, the motion sensing system may be stimulated by motion of the aircraft alone or in combination with head and body movement. The AC lists some of the major illusions leading to spatial disorientation as follows: “The leans - A banked attitude, to the left for example, may be entered too slowly to set in motion the fluid in the ‘roll’ semicircular tubes. An abrupt correction of this attitude can now set the fluid in motion and so create the illusion of a banked attitude to the right. The disoriented pilot may make the error of rolling the aircraft back into the original left-banked attitude or, If level flight Is maintained, will feel compelled to lean to the left until this illusion subsides. Coriolis illusIon - An abrupt head movement made dunng a prolonged constant-rate turn may set the fluid in more than one semicircular tube in motion, creating the strong iLlusion of turning or accelerating, in an entirely different axis. The disoriented pilot may maneuver the aircraft Into a dangerous attitude in an attempt to correct this illusory movement.... Graveyard spiral - In a prolonged coordinated, constant-rate turn, the fluid in the semicircular tubes in the axis of the turn will cease its movement.. .An observed loss altitude In the aircraft instruments and the absence of any sensation of turning may create the illusion of being in a descent with the wings level. The disoriented pilot may pull back on the controls, tightening the spiral and increasing the loss of altitude.... Inversion illusion - An abrupt change from climb to straight-and-level flight can excessively stimulate the sensory organs foc gravity and linear acceleration, creating the illusion of tumbling backwards. The disoriented pilot may push the aircraft abruptly into a nose-low attitude, possibly intensifying this illusion. Elevator Illusion - An abrupt upward vertical acceleration, as can occur in a helicopter or an updraft, can shift vision downwards (visual scene moves upwards) through excessive stimulation of the sensory organs for gravity and linear acceleration, creating the illusion of beIng in a climb. The disoriented pilot may push the aircraft into a nose low attitude. An abrupt downward vertical acceleration, usually in a downdraft, has the opposite effect, with the disoriented pilot pulling the aircraft into a nose-up attitude.... Autokinesis - In the dark, a stationary light will appear to move about when stared at for many seconds. The disoriented pilot could lose control of the aircraft in attempting to align it with the false movements of this light.” The AC also states that these undesirable sensations cannot be completely prevented but that they can be ignored or sufficiently suppressed by pilots’ developing an “absolute” relianœ upon what the flight instruments are reporting about the attitude of their aircraft. The AC further states that practice and experience in instrument flying are necessary to aid pilots in discounting or overcoming false sensations. (Continued on Next Paçe) FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION

    Tb. ip .c (.ðIa Naticmal Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) Further, the FM Airplane Flying Handbook, FM-H-8083-3, chaçer 10, states the following about night flying and its affect on spatial orientation: ‘Night flying requires that pilots be aware of, and operate within, their abilities and limitations. Although careful pLanning of any flight is essential, night flying demands more attention to the details of preflight preparation and planning. Preparation for a night flight should include a thorough review of the available weather reports and forecasts with particular attention given to temperature/dewpoint spread. A narrow temperature/dewpoint spread may indicate the possibility of ground fog. Emphasis should also be placed on wind direction and speed, since its effect on the airplane cannot be as easily detected at night as during the day...Night flying ¡s very different from day flying and demands more attention of the plot. The most noticeable difference is the limited availability of outside visual references. Therefore, flight instruments should be used to a greater degree in controlling the airplane... Under no circumstances should a VFR night-flight be made during poor or marginal weather conditions unless both the pila and aircraft are certificated and equipped for flight under. ..TFR.. .Crosslng large bodies of water at night In single-engine airplanes could be potentially hazardous, not only from the standpoint of landing (ditching) In the water, but also because with little or no lighting the horizon blends with the water, in which case, depth perception and orientation become difficult. During poor visibility conditions over water, the horizon will become obscure, and may result ¡n a loss of orientation. Even on clear nights, the stars may be reflected on the water surface, which could appear as a continuous array of lights, thus making the horizon difficult to identify.’ According to AC 60-4A, ‘PiIoVs Spatial Disorientation,” tests conducted with qualified instrument pdots indicated that it can take as long as 35 seconds to establish full control by Instruments after a loss of visual reference of the earth’s surface. AC 60-4A further states that surface references and the natural hoflzon may become obscured even though visibility may be above VFR minimums and that an inability to perceive the natural horizon or surface references is common during flights over water, at night, ¡n sparsely populated areas, and in low-visibility conditions. A book titled, Night Flying, by Richard Haines and Courtney Flatau, provides some additional information concerning vertigo and disorientation. It states the following: ‘Vestibular disorientation refers to the general feeling that one’s flight path Isn’t correct in some way. By calling this effect vestibular, it emphasizes the rde played by the middle ear’s balance organ. Flying an uncoordinated turn produces this effect as does excessive head turning during a turn in flight. Vestibular disorientation Is often subtle in Its onset, yet it is the most disabling and dangerous of all disorientation.” PiIots Operating Handbook (POH) According to the POH and a photo of the accident airplane’s cockpit, the fuel selector control was located below the center of the instrument panel, on the opIng face of the control tunnel, on the cockpit floor. In the “Normal Procedures” section of the POH, under “Cruising,” it states, “In order to keep the airplane in best lateral trim during cruise flight, the fuel should be used alternately from each tank at one hour intervals.” Also, in the ‘Normal Procedures” section, under the “Approach and Landing” checklist, the first item listed Is “Fuel selector - proper tank.” Wreckage Release (Continued on Next Page) FACTUAL REPORT - AViATIONNational Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) On August 5, 1999, the main airplane wreckage was released to a representative of the accident pdot’s Insurance company. On November 17, 1999, the remainder of the retained parts were released and shipped to the insurance company’s storage facility. Addibonal Persons Partíclpabng in the Investigation: Richard L Bunker - Massachusetts Aeronautics CommissJon, Boston, Massachusetts Tom McCreary - Hartzell Propeller Inc., Piqua, Ohio FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION p.geIN. . fvibKI National Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Land ¡ng FacilítylApproach Information Airport Name Airport ID Airport Elevation Runway Used Runway Length Runway Wdth UNKINA U/NA U/NA Ft. MSL UNK/NA UNKINA UNK/NA Runway Surface Type: UNK/NA Runway Surface Condition: LiNK/NA Type Instrument Approach: UNK/NA VFR Approach/Landing: UNK/NA Aircraft Information Aircraft Manufacturer Model/Series Señal Number Piper PA-32R-301 32-13100 Airworthiness Certificate INormal I I I Landing Gear Type: ITJRjle I I Homebuilt Aircraft? No I Number of Seats: 6 Certified Max Gross Wt Stall Warning System Installed? y 1 3600 LBS Number of Engines 1 Engine Type Engine Manufacturer Recip-Fuel Injected Lycoming Model/Series IO-540-K1G5 Rated Per 300 HP - Aircraft Inspection Information Type of Last Inspection Date of Last Inspection lime Since Last Inspection Airframe Total Time Annual 06/25/99 41 Hours 664 Hours - Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) Information E1..T Installed? y ELT Operated? IJNK/NA ELT Aided in Locating Accident Site? UNIÇf NA OwnerlOperator Information Registered Aircraft Owner JOHN F. KENNEDY JR. Street Address 1633 BROADWAY , City State Zip Code NEW_YORK NY 10019 Operator of Aircraft Same As Reg’d Aircraft Owner Street Address Same as Registered Aircraft Ow State Zip Code Operator Does Business As: RANDOM VENTURES Operator Desagnator Code: - Type of Certificate(s) Held: NONE Air Camer Operating Certificate: I Operating Certificate: Operator Certificate: Regulation Right Conducted Under 14 CFR 91 Type of Flight Operation Conducted: Personal FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION ‘. zTh spec. Fœnd. National Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTS8 ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident First Pilot Information Name City State Date of Birth Age JOHN F. KENNEDY JR. NEW YORK NY 11/25160 38 Sex: M Seat Occupied: Left Prtndpal Profession: Business Certificate Number: 119365900 Certificate(s): J Private I I I Airplane Rating(s): I SE Land I I Rotorcraft)GiideriLTA: None I I I Instrument Rating(s) None ‚ instructor Rating(s): None I - Type Raung Endorsement for AccidenUlncide,1 Aircraft? y Cuitent Biennial Flight Review? Yes Months Since Last SFR SFR Aircraft Make SFR Aircraft Model Medical Certificate: Qa 2 15 PIPER PA-28 Date of Last Medical Exam: 12127197 Medical Certificate Status: Valid Medical-No WaiverLimitatÌons Source of Pilot Flight Time lnfmation. Pilot Lo Eimate I Other Person . ‘.. r i9.ii ..me matriA MC . Mi$ ¡IIØI FW Ak*a. bIn •__ bec,.d , Lq Thec ødr TotaIThn. 310 36 308 2 55 9 29 0 Q O lInCommd(C) 212 36 212 0 48 0 8 p 0 0 Insirudor La9Oys 45 36 45 0 13 5 9 0 0 0 LOys 18 17 18 0 6 2 0 0 0 0 L24Ilours p p 0 0 0 0 q O O O Seatbelt Used? Yes Shoder Harness Used? U/NA I AL*opsy Perlormed? Yes Toxicology Perfomeð? y Person at Controls of Aircraft at lime of Accident/Incident: First Pilot Second Pilot? No Flight Planhltinerary Type of Flight Plan Filed: None Departure Point State NJ Airport Identifier CDW Departure Time 2039 Time Zone EDT CALDWELL :::: HAVEN State Airport Identifier Type of Clearance: None Type of Airspace: Dass G Weather Information Source of Briefing: Corn WX Sv/DUATS I Method of fing Phone/Computer //1 FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION PqœSThu sac. br National Transportaoon Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTS8 ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16)99 Occurrence Type: Accident Weather InformatIon WOF ID [õbservatlon Time Time Zone WOF Elevation WOF Distance From Accident Slte1Dlrection From Accident Site MW I 2153 EDT 68 Ft. MSL 15 NM J095 Deg.Mag. SkylLowest Cloud Condition: Clear Ft. AGL Condition of Ligl’t: Night (Dark) Lowest Ceiling: None Ft. AGL Visibility: 10 SMj Altimeter: 30.10 Hg Temperature: 75 F f Dew Point: 64 Wind Direction: 240 Density Aftrtude: UNK/NA Ft. Wind Speed: 10 Gusts: 15 Weather Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions Visibility (RVR): Ft. Visibility (RVV) SM Intensity of Precipitation: Restrictions to Visibility: Type of Precipitabon: None Accident Information Aircraft Damage: Destroyed Aircraft Fire: None Aircraft Explosion: None Classification. US Registered cri US Soil, Territories or Possessions, or Intl Waters -Injury Summary Matrix Fat4 Sedous tMnot Non. TOTAL FIrstPUot 1 1 Second Pliot Dual Stud.nt Check Pøo( Flight EngIeer CabWi Aitendants Other Crew Passengers TOTAL ABOARD 3 Other Aircraft Other Ground GRAND TOTAL 3 3 I FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION P,e4 fNational Transportation Safety Board FACTUAL REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA 178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Administrative Information IrwestlgatoÑn-Charge (lIC) ROBERT L PEARCE Addftional Persons Participating in This AccidenVincident Investegation: TONY JAMES FAA/AAI-100 WASHINGTON DC PAUL LEHMAN NEW PtPER AIRCRAFT CORP VERO BEACH FI GREGORY A. ERIKSON TEXTRON-LYCOMING WILLIAMSPORT PA JAY WIcKIM MATIT[UCK AIRBASE INC MATTLTUCK NY FACTUAL REPORT - AVIATION Pq,3. . . u” co • . u .-,— .4 MA, - Z—’ (JO 1.4 ko. eZ ‚4C’h&’ Ì -.. 14..IO-l.’II0. >. 0 åJD. -.4 00 ‘ lr . QuC..4 U-.4 — . 0w-V ‘14 .., 14 . . . ‘-4 - j C O el ¿.4 .‘ .4 U 14.4 14 O 9. . • .00 1.J *4 W 14.4 •b.41.41J .—.., u -400 C I’ w —. —. . . M 4.J1.IVI4 Cuo u-eD ‘i.. eD cc • ..1r. 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T ndiiig National Transportation Safety Board PRELIMINARY REIORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Most CritaI Injury FATAL Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Investigated By: SB Occurrence Type: Accident ICAO Report Submitted: No LocationlTlme Nearest City/Place State VINEYARD HAVEN MA Zip Code Local Time Time Zone / ‘ 02568 2141 EDT ‘ Aircraft Information Registration Number Arcraft Manufacturer ModellSeries Number 9253N Piper PA-32-R301 Type of Aircraft Airplane Homebuilt Aircrafl? No ‘ Injury Summary: (F Sen o I “‘u o I o Sightseeing Flight: No Air Medical Transport Flight: No Narrative BiRf rwriie ,einei1 Á fect. candt and cwvuneticæ pner k the æceiñniz1: On July 16, 1999, about 2141 eastern daylight time, a Piper PA-32-R301, Saratoga II, N9253N, was destroyed during a collision with water approximately 7 1/2 miles southwest of Gay Head, Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. The certificated private pilot and two passengers were fatally injured. Night visual meteorological conditions prevailed, and no flight plan had been filed for the personal flight conducted under 14 CFR Part 91. The flight originated from Essex County Airport (CDW), CaIdwell, New Jersey, and was destined for the Martha’s Vineyard Airport, (MVY), Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts. According to witnesses, the flight was en route to Martha’s Vineyard to drop off one passenger, and then continue on to Hyannis, Massachusetts. According to computer records, a person using the pilot’s subscriber log-in code obtained aviation weather information from an Internet site at 1834. The weather Information was for a route briefing from Teterboro, New Jersey, to Hyannis, with MW as an alternate. The forecast for Hyanni5 called for winds from 230 degrees at 10 knots, visibility 6 miles, and sky clear; with winds becoming 280 degrees at 8 knots. Additionally, rio AIRMETS oc SIGMETS were issued for the route of flight, and all airports along the route of flight reported visual meteorological conditions. The flight departed CDW at 2038. The plot informed the CDW tower controller that he would be proceeding north of the Teterboro Airport, and then eastbound. There Is no record of any further communications between the pilot and the air traffic control system, According to radar data, the airplane passed north of the Teterboro Airport, and then continued northeast along the Connecticut coastline at 5,600 feet, before beginning to cross the Rhode Island Sound near Point Judith, Rhode Island. A review of the radar data revealed that the airplane began a descent from 5,600 feet about 34 miles from MW. The airspeed was about 160 knots, and the rate of descent was about 700 feet per minute (fprn). About 2,300 feet, the airplane began a turn to the right and dimbed back to 2,600 feet. It remained at 2,600 feet for about 1 minute while tracking on a southeasterly heading. The airplane then started a descent of about 700 fm and a left turn back to the east. Thirty seconds into the maneuver, the airplane started another turn to the right and entered a rate of descent that exceeded 4,700 fpm. The altitude of the last recorded target was 1,100 feet. On Tuesday, July 20, 1999, about 2240, the airplane was located in 116 feet of water, about 1/4 of a mile north of the 1,100 foot radar target position. The engine, propeller hub and blades, and entire tail section were recovered. The entire span of both main wings’ spars were also recovered. Additionafly, about 75 percent of the fuselage/cabin area, 80 percent of the left wing structure, and 60 percent of the right wing jÇontinued on Next Page) PRELIMINARY INFORMATION - SUBJECT TO CHANGE tTS s. f C( National Transportation Safety Board PREL(NÍINARY REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Continued) structure were recovered. The recovered wreckage was taken from an area that was about 120 feet long and oriented along an approximate bearing of 010/190 degrees. Preliminary examination of the wreckage revealed no evidence of art in-flight structural failure or fire. The right wing structure exhibited greater deformation than the left wing structure. Two of the three landing gear actuators were recovered and found in the fully retracted position. There was no evidence of conditions found during examinations that would have prevented either the engine or propeller from operating. Visual inspection of the propeller indicated the presence of rotational damage. Detailed examination of the navigation and communication radios, autopilot, and vacuum systems are planned for a later date. The pilot received his private pilot certificate in April 1998. He did not possess an instrument rating. Interviews and training records revealed that the pilot had accumulated about 300 hours of total flight experience. These hours did not include the recent experience gained in the accident airplane. Pilots who had flown over the Long tsland Sound that evening were interviewed after the accident. These pilots reported that the in-flight visibility over the water was significantly reduced. I PRELIMINARY INFORMATION - SUBJECT TO CHANGECertificate No. National Transportation Safety Board PRELIMINARY REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occunnce Date: 07/16/99 Occurrence Type: Accident Other Aircraft Involved Regtration Number Aircraft Manufacturer Model/Series Number Accident Information Aircraft Damage: Destroyed j Accident Occurred During: Descent Property Damage: None Crew Name Pilot 304-IN F. KENNEDY J 2 3 4 5 6 Operator Infonnatlon Name Operator Designator Code Doing Ousiness As JOHN F. KENNEDY JR. RANDOM VENTURES Street Address City State Zip Code 1633 BROADWAY NEW YORK NY 10019 -Type of Certificate(s) Held: NONE Air Carrier Operating Certificate I I Operating Certificate: Operator Certificate: Regulation Flight Conducted Under: 14 CFR 91 Type of Flight Operation Conducted: Personal Flight Planlltinerary Type of Flight Plan Filed: None Last Departure Pomt 1 State Airport Identifier / CALD WELL NY CDW ., Destination State Airport Identifier ‘/ ‘ VINEYARD HAVEN MA MW Weather Information Investigator’s Source: Q,-vatjn Facility IFacility ID: MW Observation Time (Local): 2153 Sky/Lowest Cloud Condition: Oear Ft. AGL Precipitation: No Lowest Ceiling: None Ft AGL Visibility: io SMI Altimeter 30.10 Hg PRELIMINARY INFORMATION - SUBJECT TO CHANGE PageThu spac. National Tran%portatirnl Safcty Board PRELIMINARY REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurrence Date: 07116/99 Occunence Type: Accident Weather Information (Continued froni p.ge 2) Temperature 75 F Dew Point 64 F Wind Direction 240 / / Wind Speed: 10 Kts. Gusts: 15 Kts. Weather Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions Administrative Data Nohitcation From Date Local Time Time Zone NEW ENGLAND REG OPS CTR 07/17/99 0445 EDT FAA Distflct Office/Coordinoc Investlgator-In-Char9e (lIC) MI-100 WASHINGTON D.C. TONY JAMES ROBERT L PEARCE j PRELIMINARY INFORMATION - SUBJECT TO CHANCE PageSightseeing Flig On July 16, 1999, about 2141 eastern daylight time, a Piper PA-32-R301, Saratoga II, N9253N, was destroyed during a collision with water approximately 7 1/2 miles southwest of Gay Head, Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. The certificated private pilot and two passengers were fatally injured. Night visual msteorologcal conditions prevailed, and no flight plan had been filed foi the personal flight conducted under 14 CFR Part 91. The flight originated from Essex County Airport (CDWI, Caldwell, New Jersey, and was destined for the Marthas Vineyard Airport, (MVY), Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts. According to witnesses, the flight was en route to Martha’s Vineyard to drop oft one passenger, and then continue on to Hyannis, Massachusetts. According to computer records, a person using the pilot’s subscriber log-in code obtained aviation weather information from an internet site at 1834. The weather information was for a route briefing from Teterboro, New Jersey, to Hyannis, with MVV as an alternate. The forecast for Hyannis called for winds from 230 degrees at 10 knots, visIbility 6 miles, and sky clear; with winds becoming 280 degrees at 8 knots. Additionally, no AIRMETS oc SIGMETS were issued for the route of flight, and all airports along the route of flight reported visual meteorological conditions. The flight departed COW at 2038. The pilot informed the COW tower controller that he would be proceeding north of the Teterboro Airport, arid then eastbound. There is no record of any further communications between the pi)ot and the air traffic control system. According to radar data, the airplane passed north of the Teterboro Airport, and then continued northeast along the Connecticut coastline at 5,600 feet, before beginning to cross the Rhode Island Sound near Point Judith, Rhode Island. A review of the radar data revealed that the airplane began a descent from 5,600 t est about 34 miles from MVY. The airspeed was about 180 knots, and the rate of descent was about 700 feet per minute (fprn). About 2,300 feet, the airplane began a turn to the ,ight and climbed back to 2,600 feet. It remained at 2,600 feet for about 1 minute while tracking on a southeasterly heading. The airplane then started a descent of about 700 fpm and a left turn back to the east. Thirty seconde into the maneuver, the airplane started another turn to the right and entered a rate of descent that exceeded 4,700 fprn. The altitude of the last recorded target was 1,100 feet. On Tuesday, July 20, 1999, about 2240. the airplane was located in 116 feet of water, about 1/4 of a (Continued on Next Page) Nailmal Tranšporta(ioe Safety Brd PRELIMINARY REPORT AVIATION LocationlTime Nearest CyIPIace VINEYARD HAVEN Aircraft Information Regtfaon Number Local Time Tine Zone Injury Summary: Narrative Bd.f rar ii.i1 d $, omdibs, id canec.. peitirwi bth. æciddt PRELIMINARY INFORMATION - SUBJECT TO CHANGETib .. ‘iational Transportation NTSB ID: NVC99 MAl 78 PRELIMINARY REPORT Occunnce Date: 0711 6199 AVIATION Occurrence Type: Accident Narrative (Contiued) male north of the 1,100 foot radar target position. The engine, propeller hub and blades, and entire tail section were recoveied. The entire span of both main wings’ spars were also recovered. Additionally, about 75 percent of the tuselageIcabin area, 80 percent of the left wing structure, and 60 percent of the right wing structure were recovered. The recovered wreckage was taken from an area that was about 120 feat long and oriented along an approximate bearing of 0101190 degrees. Preliminary examination of the wreckage revealed no evidence of an in-flight structural failure or fire. The right wing structure exhibited greater deformation than the left wing structure. Two of the three landing gear actuators were recovered and found In the fully retracted position. There was no evidence of conditions found during examinations that would have prevented either the engine or propeller from operating. Visual inspection of the propeller Indicated the presence of rotational damage. Detailed examination of the navigation and communication radios, autopilot, and vacuum systems are planned for a later date. The pilot received his private pilot certificate in April 1998. He did not possess an instrument rating. Interviews and training records revealed that the pilot had accumulated about 300 hours of total flight experience. These hours did not include the recent experience gained in the accident airplane. Pilots who had flown over the Long Island Sound that evening were interviewed after the accident. These pilots reported that the in-flight visibility over the water was significantly reduced. PRELIMiNARY INFORMATiON - SUBJECT TO CHANGE laNatonaI T iportatlon Safety Board PRELIMINARY REPORT AV IATION Other Aircraft hwo RegistratIon Number Accident Information Airuaft Darn ege: Property Damage: Destro Aircraft Ma nur Name INEDY JR. JOHN F. KENNEDY JR. Street Address 1633 BROADWAY j-Typ. of Ca,tflc.ate(s) Held: N Air Carder Operating Certificate Operating Certificate Flight Plariflttnerary Type of Flight Plan Filed: NEW YORK ‘ENTURES F Lait Deoawture Po’it CAl nWFI LNitIccii Tramportadon Safety Board PREUMU4ARY REPORT AVIATION rte . , AdmInIstrtlvQ D Notification From NEW ENGLANC Investigator-In-Charge (lIC) ROBERT L. PEARCE FM Distrt Off,ce/Coordinator AM-lOO WASHiNGTON D.C. TONY JAMESNational Transportation Safety Iloard PRELI1IINARY REPORT AVIATION NTSBID: NYC99MAI78 Most Cntical Injury FATAl. Occurrence Date: 07/16,99 InvestIgated By: SB 0cc rice Type: Accident ICAO Report Submitted: No LocationlTime Nearest CityIPlace State Zip Code Local Time Time Zone VINEYARD HAVEN MA 02568 2141 EDT . . Aircraft Information Registration Number Aircraft Manufacturer J Model/Series Number 9253N Piper PA-32-R301 Type of Aircraft Airplane Homebuilt Asrcraft7 No /// Injury Summary: atJ Serious o 1Minor o o Sightseeing Flight: No Air Medical Transport Flight: No Narrative Bnef ne*ie ¡terimnt cl tacts, condItbs, id c*rcumstaecas peitn1 the æcid1ñnc4dent On July 16, 1999, about 2141 eastern daylight time, a Piper PA-32-R301, Saratoga Il, N9253N, was destroyed d certificated pnvate pilot and two passengers were fatally injured. Night visual meteorological conditions prevaile Essex County Airport (CDW), Caidwell, New Jersey, and was destined for the Martha’s Vineyard Airport, (MW), ‘I According to witnesses, the flight was en route to Martha’s Vineyard to drop off one passenger, and then cont obtained aviation weather information from an internet site at 1834. The weather information was for a route brie 230 degrees at 10 knots, visibility 6 mites, and sky dear; with winds becoming 280 degrees at 8 knots. Addition meteorological conditions. The flight departed CDW at 2038. The pilot informed the CDW tower controller that he would be proceeding fort the air traffic control system. According to radar data, the airplane passed north of the Teterboro Airport, and the near Point Judith, Rhode Island. A review of the radar data revealed that the airp’ane began a descent from 5,600 feet about 34 miles from MVY. airplane began a turn to the right and climbed back to 2,600 feet. It remained at 2,600 feet for about 1 minute wh east. Thirty seconds into the maneuver, the airplane started another turn to the right and entered a rate of descer On Tuesday, July 20, 1999, about 2240, the airplane was located in 116 feet of water, about 1/4 of a mile north o entire span of both main wings’ spars were also recovered. Additionally, about 75 percent of the fuselage/cabir wreckage was taken from an area that was about 120 feet long and oriented along an approximate bearing of 010 Preliminary examination of the wreckage revealed no evidence of an in-flight structural failure or fire. The right recovered and found in the fully retracted position. There was no evidence of conditions found during examinatk the presence of rotational damage. Detailed examination of the navigation and communication radios, autopilot, The pdot received his private pilot certificate in April 1998. He did not possess an instrument rating. Interviews not include the recent experience gained in the accident airplane. Pilots who had flown over the Long Island Sound that evening were interviewed after the accident These pilots n PRELIMiNARY INFORMATION SUBJECT TO CHANGE Paq 1.Type c Flight Operation Conducted: Personal Flight Planlftinerary ViNEYARD HAVEN Investlgak,i’s Source: Observation Facility IF1 ID: MVY Observation Time (Local): 2153 Sky!Lowest Cloud Condition: Clear Ft AGL Precipitation: Lest Ceiling: None PRELIM 1NARY Ft AGL INFORMA J Visibility: TION - S w UBJEC SM Altimeter T TO CHANGE 3010 e a National Traniportalion Safrty Board PRELIMINARY REPORT AVIATION 1633 BROADWAY -Type of Certificate(s) Held: NONE Air Cargier Operating Certificate: Operating Certificate: Regtiation Flight Conducted Under: 14 CFR 91 Type of Flight Plan Filed: None East Departure Poini CALD WELL Weather InformationNational Trinsportatlon Safety Board PRELIMINARY REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Occurmnce Date: 07/16199 Oœurrence Type: Accident Weather Information (ConUnu.dtrompag.z) Temperature: 75 F ¡ Dew Point: F Wind Direction: 240 Wind Speed: 10 Kts. Gusts: 15 Kts. Weather Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions Administrative Data Notihcation From Date Local Time Tiiiie Zone NEW ENGLAND REG OPS CTR 07/17/99 0445 EDT FAA Distrk Office/Coordinator Investigator-In-Charge (lIC) AAI-100 WASHINGTON D.C. TONY JAMES ROBERT L PEARCE PRELIMINARY INFORMATION - SUBJECT TO CHANGE Pag.Narrative ______ Bfl& rianive stier ð facts, Mons, e,xi cWcuiretanœs pubniI b the acidiWcident On July 16, 1999. about 2141 eastern daylight time, a Piper PA-32-R301, Saratoga Il, N9253N, was destroyed d certificated private pilot and two passengers were fatally injured. Night visual meteorological conditions prevaile Essex County Airport (CDW). Calciwell, New Jersey. and was destined for the Martha’s Vineyard Airport. (MVY), V According to witnesses, the flight was en route to Martha’s Vineyard to drop off one passenger, and then cant obtained aviation weather information from an internet site at 1834. The weather information was for a route bn€ 230 degrees at 10 knots, visibility 6 miles, and sky clear, with winds becoming 280 degrees at 8 knots. Addition meteorological conditions. The flight departed CDW at 2038. The pilot informed the CDW tower controller that he would be proceeding nort the air traffic control system. According to radar data, the airplane passed north of the Teterboro Airport, and th near Point Judith. Rhode Island. A review of the radar data revealed that the airplane began a descent from 5,600 feet about 34 miles from MW. airplane began a turn to the right and climbed back to 2.600 feet. It remained at 2,600 feet for about 1 minute wh east. Thirty seconds into the maneuver, the airplane started another turn to the right and entered a rate of descer On Tuesday, July 20, 1999, about 2240, the airplane was located in 116 feet of water, about 1/4 of a mile north o entire span of both main wings’ spars were also recovered. Additionally, about 75 percent of the fuselage/cabir wreckage was taken from an area that was about 120 feet long and oriented along an approximate bearing of 010 Preliminary examination of the wreckage revealed no evidence of an in-flight structural failure or fire. The right recovered and found in the fully retracted position. There was no evidence of conditions found during examinatic the presence of rotational damage. Detailed examination of the navigation and communication radios, autopilot, The pilot received his private pIot certificate in April 1998. He did not possess an instrument rating. Interviews not include the recent experience gained in the accident airplane. Pilots who had flown over the Long Island Sound that evening were Interviewed after the accident. These pilots n National Transportation Safely Board PRELIMINARY REPORT AVIATION NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 Most Critical Injury FATAL Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 Investigated By: NTSB Occurrence Type: Accident ICAO Report Submitted: No LocationiTime Nearest City/Place State VINEYARD HAVEN MA Zip Code Local Tine Tine Zone 02568 2141 EDT Aircraft Information Registration Number Aircraft Manufacturer ModellSenes Number 9253N Piper PA-32-R301 Type of Aircraft: Airplane Homebuilt Aircraft? No Injury Summary: 3 S&IŒ j1Œ. O O Sightseeing Flight: No Air Medical Transport Flight: No PRELIMINARY INFORMATION - SUBJECT TO CHANGE Paq• L1N tot bIn. Weather Information CertWicate No. National Transportation Safety Board NTSB ID: NYC99MA178 PRELIMINARY REPORT Occurrence Date: 07/16199 AVIATION jccurrence Type: Accident Other Aircraft Involved Registration Number Aircraft Manufacturer Mod&/Senes Number Accident InformatIon ¿êrcraft Damage: Destroyed Acadent Ocurd During: Descent Property Damage: [None Crew Name Pilot JOHNFKENNEDY JR. 2 3 4 5 6 Operator Information Name Operator Designator Code Doing Business As JOHN F. KENNEDY JR. RANDOM VENTURES Street Address City State Zip Code 1633 BROADWAY NEW YORK NY 10019 -Type of Certificate(s) Held: NONE ir Carrier Operating Certificate: I Operating Certificate: Operator Certificate: ReguLation Fliglit Conducted Under: 14 CFR 91 Type of Flight Operation Conducted: Personal f Flight Planhltinerary Type of Flight Plan Filed: None VINEYARD HAVEN lnvestigator’s Source: Observation Facility IFY ID: MVY Observation Time (Local): 2153 Sky/Lowest Cloud Condion: Clear Ft. AGL Precipitation: No Lowest Ce1ing: None PRELIMINARY Ft AGL ty: INFORMATION - 10 SUBJECT SM Altimeter TO CHANGE 30.10 Hgfa’ National Transportation S1Y Bod NTSB ID: NYC99MA1 78 PRELIMINARY REPORT Occurrence Date: 07/16/99 AVIATION Occurrence Type: Accident Weather Information (Conthiu.dfrompag.2) Temperature 75 F Dew PoInt 64 F Wind Direchon 240 Wind Speed: 10 Kts. Gusts: 15 Kts. Weather Conditions at Accident Site: Visual Conditions Administrative Data NotifIcation From Date Local Time Time Zone NEW ENGLAND REG OPS CTR 07/17199 0445 EDT FM Distr3Ct Office/Coordinator Investigator-In-Charge (lIC) MI-100 WASHINGTON D.C. TONY JAMES ROBERT L. PEARCE PRELIMINARY INFORMATION - SUBJECT TO CHANGE Pag. 3Congressioiiil Acho,i Program Paeonian Springs, Vetgmia VACCINATION MANDATE THREATENS FAMILY PLAN WOUlD REQUIRE ALL CHILDREN TO BE REGISTERED AT 11111111 AND TRACKED The Clinton AdminIstration Is leading a bi-partisan effort in the House and Senate lo Implement a one billion dollar program to vaccinate all children in the liS. tinder the Clinton proposal, children would be required to receive vaccinations at the lime of birth or shortly thereafter, but no later than age two. This proposal would create a nationwide racking sys*ein that would require all children lo be registered at birth In a centralized computer dacabank. The Coniprehensive Child Immunization Act IS.732 & S.7331 was introduced on April I, 1993. by Senator Ted Kennedy (D MA) and Senator Don Riegle (D-MI). The drafters of the bill worked closely with the Children’s Defense Fund In formulating the proposal. The House version of the bill 14k. 1640. was introduced by Congressman Henry Waxman (D-CA). Ai (ìrst glance, a proposal ror universal vaccination might scent like a very positive step foi Airterica’s children. The truth behind tite pro-immunization rhetoric is that the Clintots proposal would transfer the rcsponsibil ti for dic medical care of cbi4drei1ltrthe- _—šiñ.in Dr. Keith Powell told the National Center rot home Education that a primary goal of the bill was to create a registry with the capacity to do tracking and surveiliance. Regarding enforcement mechanisms against parents who withhold sorne vaccinations from their children. Powell stated that the Law would be designed so that 1f a child does not show up and get a vaccination, bells and whistles will go olf. VACCINES ARE CONTROVERSIAL A growi of hysicians aie ex ressing concern about various vaccination programs, be .ev’rng dial the harm done from them may be far more extensive than generally recognized. Physicians, parents and consumer interest groups have expressed reservations about many of the vaccines currently be’rng marketed. Genuine issues exist regarding vaccine efficacy and safety. Tbousands of children have been damaged by vaccines. Seizures, retardation and death are only a few of the many potential slde efrects. The NjdoiiatVecciacfoqptjonCnntcgjçclymnnounced that ,jL22jere reactlos* to vaines were rçporledjgLth&Pgod indJaagÅjnjúhratIõpdúiiirfÌ êwintyiionth period that ended In as Lynn Sherr ep1W2Õ1 EvasteJDAagIttItðuat adverse reactionsierarey rcp4. ¡a f4c the Ii)A’ estimatci thIÏ1*éi iba j9%f.4ocioirTapost .geactloastbiýliavc obw tsóìiii Vaccine] nation ProttraiWiìad paQeL.S249JflillIQtL dollio the families of thoeçzk,usly injured-or -kilIed-b-vaeeInes----. and was backTõjeUth nearly 4.000 unresolved cases, Currently (mdi staee aud federal laws acknowledge the dangers and risks of vaccination. Current federal law (PL 99-660) requires that parents indicate that they arc aware of die risks of vaccination through written materials mandatorily provided by doctors, rrthermore, tates allow for various exemptions, including those on philuzuhical. persona_jiJifl[jimr—’— ,/‘ TheWa tack of evidence that vaccines may be consistently ,/relled upon to conter Immunity. For example, the December 29. 1989 ( edition of the Morbidity and Mortality WeeAly Report, a U.S. “-Çovernment publication, indicated that measles outbreaks hat continue /10 occur among lOO percent vaccinated populations. In (act, of all ( reported cases of measles in the U.S. in 1984, more than 58 percent of the school age children were adequatcly vaccinated. Some studies even show tharr-vn’*n-,n.rbcàiorsJikvlyjo be contractedby rtise who are vaccinatesiagainstit ¿han byjljç,se who are left alo ne]) iwary of this ea the United &ates Court ãt Appeals for the Fourth ircint affirmed firs re Sabin) the right of seven Individîi1iitdren and adults, so recover niillions of oIlars in co.npctoiýiiainages for curthacgpio the sustained from polio - vacdne 6stcttewflijj cnacpwyçtl. by the federal iover nment. The Court found that For more than twenty years die U.S. government _....Jsad willfully and knowingly released baiches of polio vaccines which did not meet die government decbred regulatory specifications, thus jeopardizing the lives of untold thousands. Reprtr êoni the Centers rnfDiree CoMroi indicate that hundreds of others have contracted pojfrfrem ih ‘Ise vaccne Tg tetal also e,thdthiFsincrhr Introduction Ii 1963, dIe Uv, oral poiio vecrJmjjãfll,joiroI pÑl61ithils cnuniiEJn other wordx, the oral polio vaccine ii the cause of tue very disease k was designed to prevent. Despite the cpntroversat natijre of vaccines, t4 Comprehensive Chi1dI-xI hsiununization Act has no clearly specified £Ethlhi2UJLQiIl o:;ii,ilson vcjt,,n. FAILUR1 ‘fo VACCINATE MAY RESULT IN CI(ARGEŠS OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT There has been a growing movement amniìg child welfare authorities to equate non-vaccination with child abuse or neglect. The Clinton plan would have the effect of federalizing the mandate for universal v*ccinations, thus creating the presuntion that non. vaccination equals neglect. On the state level a number of parents have been found guilty of cutid neglect br withholding vaccinations from their dtikhen. On February 15, I 993, the Wall Street Journal reported that a New York judge ruled that Failure to immunize a pre.school child constitutes ciriki abuse. h, that case, the court found a father neglectM because he declined, for religious reasons, to allow his daughter Lo be vaccinated against measles. The judge reached this conclusion even though she specifically found that tite lather vu a diligent. loving and concerned parent in all other regards. Lii additioa lo child abuse charges, many parents have been June 1993hira.cscd by offieiiils lot nonvaccinall. one circumstance, alter a Miðdjeaown. Ohio worian whçse wo children were killed by the DPT vaçneiTiáviccl”ti lietsnly surviving dilld. u1flciaIsfr.!.j. Ohio b eat ?Jlltf t tðrrtærJij9dte,,Tlal ¡he must ‘vaccina THE CLINTON PROPOSAiS ,VrFACKS PARENTAL RIGhTS AND FAMILY PRIVACY If die Ch,itoii proposal hccotncs. law family peivacy would be jeopardized by the goveiiuneiit’s rcgtraiioai and survcillance of children The assuinpnon of tile proposal is that parents arc not making wise medical deckiwis for their children, therefore, health bureaucrats arid social workers niusi do ii br them, Another cuneerel Is that the bill would undermine dic docior/paiiciii privilege by requiring doctors to report their patients to the regisl.y (pientullY fur prosecution) where hic family lias chosen not lo vaccinale. The tracking and registration of children is part of Presideiii Clinton’s broader plan to record and track all personal health Inrornatlon throili ccinputer4lriked databases uskie the rniart card, a universal Identity card. Embedded in the pbstlc of the smart card Is a powerful Computer complete with a memory chip and microprocessor. Ira Magaziner, a Clinton Adniinisiration health care policy official, asserted that the Presideiit wants 1o create an integrated system with a card dial everyone will act at birlh (emphasis oursj. Under the Clinton National Inniunization Tracking System. every registered newborn child in America will be monitored through a national database linked to ocher database systems. The Kennedy bill includes provisions which specifically aniend the Privacy Act to allow government officials lo access private information Irvin the registry without the consent of the parent or individual. This access to registry infórmation provides antagonistic social workers and health officials with the tools to monitor ht home and to ellectively wield police power against those families who decide not lo cooperate. WHO CALLS THE SI 10Th? There is growhig concern that vaccine policy Is being determined by political and economic eapediency. The federal government’s push to vaccinate all American i_hìldrcn with the hepatitis B vaccine is just one example of medical policy being Formulated by special interct groups and financially niotivaird vaccine mitaiwlicturers. Il t Clinton proposal becomes law, all inisasjj!1Jæ.icquited to receive the hepatitis H vaccine 12 . though r1ipihiiTs vaccine is consI(ie.rcyuJlana4tfous-and-tdgtdy”- (Jaruaj. l93) reported tiat cóicc,ned that(aaiji be contaminated with • microo!ganbm resgrsili&for the AÏI1 í’icV&ine iéirjRoberv’ MCttlinted the fact diaT ihirtflil”iociors eligible for 4ie hepatitis B vaccine have refused lo take IL - ABer an extensive lobbying campaign by lie homosexual community bi persuade govermnent officials that il s the civic duty of every American to receive dus controversial vaccine, the Clinton Administration is moving forward with the requirement that all babies be subjected to the hepatitis B sisal, even though hepatitis B is a virus primarily contracted by prostitutes. intravenous drug users and homosexuaLs. The theory is thai when an inlamit grows up to be a homosexual, a junkie or a niciuber of another high risk category, he won’t have to worry about contracting hepatitis H. Barbara Loe Fisher, author uf DP1 A Shot In the Dark, and a former Reagan Administration appointee to due National Vaccine Advisory Committee gave this shocking testimony: in 1990. when the committee discussed the hepatitis B vaccine. I asked a vaccine researcher employed by the Centers for Disease Control if a large study had ever been done In America la prove the effectiveness and safety of giving hepatitis b along with DPI’. OPVB and IliB ai one time to every healthy two-mor,duold American infant. The researcher admitted dial no study had been conducted. . . . In effect, American children are participating is a national vaccine experiment every time a pew vaccine Is produced and added to Uwtiilsflj vaccine schedule.’ The facts behind the approval of bepJIiis B are alarming. The homosexual comniunuty was demanding a vaccine to treat their high risk behavior. Time drug manufacturers could not recoup their profits without ¡nasa distribution of the vaccine. The only way to masa distrihine a hepatitis B vaccine (and thus guarantee profitabihit to the sanufaciurers) was to pressure pohcym.akers lo require that every child receive ii. The issue seems clear: Should parents be coerced to subject heir deildren to the tirks of time controversial and puenria)ly dangerous hepatitis B vaccine just lo satisfy the demands of the sodomites so they can continue their own hsealut-jeopardizitig behavior? On a fundamental level the questions is this: Who should be calling the shots, loving parents or politically comproniised government oFficials’ AC’I’ION Urgeiitly Needed: Write your Iwo U.S. Senators and your US. Congressional Representative now, Letters should be addressed: . The Honorable (first name) (last name) U.S. Senate (or U.S. house of Representatives) Washington, DC 20510 Dear Senator (last name): or Dear Representative (last name): Please OPPOSE Ike Comprehensive Child Immunization Act and all similar legislation: (J) li is an invasion of privacy. and (2) 1, restricts the right of parents lo err riche their responsibility so make jilormed medical decisions on behalf of their children. The safety and effecliveisess of particular vaccines Is a malter of much debate. As parents we are concerned about the health of our children, and as citizens we are opposed lo the loss of freedonss titis proposal would require. This kind of policy should be left up to the states. (This b sample bngisaje o.iy. UWuc this tifonnadon and pus in your own wants. A short lester bbenertha.nok&ratalt. liii best so llmityourlceer lo uou page. 1f you home ichoot, vote your helter sa a parent, not ‘s a home Schooler.) The names of your U,S. Senators and Representative should be available from: local librasy. local paper, county registrar of voters, or Federal Government Section in white pages of the telephone book. The general telephone I for U.S Senauxs Representatives: (202) 224-3121. ADDITIONAL ACTION: Please use the imfomsation in ibis paper to write a letter to the editor of your local newspaper, warning of the dangers of the Clinton plan. This spiat rqoft was pr quint by Douglas Phillips, Dbrctcr et b.c C.ngrnri Antes Prqrem. PO, Bo 125 Pseisnisu SrIng,‚ VI 2212,, Perretukin j vi rqws* ibis rqon Ii is, coiI.ey.

    L %%. L : ... mn’ ‘ , •I• 1 . ::,‘‘ I.W. lehh r •I..P ,‘.I • Ir.’ •1—r•.. i ver. r,-.iø.L ks f,,rÇ,hr ,..‘ •,b1 l’e It \.‘i’..’. •• lv’t hint n, u • ni. orth made plans to call martial law y A1JONSOCHAIY - dent R,i& Nati.nal Sed. WASHINGTON — LL. CoL itv C.eneI 01ie Nni1h • wall1 biu de. ¡914 1. ám9 recest I.i.t the tJrài0E Sit.m in et. cl a. , Nt,..bet. .__i1,ncy.a.inniIP° ,‘ b.g,n lang- by tien Aur.ey Gfit Vi). iwseted Cccli- lb. Fr.neh Smith. actonihal i’ ioiiv _____ leloce the Sen Tb’ u mitad foe en- .te and Hou.. jjd-die . . oed 0E eh. ,-..t — t. the bitie-heona F.dw.j t• L wve p t. eh. •epicy Man.a°1 AgencY. hve thet h. .tp.ctid w deew _________ cl 11%oey oeenmniid- th . icy demon et. ir em t. ‘en dale and I• oeoen• the heh ).wW’ to uw0Ee’ U.S .nt. and ib. doeb.CbOo of ow- aepgt.i el the Nera,a.oan Cive’. ,eb4. t. the NSf’. whet, North _ nuci’t. w. violat. and elite- cpmin Tha. L*owc -en.. “we qemd ¡rccl drit t. .aua.el few e.’d* he. tb daceen ____ w.U ewe 00 ahead. ‘ThØ the t of the $Oey InweLIgliotI now believe that abet r,,eá w who). wiac goc Item 1913 w 1916 NartW. cElte. e,nentwithi0” goernWieflI, j. the Old Ea.cwwe OEl’,c, $t.id- opmad Item ihe FAect$sve 015cv wig a1 to tie. Whe. Ih.e. Buáldutd by. lieuielea’It coloneL. ow the i1 0E .iio ,1 w*h et. ¿en a,my. w (oem. dipi’ ritCne .red io foe moto Uve .ai.C apnts. •nt.Il.iten(e 9?Ie- 1h. eh. of ana. w loen and Ut. uve ato 1ppeopfldimt. fiveh.4 of ib. udrT ow in Lema. wem. . Nan,wI. North bette.d droll Uie pla. tn North’ influence .ithiR the impem .iariial le. .4w). oervent dJt1T et. go get.t. the a. the PS b.a1 t. FVMA. ne atnilem mid. the he w. ab). to esaoJU ageemy ..ib reepoei.bd hew, the orbit.. of ..phe.tlcaeed lay he lite gewaneme enege t.AioI œt.Lve .heed w loi- of iwttoto c’en law Sowl PlaIe mooed the wetid. Alumodil the pian. Attorney toi kw the Iminliewig 0E b1-flytN Geewiol Smith duip.Utiid a better ipy ewca.lt on wan eoew over to William McFatLt.ie, No.1k’ Õbi and Newag and beaime NSC hem et the tema- Th Aug involved jn gennilve 40.mtic 2. 1914. laGer e.w.d (w Uet FLMA ea. .*ablt.hán( Soma 0E R’. cb frw’h. a. OCY i .nd .Aveete. )IKIUÒLSI lot..’ I bellave Ui.t Ut. re). ,e.ti’eeil eo.uflty adriel Williaat to FI4A j. the ,ei £.oe,U.e Clash, th. late CIA DUPcWr Wil. Ordac isaiah eta proper legectiov lb. Catey end Aflt. Gereed . . cao.dIsiSl’( ency ft. emt Edwin Mema, w,,. peri of ebel pewy p v.11w.” Smith wrt*e t.cel Jsctit.e. ai depertowil atid etlen to ieveld eomge,uflhI jilvetig’- .ep.aiadly ‚.ied t.na peihcy end toe. and ,. -omen’ o15ah. .4.0 lagn) objecUore w tite cemue. roleated the jn(œmateon .. ii’. an ‘eatergeOCT cut’ tole for cv.i iiiey amen yen North t involvement i• s pro The œALifl(?flCV plaie ow to r.4cilly alta? Amentas’ written a. pari .1 ea. gowlnimef* by e*eil,bce oeder ii order o. Legislative p.cbege I let • teme 0E cow e evidarda the be Riega. wmald migo asid hold within wa. involved ¡n a wit. range of the NSC ultil p.h hate t. aat.efv •‘t e(tIVitiS, loreign and cow e. ait ,,NtiOn &9- doevetic. (at beyond the tian-Con ciel end. k u ten hnoen witethoer t,. mai. accoedleig wti, cfftah.. Reagan mignad th. plan Atibo. Lema.. the duel cocee Oit. cai*.Jied loi 1hs. alU eel el the Seems Iem-Cantrs am- cta - .veohetw of tit. CIA. S’oie atJLt*. ht. dictated ,. an unie. (pettI asid Pentagon — l.d .oiheNmtw. tiwy do not l’ove .ÑU tenet vin center of whit maounted to. of the a.Clei governinent “aeciet g...i.t.et-tthLn- The White Noei 1w ,e1irt.d Limace notiCie el s North. • iti enm1w cf Pimi- goqrtatent (W ir zI= — C — (p o A 1%;.,’ iA tu I’ .‘.. — ,AIl.’i Nfl •n.IV n-’t, 1t.t-n ..,,. ‘t.--:. •I ‘‘t ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ pat n .mlwdei iln. ..., fl’’i”’’ boa.’ vi4 SImulen later. It. aril% .1.’ iied the I’4i? mie.š wmme e.’ .ir.i1% Ci’ .-n’ rlos ,.I)l i I’ lt.,Ar.) U’ rire ihir. cje .1 ; .‘ ‚z: ‘ — te z. I L1 _ r 2,. e -‘ — v-w I!’, N: L e’ -.. ‘n. ‘a ‘- C (. .. o> t--4 Ox 0cc C) cn CIIQ G) -I. •0 -I> o> rl a 4 4 w II L. _ ‘_i_.i. .‘.. w (nI -<‘at Kind of Counterfeiting Operation the Government is Running” me.. pu — —. , I I ___ — — — — , ___ Conrz at tt,r nfteb taLt at iepreieutatzr C”. ‘ — ‘ 20515 “ “a O,.. ‘ p... .— I,’.. AugUst 27. 1979 St. Louis, Mo. 61.29 Dear Mr. Thank you for your letter of August 20 and eli. enclosed copy of yøur letter to Mr. Velk.r. Strictly speaking, it probably is not n.cessary for the federal government to tax anyone directlyr it could simply print the ney it needs. However, that would b. too bold a stroke, for it would then b. ob vious te aU what kind of counterfeiting operation the goverient is running. Tb. present systes cosbining taxation and inflation Jtip to watering the silk: too much water and the pople catch on. Sincerely. Ron Paul Mb.r of Congress /1-ç-.,7’21076 with the workers or they look Ut. vijueit of half meniuree agahtst tee. Øolal sources eventually listed some 44 kWed nd 270 wounded. Mr. Speaker. on this cominemoroUv. dey. I went to lake the opp rtentty to salute our American olUseni oC PoUah aeecenl end pray that the courage of their brothere *nd alitera icrem lb. - wUl ¡oca be rewarded with freedom end true self -detenninatlon. CLEAN AlP. DEBATE HON. JOHN Y. McCOLUSTER IN TN flOUSE OP aZPae.EAT1V Moadaìj, Jw U. 1114 Mr. McCOLLISTZR. Mr. Speiher. the House wUl have b.fon It within a month. the long-awaited Clean Air Act amend menti. There u. mens eartcue and ig uWcaal policy question., which this bUl must resolve. One of the most ierloui, but relatively tuipublicleed. lithe question of pt..int lug the anticipated aatieoeepetitive and auticonsumer Impact of the performance warranty provided In the 1510 act but never Implemented. Our House all Euslneis Committ.e. In 1914. recommended reducing the length of this warisn from 5 yen to L year. The Interstate end Forelen Com merce Committee unanimondy accepted en 1$-month wasrasay—the oceepaceels. worked out tu the subcommittee. Two experienced end tboughUul re porn of eveate In our Capitel CIb. Jerald terRoret ‘ad Darwin Olotson. have made the performance warrsD qucatlon the topic of recent newe stone. Becaus. they provide e ueoCul Insight ta undenitanding Ibis problem. Jim tooled lug them In the Racose at this point: (Prom 1h. luSday News. lay 10. t•?il N*ae. fir&ws H ou mai A De.*v. (T 1.?. teroriI) W*aiuKcrOw—WhUe public citeetia. Ii b.iog div,rt.d b7 the poUtimi eneg Over the presIienUaI petmaflie. the i. Seen). h abOut t. begin 00cr l.be)e o th .walbed .Ole.u Alt Aeeeadæeet. of 1flL That could bare mor .ei on alt w breathe. the place. we won and the meeny we apead than almost aaythlag aise the lea at. aid the Whit. Reuse e.ndMat.e have .114 and dou. iii yet. tri e pity the eahheg C’ean W Act .t 1?O has Dot curbed the noEcus emleaee. 5105g Lb. camp.45 icell. Lad, t. Suare WI oe.. tI le I pity thai oc prosiSeetlal eplnai ta making e big Ie. of the p. ..,..ssd change. In the elx-y.er-ald law that wee adopted U the mains tar cleening up the natIon’. e2 15. .54 of the deoade. Nearly a year bu gene Into the ehaping of the ..manaments that vID be cOened by the Oenate Public Works Committee. As Co,54cuei Quirterly obeervid. e,eny step along the way hes been monitored by a sEcu army of lobbytab r.preeeutlng enetlonmon talleta. consumer groupe. the hectic aloi. hes, ta. ca. steel end chemleal laiustiee. Dtlott’. cuto mahees cad ¡ocal ial euh government.. Two me»r .oaIro,liaie. wILl be up ter uagmaat. One Involves what ought lo be done So preen’. unepoll.d pert. of iba EXTENSIONS OF REMARKS June 28, 1976 caunti.y against Lduatri51 ee.oke alud geee FIQ.ui Uuc Omaha (N.he.) Morning world. Anothor balU. vID be fought over ube eut altead. Jus. V. hill oceepenlee’ e(ont. to lower the etenard$ for ¡.jçj ¡si ¡V AOVO Liv vehiel. .mlm$oos. lesk et thee. .ltufll.. Ond euwUonmentei and consumer organmo- w.aauscvose..—pw,uniing oelielguce Ut.i Uom. en one elle and the buetaws oceaseuiti- from hie amend. s on the other. mea: to reduce me warranty on pauutioa 1.1 oae facet of the .uto-emlmloaa conuo- control sytieme 0500w ca.. ha. beec a moet veney eltibae me ai Intriguing heCaliI t— f ruetaung erlece, .eamtog to Rep betel. lineup Is dalenut. eves unusual. are consumer champions ta oppoenlon to his .mendm.ct. which has been ap eaih other, th. auto maker, ar .eeeatlaflP peoved by a Hone. oommt*e., b now belAg neutral and eamo very potent baIDeU groupe puietad b7 a cf senalore. edLog actually ar pecug the cauee of “the Senese. D-Tee.. ial Philip Rent. D- lithe gin’.” along with lndr own. I am r.ðent.g t. the amendment to be z wout. tower the emiloa control eyelets o(ered by lee. Ucyd ¡ataea. D-Tee., 10 wa.vaaly tram iv. yeas. eni eo,coo mu.. to reduce the performance warmly 0e pella- ,oo mn Un-cots.l .yeloeae on new ce., from See Ralph Wader lad a coalition of .ovlrou years 50.000 mue, to ti month. aed tto view It 14.000 as .au.ccner legislation that would cree On the surface, that idee banda ha. in pramare on am maZes.. e.nU-e.ee move by a pretnetnee See’- no .--t has been hard lo Sell. Me ter. And that Is what Ralph Nader ead the coalaler eae. ‘enoee it give. ta. impte. Neuoial Oleen Alt Coalition of r.ieœled .mo of tazt. .omauucg away from the coo. enviroameataJ and conium.v oiganhieUe00 sumar. thinks about It. ‘Xi baa bee. e moea tru.ti’sting heperle tice ¡ut then pou fol a pcooonsumœ liberal crying to .wpiain that it tmI eking icre. ka. le.. Philip A. Hart. D-hieS. md Otalti thing 1,04’, 15e )wtee he ella, LIned as œ-qome, he Rea pise. “This bedy leek se mueS with sppeerr lure. And you dcl It bu etaunch euppori tram aid se mue with eubemooe’ be added. the ‘ir”ent into-pert. tc-4se. Ib. UcCoilistar sell uaaœ the In-leer. 50.000’ ocras, ges .tetlo@ owee, end 15. big Atalo- mOe waiv.aq am coasro would be forced motive SereIn tidy AmoInuen. Aid t. bave repeis. date by leales. Lo proteo: suddenly il Ii oc longer ee.y to diatIaguIch their weiveatam. the good guy. from the bed ,uy.. 1501 oily would that hevo en maticomp.tl ‘——-—t mg. —a-—l— and pert. liv. olnd ha-p—-4.01 repairmen and manufacturen contend that the ‘e—ir war. service eIet. he mid, but It would leAn, ranly now on the boot. ‘10, ¡t put lato the •wast eIR ne freedom of chum. elect b7 isetronmeat P,etocuon agomy, “We’re provenbag the frou be prevent tame from r.peuing oa md taut. tal pIned t. the Icheilt pol)ee of not until ihsy am Ive poet, old on have 10.300 beIng able to lob. hie auto whre he vanta idle. oc them. ‘The Asglom AuobSe to bfl ti 1mO.” Aidataou gmo the ezisuag law would To pelle.) 15es lee-year wirranty, be said, preeueany toree mr ovair, t a.,, en eu owume ld be reluctant to eD to ma i—oft, sad en*nveaa—e done by new am talipiw’t repairman toe almoet ley or risk voiding thai, warreahee, repone. Ibas itaibce ¡mateen end Hot t — intl. omeaseer. Il limita a motorist’. ehiuty to chloe. e repairmen cf his own. ti oler. Sb. THE )4U41(EIOTA 1DOR8NT Debut muto maker. e oompchtive dge over OP THE DÅRATtON OP IN 15. whote muto repair merbel end 15*5 thne*eea the tutus, etasteace of the 400.000 _______ nge.. eœvise Uom earn •tbi who now perform eou: 10 pero..: or HON. DONALD M. FRASER te ripaIs. to Ate.’. 121 mUflen e.N iii or trucha UI THE RO OP RR$TATiV Nader and 5h. coesumcr.unvtrenmetml coimee omt tau tam is an,tomlZeð. Mow4q, Jane 21. 111f Th own fear ta that an tameria Mr. PRA... Mr. Speeki”, Largely the ‘1-lo- warmly would mm the psoe- of eut, e. am aIn. foe quality e—’ loa— unis. 15*1 el counter the pe-nte of . the MInria,4 Endorsement of -ls-ir werteaty mmodmeet, anse Detroit the Declaration of Interdependence Ii 1 mill will have to build —‘rmvo d..eleee te e reality. “I-IC’ ¡modeM provided ta the production ptjblldty -- ageudud Henry wmvveas, end sol elected by changing the aIea. Coger’s eort so that It la im perf0fe.eiCe welTinty. necry for me to further Identity the My teeUng on tbu upcomIng asease baille Delaratlon at Interdependence. How- is that Nader ought to Ice. eel your varas, I would USe to Introduce the text repairman aboula w Potty mUhon ocre and trust. bave been built aine. the Cima of the declaration Into the Rzcore at Al, Ait we.: Into elect In 1170. At the rate thu point: of nis million veblelse a year, thoee ooeered A D(CLåaITIOIV or lvvLaw’e,ceaHrv by the ecl coon will cor,pni.e most cire and (Ry iteel. Commag.r) tnicb. on the When ta She eslure. of bistocy lb. Ibreel Thor, is so good reeaoo why the cuto of egUcUc confronts mankind. Ii I. ne. makere should be glees e prmp.duv, mosop- •n’ toe the peopl. cf Th Untied state. ely over the auto --- lo declare their Interdependence wIth the And il is Ot Ph7eulX enibie for th. people of eU ahos. end to ombrae those 55.000 see-vet demies. to bsndl. au he pe’—tp’— and baUd those InstItutions whIch .oey$oe and maintonanc. ‘ will s.abIe mankind SO survie, end cIviliU Moneo’er. It the cet buyer Is going to here SO pay mn intro 000 or e.oi ou a new e.t Two consultes ago our foretmthers brought for the maaufaclhwirb tree “e—ir war- beth a new nel now we mill join with reaty, the roer from American motorists may others te Whug forth m new world ordet. 0e even ebak. up thee. pre.L4.nIIel candidate. taie ainorte c”roalon It le proper thai the who eaaiot seem to lid speclic lile. to Americas peepS. abould reemrm those prie” talk about. And Il should. ciptos on whIch the (!nited Stat.. of Amir-,,June 28, 1976 )a wee founded.. acknowledge Lbs new cnom which contrent thom. accept lb. Dew obliga flcc. which hlaioe7 lmpo... upon them. tad ..: torta h• eau... which Lmpel them to e,m before eli peoplee their Commitment e Declaration at ttardsp.D4SLOC. W. hold this. vutha 10 he mU-evident: thhL all men Ir. created equal: that lbs in .quellum end LnJuItiCs. which askS so much of be human reo. are b. prodUct of h1510r7 and eoci.t7. net et God or nature: tant peopil eear7wheTe ire entitled to b. bleminga et Llt• and Iit7. peace and se curity and lb. real LentLon 01 thaI? nui petan- liai: that they ha,. en •‘.ble morel obIigeUOD 10 preenwe those righia fer po. tarity and thiS 10 achl•Ve thom cadi eU the people and naIleD, et the ØObe should achnowl.dge theIr intmdqiendeoci and )oln together lo dadlonle their minds and their haute to the ealutloC of tame problems which threetta their survival. To etabuab e new world order et nom passion. pe.or. Jtietice tad security, it lele eentW that manhind (r.. limit from b. limitatleni 01 national pre3udLce. end te kaowleds that lbs farce. thai unite It are Incomparably deeper than the.. that divide tb—that all people are part of on. glohel community. dependent ea one body et r. .n,uFe.a, bound topelber by the tIm Ct I mm’n humanity and iomctat.d la a eme. moo .d,saitn’e ou the planes Zerth Les ne than Join together to vtdlcete and T511im thu greet truth that ‘-“d le one, and as ene will nobly ee or ¡me the heritage et thoumade of yenre at ,IlleItton. And ial ne set heth the pija niplee which should animate tad inspire ne 11 our cllIIZIL)ea Is 10 awviv.. We er that ib. rmeiweee Ct tal globe u darte. net lAnli.. that they ers the barnage of no one nanan or gee.rauon. bat of all people.. Debe. and of pe.tty. md that om’ deap oblIgStioD Is so treaat to that posterity • planet richer ta material bounty. la bleuiT end te delight than we found It. Narrow Dotions of ne’ aeeer .ty mum not be permitted to eurisU that obilgeiton We effirm that the eapleitetson of the poor by the rich, and th. wash b7 th IWva( violaim our humanity and dmic se larga ..gmenis of society the biiIngs et lita. liberty and happlame. We recognim a morel obligation to strive toe amers Pea- dent and mer. equitable sharing oC 1h. es .ourcis et ta. .erth In order to emailœe.• po,arty. hupr end dlama.. We affirm that the rasourcee Ct natura ass mfflent to notuish and ataln afl th present Inhabisanle et Iba gioba and IbaS there I. an obllgeUon en every eoClsty to dle. tribute thcee rmoln’c.i equltebty. along with a corollary obligation upon .earý aetsety to maira that lia population dom not place apeo Natura s bardan hastier than li can bear. W. affirm our reqonsiblh*ty he help cr.te conditions which will mska he paso. mad security and to build mors edecilve macbit ery tot keeping pase. among lb. nations. 3.ceu.e Iba ins.nmie accumulation et DU Clear, chemical end teelngtcal weapum thraetanx the Survival et we oeil fer the Immediate reduction and eventual etiminatson et thom w.epoa. uad.r interna henal eupervIs1oD ‘a. depicts Ib. reliance on terce to cutis dienutas b.twee naIleD matee and between rival groupa Within sueb slate.. We affirm that the oceans ate the common property et mankInd whose dependence en th.ir Incompirebie rasources of aourtahmmt and strength will, In Iba next century. be come crucial for human survival. d that their exploitation should be eo riglilated a. to serve the intereeta of th. entire globe. and of future generatIon... W. affirm that pollutioli doa with the Wr.eF: ar.d lles With hit .l’ta. thit It Lev— EXTENSIONS OF REMARKS oqniz.s no boundary lines end p.oetitt.. all defense.. that it worU Irreparable dam age aithe to Nature ed 10 Maakind—4hzson- suing with extincliel the life et Sb. e.u. the tora end telina et the earth, th health of the people in ciLle. and the Counuytede alike—and that ti can be adequately con trotad only through International pma tien. We effirea that the exploration end uuje tien of outer specs Is e malter squally tm ponant to all 1h. nattent el the globe mad this no nation can be permitted to tolI or develop the poteottalltl., at 1h. planetary ey.tom seclusively tar Ita own benedt. We affirm that the economy cC all nations Is s eeemieae web. and that to one nation can may longer .ilectlvely maLnlain Ito pro. asese et production and monetary aeaemo without recogninlag the aeolty ter ooi abortIve regulation by International au- thoriilas. We affir.. that la e cI,IlImd .oci.ty. th Institutions of aclece and lb. aria at. never el war end call upoa all nattons to exempt thase InstibitioDe (Tom the claims of cba vinietic nlii an4 to teeter t greet Community of leerniagnd a’seuvlty mime benign function It Is te advance civilisation and the health and heppiama of maDhind. We afflr ta.g e world Without law la e 1d without cider. and we call upen ail —ti te sirsngthon and to sustain the Vhited NationS end Ile sp.ciaiimd eg.ncim. and other Itittios et world order. and tø broaden the Ju,ietlction of the World Court. that these may prmlde over a reign et law that will not only, end were but end u well that miania violence which terrœmaee our moiety msa ta tim.. at peace. ma no longer abed to mak. Ilttl• piton, allow oumeivea to b. the captive. et ciwain end tatou over which we have ne macrot. co1iS our fear, rather then hopas. We mil upon the Ameete.a people. on the ibmabold of th. third century of theIr national teaoe. to display one. ln lb_at boldnsm. ecpriaa. magty and vimea which enabled Iba toaad. et our epublIe to being tarta a new Dation and Inaugura.. a new era In human hIs7. Ta. tata et humanity baage It the balano. Thtough out the globe. bears and hopas watt apeo W. summon au ho unit. to mast ta. graos cb.elienge Th Minnesota ecdoruement Is simply the.t—itrona support and eaÓoneat of th Declaration of Interdependence b the poLitical leaders of the 8tate: the Gos artier and Lieutenant Governor, the majority, and minority leader, of both Houses of the State legislature and the ornuv-anal officers of the Stais. In addition, a group of 7inn.,otafl5 Including the chief justice of the Min. neoota Supreme Court. both U.S. Sena tor.. the leaders of both major pollitos] parties and other Important citizen.., aommended, In a further endorsement, the State officials (or leading their names to the project. Mr. Elling has done a magnl&.nt Job. In thIs 200th year of eut Independence. the Declaration or Interdependence Ii an appropriate BIcentennIal document. affirming, among other things, those principles upon which the United States was founded end recognizing the new crises that contrant us. The Minnesota endorsement follows THe MIItNese’ra ..oastistiiv or rue Drcu.AaaTtos 0, !MTttDWðDCI R.ooqnlzlng the urgent Deed to move •he..d with thIs Rtentonntal Project. end P’u’rt-her recognizing MIneeOta. leader %fllp rule III proniotlog World ClttensI,uip wlIh lie fir’.: fuste Declir:ihloiu. 21077 Be It remind thaI It is appropriai. and fitting for this grail atata to aber ItrOiig support and endorsement of Tola Declara. u.n of lalardepead.nc.. a. is further risolved that a. e S7lab4 et our support foe thIs Declaration, es con-’ unge to proudly display lb. United Nations flag with ta. United Stales flag at tile Stat. Copilot. PInaUy. we urg. the leadership of eli other ataim to take similar lettOn. ecttve Law Dey. May 1. 1576. Wendell L Anderson. QOtsrw, State of Minnesota. Nichead D. Coleman. Senate Majority Leader. Robert O. Aahb,ch, tmate Itinerily Leedor. ¡1m Lord. Slate ‘ftassursr. Rudy Porpiab, La. Oo’œaor Martin O. Bebo. œAer of the Houa., ¡can Grove, Secretary of Stale. WeiTsa 5p-—..m. AItotey General. lye Anderson. boum Majority Leader. b7 J. Ie,eikoul. bone. Minority Leader. oberl W. Metimm, State Auditor. We. 1h. undersigned, commend ta. Stat. Qffl.41. tar Ibis endorsement at The Declara tion et Interdependence. We w. other etas ou, nation and other nations 10 fol low taie emmple, Which la e ,elus.bis step la building e World Community et Peace Under Jim Law: Don Pr..or. Member of aengreel. / rlee N. fflecum. Chairman. Lndspend. V sataapule et Mina. bel D. Œetg. ¡r.. d.nt, tiple. Urban George O. Maetor, Pnddeat. Mina. State ,., _a. T. ii. RiOht. Primdeat. World PedareUsts Meen Robert R. Rumphrey. US. Sanalor. V nd Roe. Prmident, Mina. ÅPL-CIO. Robert 3. œaa, Colat Justice, Mina. Su JIITY Jenkins. Preddeet. League of Women Voten. John R. Roach, ArchbIshop of Wrin.apolit b St. PauL Walter ?. dele. U.S. Senator. V Rick Scott. bmen. Mina DPI. Pasty. , å. C. ‘—“ Jr. Beec. Director. Klan. CouncIl of Churchea. C. Peter Magrath. Prstiaont. University of Das John Edi.. Pretident. UNA et Mina. TWO HVNDR TEARS AGO TODAY HON. CHARLE E. WIGQNS 07 CaLcrV,JrTa IN TRR ROUIR OP RmESEN’TAT!VS Monday, June 21. 176 Mr. WIOO(8. Mr. 8peahe, 200 yearn , on July’ 1, 177e, the Continental Congress began the formal debate over declaring Independence frein Great Brit ain. Th. Maryland dalogetion declared that their cartier ibstyuctions forbidding them to vote for Independence had been superseded, and they’ were now prepared Lo vote for Independence. Their new In striætlons reed In part: ¡ Depuuee el tal. Colony. etIen4ui lii Congrees, or e Majority of them or of ani three or more of them. are authonsad and empowered to concur with be other UnIted Colonias or a Majority of them. ta dacia,. lag the UnIted Colonie, free end independ mt States .. During the same debate, the New York delegation rend a letter f rom lt colony21076 with th. workers or they took the vagucel of half mesmires against them. Osta! ‘ources eventually listed some 41 kIlled 2nd 210 wounded. Mr. Speaker, on this commoraUvi day. I want to take the opportimity to salute our American clthwg at Pouah cecent and pisy that the ccw of their brothers and elates aeroes the ai will soon b. rewarded with freedœi and true self-del ntnatkm. CLEAN AW. DEBATE HON. JOHN Y. MCCOWSTER er IN THC DOUSU OP DZPP.UITATWfl Mondmij. Jap..• 21. flU Mr. McCOLLIFER. Mr. 8peakei, the Rouse will have before IL within a month. the long-awaited Clean Air Act ind mente. There are many serious and s nificeat policy quesuons whleh th bill must resolve. One of the most serious, but relativ* unpubbclged. is the question of pawent Ing the anticipated aatlocenp.Utiv. and anticonaumer inipect of the perlormanœ warranty provided In th. 1t70 act but never Implemented. Our House iall Buali Cjgtee, In 1174. rerommåniqd rr”tng the length of this warranty frem 5 years te 1 year. The Interstate and Porelgu Caen— mero. Committee unacimonsly ecceptad an IS-mouth warranty—tb. compremIm worked out In the subcommittee. Two experienced and tbcughtfuj re porters of events In our Cepttsl ty. Jerald terRant and Darwin Olatsen. have made the pentozmauo. warranty question the topic of recent news stories. Because they provide a useful Insight In understanding thi, problem, I mm heclud— lug them In the Recome at thic point: (Prim lb. Sunday Slew,. May 10, iIJ Nsott I?elb arr ow ‘VLe.a As” Desees (Dy J.?. t.,aorst) WammuwovOle—Whil. pabilo attention le being d.ivertId by the pittuesi emog Q Ibm pr..ld.nLteI tmanIca tb UI. liaste h .bout So bigla Soer debate en ta awaited ‘Ch.aa Mr Am.o4soentm .5 1171.” Thai could have u.u on ta. sir w brethi, the place. we wait sad b. money we ipead than olmoet anything .le. the lin a’. and 1h. White Itouso candidal. hay. maid sad don, ill year. ¡Vs a pity the uxteleng Œem Air Mt.5 tiro h. act curbed lb. nouion, .moea along the camp.*n trail. And.. to turn meet cus. Il Is a pity that no pre.IlinUal aspirant I. maetng o big lieu. et m peopoa.4 changes la ta. six-year-old law that Wa. adopl.d a. be e..sas toe dmeiog up lai nattons air by ta. met the 4ca4.. Nearly o year hmm gone toto the ap*ng it the ameodmonte thai will be oSer.4 by th least. Public Woitm Committee As Ooogrendonal Quarterly observed, every step along th way hes ben monitored by a .usu army et labbyiste repreamotang .netemmon talist.. ooneumer coup.. th electric utili ties. the eel. be.l end chemical Industrie.. D.trolt. muto cookers mod local end 5t. goeeruacsntm. Two majo, coatroverilo. Will be up tot jucgai.nl. O.. Invølv what ought to b. Cone to pre.e.v. unspoiled pule of the EXTENSIONS OF KEMARIÇ5 cousisy Igalact l*diamtrlai ¡mob. and ga,e Another buiste will be fought over ta. auk companies’ mIcela to lower thi .landarCs for ‘taint. mmisstomm. lita of the.. muita_gic Sad enetroninatal end caa.flie.r organisa tion, ca one mide mad the bttsa Stem on the other. T.: on. t.n.t et the auto-eielmion congio v.rsy miglaie mm se Intriguing b.uaume 1h. balise tineup Is dIlamni. .mo unueusl. There are ‘me, .‘4Oai la oppomitina to each other. the auto maker, or. einnUally neutral inC soma ugy potent builnee. coup. actually are promoung ibe eau.. of “the utu. guy.” miong with their own. X am referrIng to the emmodarent to be ofered by l.a. Ucyd 3.atmeo. O-Tu.. $0 ruluoe the performance wanwnty on poIlu Uon-.ontral .,rle on new oses trim 5v. year. and 10.000 mli.. to ti montha and ¡L000 tu On the ufece. that Idee sounds lib, an anUeamœ mov, b7 o prebusioma .ens toe. And laSt Is what Ralpa Nader and ta. Nailocal Clean Air Colilllo of .ieo,Sod .attroammvla and consumer organiontioce laina. about It. Dut then you lad a pre.onmtee liberal lIke lea. Philip A. Dirt. 0-Mich.. and others U.t.4 as co-sp--..., et the linterna plan. And you lad Il be. etaunch support tices the Independent aulo-porte oompani. the coiner 5m mitten owner and the big Aulo- matte. lerttee Induelay Aoclouion. And iy It le no longer easy to dimttagu lb, good guy, tram had guy.. Independent garage mi—’ sad perse maou.tac$wers centeid that the’S—ID” wee- rant? now on ib, boche will, If put tato ect by 1h. ZavLronmmat Protection AImaIT. prevent them tram repairIng ear. and tru untu they ai, Ive rear. old ce have 50,000 mike en thee. The Amif loin Autemobile Amoelateon argue. ib. elostlag kw wild pteotlcally tore. oar owner, to have all repois, and malateasno. done by now car dealer, or risk voidIng iheir wmaUes. That iafles Dentela maC Dart le anti. coasamer. 1$ Umitm a motorist’. ablllty to secam a repairman et bis own. 11 osen la D.treit auto maken o cocap.tet$v. edge over the whole auto repli, marhet and that %haeaiece th futur. eustence of be 400,000 Independeol garages. eœvlee .tmUcas mad other, who now perform about 50 pereentet Sb. repair. to Amœtca 1 million car. sad under and tb eoasumer.en,$ionmontli coalition con Ibis fe., is unfoetiled. lbetr own tear le that may tempering with lb. ‘I-10” warvanty would ea.. ta pese sure on ear maker. for quaUt7 emlnd con trois. Slot em. counter thi proponefliset the tS.4I” warranty ameadm.nt. since DetroIt tU1 will have to build ecokeon devicem to a 5.W mtaaCstd provided l.a the production warranty lad not heated by changIng the performance warranty. ley feeling on this upcoming Senate battle le that Nader ott to lam end your oot’nœ repairman ehoald Win. Forty million cali sad tenca. bave been built mince the Clean Air Act t Into efect In 1510. M th rat. oc rda. ielllioa vehicles a year. tilo.. covered by the act moon wtii comprise maui oir. arid truche on U,. r There h no good reason why the cute inabeti Ibottla be given a proepective esonop.. oly over the auto parto and repair busl And it Is ami pby.ieelly pbie tee Sb. 55,000 new-caz dealers lo handl, eU the .erice and maintenance work. Moreover, It the ear buy te golnj t. have to pay an mitre 100 ir cocee on a new oar for lb. manufe.twer’I t,w. “I-4m’ war ranty, e toar from AmerIcen motorist. may e.ma chub. isp thoee presidential aan54ates who cannot imam to tad ipecific tames to talk about. And Ii .howd. Juiae 28, 1976 Il’o’ lie Omaha (Nebe,) Morning Wvet. lierald, June?. 19711 JZcV’44.I,ru “PlyItasom’ 3V Aovo Lå WasJuriflow,.—.Pifsuadfo4 ooIleigties that consmmees wmjd bea,de from his amend ment I. reduce the warranty on pcituUen control systeam on new caz, hie bien “a t tru.RetIng eepeetesc.,” acccrdlng to Dep. Jcbn te000Iibe.r. lui his amendment, Which bOa been ap proved by a Boumm coemilt.., is now being pteð by a proup of aenalor,, Iriolath Uoyd bantam, D-Tu.. and Philip Dart. D- ti would lower ib. .mìsslau coOtrol eystarn warranty (re. flee yeer. end 10.000 mUes to is mtb. and 19,000 miles. Relpi je and a eoauUoa .1 envIro, menial ana coniumer ‘crgaulsatloa, ill, It a. anli-ooamamr legislation that would came primas on mc maker.. Dis iin ha, beso hard to leU, Mc CaUtelar esid. “b.cauie it give, the Impies mien oc taking .onetblog sway (rom the con armer. “It - hein a moec frustrating .xpenance trying to .595510 that It Ien’t taking sotar- thing away, just the reveres.” be mid. “Fate body Cesta es coach wIth oppeer. tic.. lad e. litai with eubeisaom,” he added. MeOclileler asid usdee the eve-year, 10,000- ma. w,,,.nq W owiire would be tamed to have repaire dine b7 daal.rs t. protect tileir weretnises. . tics only would that have an aatP’.p.U uve .aeot on Independent repairman and .erflee ‘— b. maid, bat IS would bare lb. mc owner with no (readies et choice. Wm’re prevenisag the ‘“‘nmomv (T,ai b. tag plaoed In the d.lS ptlon oS not being ailS. $0 lake bis aulo where he wanim tohavmItd, To prmiet their twa-year warranty, h. .ald, oar oew would b. reluctant to go to mn Independent repairman foe almaut cay TRI MZ$1OTA ENDORSNT OP TRI DCLARATIOI( OP IN- HON. DONALD M. FRASER or Ut TKI DOPID 07 DRID’FATW Monday, June 21. 1171 Mr. PRA Mr. Speaker, largely through the orb of Mr. Lpiun it. onisg, the Wanceota idorsement of Lb. Declaration at Interdependence Is e reality. ptIicity has attended Henr7 Steele Ocinmager’s effort so that It Is wi necessary for me to further Identify the Declaration of Interdependence. How ever, I would 11ko to Introduce the text of the declaration Into the Rtcoeo rit thIS point: A DSCLuaATIOK O? 1w1laDt,tCSNc1 (Dy Diary Stuc Coinmager) When la the mine. et history 1h. threat of mitlnctica contient. nkta4. It Is nec .e.aiy for the people of The United Stale’ le declare th.Ir Iaiœdepeadanoe with lai people of all nouons and to embrace tho.e pre’.ipi and build them, tustitudona which will enable mankind to ,tw’lv. attO civilisa- taon to Iourt.i. Two centuries ego our toretethers brought torta a new nation. now wi mimi join with others to being forth a new world order. Oc thIs bistorlc occasion It h proper that the Am*to.a peopla should renarm thom. pito ciplee on which the t7nlted Stale, of Amer-. . f Tb blai. ‘wc.-,., üêlw GeM... Oã..4. la 1 L GeM.., 4# 1.da,d OL IA. C41.., law L .w .id.f . rn.,an . L?O* Mani..d hab, IlC k..i..(l A.M.wb. - cIAw. Ahab 0M.. Ii Th Ml UT lflt Panhi.. b.õn, e.wm. w _ia_ie j.. I.o.u.. Riwb,.li.ØwJ. 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K..lwfl )b.ilb..J_aIh ckh€ c2tond) Hands off the Fed Once again, Congress is looking intó changing the way the nation’s Federal Reserve Board works. Congress shotádn’t. One of lite proposals before Congress is to change the way the presidents of the 12 regional banks are selected. Yet there is nothing wrong with the way It Is done now. Presently, the regional bank presidents are chosen by rune mwter boards: ttyee representing member banks; tiTee repre . sentlng the pubic; and three apporited by the FederaíÑeserve Board of Governors. The probiurn appears to be that none ¡s elected by Congress. The Federal Reserve seems to work. Let’s leave It alone. The nation needs a Fed tree of short-term poetical Influence and free aleo to make the cffIcLit. unpopular big-term declsbns that elected officials often find too panfut to carry Out. Wry simply, the Fed, through its regulation of money supply and interest rates, attempts to create a stable economic environ ment and thereby minbize uncertainty. As a result, the American people can make fundamental economic decisions that foster the saving and Investment which, bi turn, increase productivity and ensure Ngher growth and rproved living standards over the big term. The Fed’s Board of Governors Is selected by the President of the Lkdted States—although not always the ç President— which would seem to obviate the need for further political Input bito the system. Or, should we change the U.S. SWeme Court every tine a new President le elected, too? Running the Fed ¡s no easy task. It’s a tightrope walk between too much ‘expansion and just enough—with conse quences that would make It akin to performing without a net. not a ¡ob for elected officiaIs. . The Fed’s independence may grate sometimes on the nerves of some poNtlclans. But, ike the equally Independen_ ,‘Bwidesbank, It Is the envy of many nations. Giving elected officials f ackiltional power over the Fed poeticizes the process of settincL. interest rates and ðetermlrin money sup*y. And make no iris take. These are not arcane functions, of interest (no pun intended) only to economists and bankers. They affect every American. For example, if you’re baking to buy a house or sel one, interest rates are often the deterrT**lg factor in such a decision. Starting a business, or expancg one? ‘?J may need to borrow money and, again, you’d be concerned about interest rates. The same wouki be true W you wanted to modernize a plant—or your kitchen. In short, the Fed Wnpacts ott ives ii very c5fferent and very sect ways. Pohlcizing i1 makes absolutely no sense. The Congress has enough to worry about and should leave wel enough alone. Mobil ... t_i Moblb-p..ieO...at Kind of Counterfeiting Operation the Government is Running” *0W P*M. — ,__ .- 11W - 1—.--- •I __-i- ec, .i .-- Congrtft at tljt niteb ãtatt aU%t at eprrWitatÍbe Ri4dni.n. C. 20315 ,,,. — e._ ,,* 1_ 1W (11* .iiI I., • C— — vI_ , (l pis 1.1W 1.1W s St. Louis. Ito. 6)129 Dear tir. August 27, 1979 Thank you for your letter of August 20 and the enclosed copy of your letter to Mr. Volker. Strictly speaking, it probably is not necessary for the federal government to tax anyone directly: it could simply print the money it needs. However, that would be too bold a stroke, for it would then be ob vious to all what kind of counterfeiting operation the government is running. The present system combining taxation and inflation is akin to watering the milk, tao much water and th. people catch en. Sincerely, Ron Paul Member of Congress]II nniijjtuanìa (!Irür . .- ‘the cOi., you ka.p the gowenmen, to the peoI. the ne .lf,ci,ni d economical the 9owrn,,p wilt he.” —Tho mas Jetteisor VOL? NO.1 JANUARY — FEBRUARY, 1978 Editor: In June, 1973 we featured a copy of the Regional Map proposed for the United States in 1935. It was our committee’s find and was sent around the counuy. Now we have another find, that warned Coloradoans of the threat of Regional Government ini 943. We believe it to be, (along with the map) the two most important finds yet on the issue of Regionalism. e Our initial find on the Colorado item covered an article of Sunday, January ¡0, 1943 in the N.Y. Herald Tribune which featured a spcech by retiring Governor Can. We reprint the Tribune article as well as the portion of Governor Cans speech before the Colorado Legislature that covers his warning on Regional Government — (Emphasis Ours) SUNDAY. JANUARY 10, 1-943 Z. MCi ______________ WNE I7) Carr’s ‘Varrnng : W(Vk SCiÌÐ.ZIwetiI l . (OnDietatorship ‘ [B a ffles_iDapha! Legislators and Agencies in Dark on Coloradoan’s Talk of Regloual Set.Up ‘-:.:‘/. By1ac1Tait .‘ *ASstNaToN. Jan. 9.—7h. capital was myswled today over the, charges made yesterday by the rcLrlng Governor of Coloiado, Ralph L Can, who declared that h. had uncovered a government plan to saddle the American people with “regional dlctatœsblpa’ with In six moatha. Some quarteis ber-e voIced skep Ucism and%onder about the gene ais of Mr. Cm’s bombshett. The War Man-Power Commission and the NaUcual Resources Planning ________________ Board, along with several Rapte-. . sentaUves. when queried for detaIl.. and had seat Immediately for the Bridges. Rephitcan, of New Hemp- It sa.s said. was that It Le lznpos-. of the ‘dlctatorship’ plan. ‘°- un text. Re was aai tr shire. said he was not famIliar siNe to have regions with hard-! ¿bey Ii&d heard uf nothing Ii’r Mr. c.rr might have obLr.Ltied , with any such steps. “Bitt 1f any- and-fast bouniarles. Mr. Can mad. the charge be- informatIon, and repLied. •;g such plan is under contcuiplatlon,” Both the board and the We: I fore a jo4xit session of the Colora4o Legislature. E. said: dan- on. knew anything about I her.. he said, Cowsss should he on Men-Power Coaunla,Ioa. U WLJ ¡ would, ..a i y. the shirt, because w. have eoouh said, had no corny. under wa ger Ii real. Regional d1ctatœhJpg utng.’ regimciztatlon like that la this such as those described by are planned.’ Be went on to say thai surveys are ein Senator Rarry P. Byrd, Perno- t1’ØB noW. Can, who this end in l’law, and that the de- of Virginia. said the detidls In his address sir. c ‚— now being made over great 5cc- laus “win .. of the pI..o “would be very Inter- that the regional authorltiei wul ¿ions of the Country Involvir.i - Lonish, the anUra Ame lean dU. If Otaiflbli. He added be set up St ‘•O$LtnsÌbiy lo reg’j- people who have litt!e ta refry, and win develop the bitter- that he h.ld heard nothing at nfl late physical te.ourccs. A the • beioad the tact that they cli! eat 55 ‘hj the’ American of such a program. RepresentaUTe NLt3OnslRCsouzcPsPlanatngBGardath1 the sorno air and are . . Jos.ph.W. Martin jr., Republican IL was pointed out that In 193 thi AmI%C$ft CiUzUZ.” I. . . of Jdauachusetts. saj4 ) board had made studies along the &nator ¡ugene D. MLllIken, Re- kit(W ùctblflI Of the pIafl Une of physkal resources eM’ Ii , •puatcan. of Colorado. said he bd ¿tter rcv4tng r t. reginnal factors In national dei,bl read rt,.’rta of yr. Cana address published reports, Senator 4omenL Th sial of (he report. 0 1975 . — — — I. •q •b._..-.b—- .—. — — e.__ .,. ...‘,.wn.n m.. . ,..... ....,, 7 ____________________________ - .PAGE 2 JANUARY — FEBRUARY, 1978 ADDRESS of THE HONORABLE RALPH L. CARR GOVERNOR OF COLORADO Delivered before the Joint Session of ¡he COLORADO LEGISLATURE Thirty-fourth Session AT DENVER JANUARY 8. 1943 . . . No single question has been given as much attention and study as the preservation and protection of Colorado’s inte rests in the waters of the streams which arc born in our high- tops and which flow down through our valleys and outward across our state lines to bless and to enrich the people of our sister states. For the first time in Colorado’s history, a Water Conservation Board, fully aware of the dangers and the needs ofColorado’s position, is performing a splendid service. In the name of everything which our inigation policy has done in the development of agriculture, let us see to it thai this work is continued. Two years ago there was introduced into the Congress a bill which was designed to place the Arkansas Valley of Colorado under the absolute control ctf three men appointed by the President and responsible only to him. ¡n its final analysis, the plan threatened the future of the irrigation interests and the property nghis ofthefarmers of almost one- fourth czf the slate. The bill was written by men who did not take the trouble to learn that the Arkansas River, throughout its course in Colorado and for about a hundred mites in Kansas, was an irrigation stream. It promised the impairment of the state’s whole economic setup and would have removed some of the foundation stones of Colorado’s first industry. At that time, a warning of the danger was sounded and plans were undertaken co enlist the support of the other states o(the reclamation West in opposition to this proposed legislation. Through a meeting of seventeen Governors or their repre sent atives at Denver, followed by a series of conferences and addresses throughout the Northwest, along the Pacific Coast and through the South, sufficient strength was recruited to krce the amendment o(the bill so as to preclude the operation of its provisions in Colorado. The basic theory underlying the proposed measure is so ittimical to what we recognize and accept as constitutional government, that Colorado must continue to oppose che enactment of the measure and similar authority bills until the idea is forever buried. The Arkansas Valley Authority idea is not dead yet,’. however, because we are now threatened by plans whIch would not only involve riverfiows, but would attempt the control and modification riot only of natural resources, but a]sö of human lives, hopes and plans. The dangers attending the passage of the Arkansas Valley Authority Bill are insignificant in comparison with che certain effects of the other programs now under consideration. There exists in this country today a pian to commence the remodelL’tg of the lives of American freemen on a bath so dictatorial, so monarchistic, so bureaucratic that ¡ti very exposition proves us hostility to our American form of government. ¡predic: that unkssson.ething intervenes to stop them, within six months, the details will be made public of schemes which will fit’sr shock and then absolutely astonish the householders, the taxpayers, the entire American citizenry. In the Four Freedoms which were exalted in the Atlantic Charter, when our President met with the Prime Minister of England on the high seas a year and a half ago, we were given an outline of human relationships on which it was suggested chat all who share ideals of democratic government may join in the task of winning the war arid living in harmony thereafter. But there is another Freedom which was not included in che Atlantic Charter. It is the Freedom on which our United States has been built. It is the Freedom which has enabled the common man to rise to the heights economically, socially and politically. It is that Freedom, without which the other four would be unattainable. And it is the one which Is threatened by the regional planning of a new school of thought in American life. It is Freedom of Enterprise. Surveys are being made over great sections of the country involving people who have little in common beyond the fact that they all breathe the same sir and are American citizens. These plans seek to establish an average educationally, economically and socially over a series of sections which offer no common basis on which co draw comparisons. While I am unable to furnish specific details. I know whereof I speak and it is my purpose in this last official message to you and che people of Colorado to warn you so that you may prepare. The danger is real. You must do your duty. Let it be understood that Colorado and her people have proved their patriotism and their single mindedness on the problem of winning the war. If this social planning had for its basis any needed war effort, we should bow and fall into line. But such is not the case. This is a social plann ing which cannot become effective until peace comes. Since that is true, we claim the right to participate in those plans. True, there are many worthwhile enterprises wich are suggested and which can be carried on by these regional authorities. We know them and we favor them. Nor is there any disposition on our part to prevent the production of cheap hydro.electric power or the development of any and every industry which the manpower and the natural resources of any section may justify. Regional planning is not, in and of itself alone, an evil or a useless thing. So long as ii seeks to divide a purely physical resource, or to impound water for flood control or the development of hydro-electršc power, provided that other physical property rights are recognized and protected, mudi good can come from it. But when we mix the rights and lives and hopes and dreams of human beings with physical resources and attempt to measure and modify and restrict men and their intangibles. then we should proceed slowly. Then again regional planning should come only when the people whose property and personal rights and privileges are Lcbc involved, institute the proceedings for a change. to be Involved, institute the proceedings for a change. When any outside agency sees Iese(f up to remodel the lives and property afAmencan citizens without theirapprovaland against their wishes, then there is trouble ahead.PAGE 2 JANUARY — FEBRUARY, 1978 ADDRESS of THE HONORABLE RALPH L CARR GOVERNOR OF COLORADO Delivered befare the Joint Session of the COLORADO LEGISLATURE Thirty-fourth Session AT DENVER JANUARY 8, 1943 .. No single quesuon has been given as much attention and study as the preservation and protection of Colorado’s ¡ate rests ira the waters of the streams which are born in ow’ high- tops and which flow down through our valleys and outward across our state Lines to bless and to enrich the pcople of our sister states, For the first time in Colorado’s history, a Water Conservation Board, fully aware of the dangers and the needs of Colorado’s position, is performing a splendid scrvice. In the name o(evrything which our irrigation policy has done in the development of agriculture, let us see to it that this work is continued. Two years ago there was introduced into the Congress a bill which war designed to place the Arkansas Valley of Colorado under the absolute control of three men appointed by the President and responsible only to him. In ¡rs final analysis. the plan threatened the future of the irrigation interests and the property rights afthefarnrers of almos: one- fourth of’ the stale. The bill was written by men who did not take the trouble to learn that the Arkansas River, throughout its course in Colorado and for about a hundred miles in Kansas, was an irrigation stream. It promised the impairment of the state’s whole economic setup and would have removed some of the foundation stones of Colorado’s first industry. At that time, a warning of the danger was sounded and plans were undertaken to enlist the support of the other states of the reclamation Weal in opposition to this proposed legislation. Through. a meeting of seventeen Governors or their repre sentatives at Denver. followed by a senes of conferences and addresses throughout the Northwest, along the Pacific Coast and through the South, sufficient strength was recnuted to force the amendment of the bill so as to preclude the operation of its provisions in Colorado. The basic theory underlying the proposed measure is so inimical to what we recognize and accept as constitutional government, that Colorado must continue to oppose the enactment of the measure and similar authority bills until the idea is forever buried. The Arkansas Valley Authority idea is not dead yet, however, because we are now threatened by plans which would not only involve riverfiows, but would attempt the control and modification not only of natural resources, but usó of human Lives, hopes and plans. The dangers attending the passage o(the Arkansas Vafley Authority BI)) are insignificant in comparison with the certain effects of the other programs now under consideration. There exists in this country today a plan to commence the remodeling of the lives o/American freemen on a basis so dictatorial, so monarchistic, so bureaucratic thai its veiy exposition proves its hostiiitw lo our American form of ‘ government. I predict that unless something interi’enes to stop them, within riA months, the details will be made public of schemes which willfirst shock and then absolutely astonish the householders, the taxpayers, ¡he entire American Cit i:esiy. In the Four Freedoms which were exalted in the Atlantic Charter, when our President met with the Prime Minster of England on the high seas a year and a hail ago, we were given an outline of human relationships on which it was suggested that ail who share ideals of democratic government may join in the task of winning the war and living ¡n harmony thereafter. But there is another Freedom which was not included in the Atlantic Charter. ti is the Freedom on which our United States has been built. It is the Freedom which has enabled the common man to rise to the heights economically, socially and politically. It is that Freedom, without which the other four would be unattainable. And it Is the one which is threatened by the regional planning ola new school of thought ¡n American life. It is Freedom of Enierpríse. Surveys are being made over great sections of the country involving people who have little in common beyond the fact that they all breathe the same air and are American citizens. These plans seek to establish an average educationally, economically arid socially over a series of sections which offer no common basis on which to draw comparisons. While I am unable to furnish specific details. I know whereof I speak and it is my purpose in this last official message to you and the people o(Colorado to warn you so that you may prepare. The danger is real. You must do your duty. Let it be understood that Cobrado and her people have proved their patriotism and their single mindedness on the problem of winning the war. If this social planning had for its basis any needed war effort, we should how asid fall Into Line. But such is nor the case. This is a social planning which cannot become effective until peace comes. Since thai is trie, we claim the right to participate in those plans. True, there are many worthwhile enterprises wich are suggested and which can be carried on by these regional authorities. We know them and we favor them. Nor Is there any disposition on our part to prevent the production of cheap hydro-electric power or the development of any and every industry which the manpower and the natural resources of any section may justify. Regional planningis not,in ando(itselfalone. anevll ors useless thing. So long as ‘t seeks to divide a purely physical resource, or go impound water for flood control or the development of hydroelectric power, provided that other physical property rights are recognized and protected, much good can come from ¡t. But when we mix the rights and lipe.s and hopes and dreams of human beings with physical resources and attempt to measure and modify and restrict men and their Intangibles, then we should proceed slowly. ‘,,Then again regional planning should come only when the peàplc whose property and personal rights and privileges are tobe involved, institute the proceedings for a change. to be ¡nvol’ed, institute the proceedings for a change. When any outside agency sers itseij’up to remodel the ¡lies andproperty ofAmerican citizens without theirappro val and against their wIshes, then there is trouble ahead.JANUARY — FEBRUARY. 1978 PAGE 3 And that, be it said, is what threatens Colorado on at least one of ILS great rivers today. You must be made aware of all the facts available now so that you may be prepared to meet the question when it actually appears. Even if Colorado’s irrigation development were to be excluded from the regional plannings which are going forward, that still would not furnish the answer to the things against which we protesL h isn’t the fact that they may destroy our agricultural development along one or two or half a dozen rivers. it isn’t that they may appropriate many millions of dollars with which Lo condemn lands and to purchase water rights. It Is not that Cobrado is so jealous of her position that she would selfishly stand in the way of the betterment of other American people who possess agricultural, industrial and economic possibilities. The basic complaint against these proposals is that they are against the theory of life which has built ihi, counny. The individual would be submerged utterly ¡o bring him down so she plane qf every unfortunate human, regardless of his capacities and has potentialities. Freemen would no longer be permitted to function and ro grow and to build and to produce for the improvement of themsel ‘es and their children, andfor the everlasting benefit of mankinrL The Allied armies are battling today, carrying all the force of :viIization against a plan which would control the lives of all *her people and determine their courses. A plan which would move into any state and say to its farmers, to itS industrialists, :0 iLs housewives and co its business men that they must change thcir chosen ways of life, is no( very difTerent from that other. Our Constitution was framed on the ¡des that the individual, shou’d be permitted to live hm* life according to the dictates of ? his own conscience and that he should be permitted to go as far “, as his own ability and willingness to work might perthit, J provded he did riot injure others. Has any good reason appeared to change this plan of ‘lying? Have we cometo the point in this country where it is ( necessary. in order/or us to live, thai we must modify and ( onsrol the attitudes and thoughts and actions of every \ iuman being in America according to a chan developed by ;ome group which would make us conform to a national J :cheme? —“S If, in any section. persons are trying to live on farms which ire too small or too unproductive to support their famileš and lependents adequately, then the conditions peculiar to that ection should be studied and met and solved with an eye to the ,etterment of those particular persons and their peculiar onditions. The fact that two areas are located on tributaries of igreat stream, probably hundreds of miles apart, does not ustify an effort to establish an average of the peoples, their ducational standards, their industrial, agricultural and conomic positions, their social stntcture, so as to revamp heir lives regardless. No scheme of government has ever succeeded in making all nen equal economically, socially and educationally. The ndividual equation must be considered. Climate, geography, ocial and racial backgrounds, the natural resources of the arious sections of the country—all these exert great in luences upon their lives as individuals and in the mass which mere laws cannot change or modify. Such social planning faib to take into account the fact that, while all men arc born politically equal under our system of government. energy and brain power, inventive genius and untold personal factors, as well as rainfall, beat and cold, altitude and other outside conditions combine to defeat any plan such as is now suggested. Once a regional authority Li established, it wilifurnish the ( basis for a system which will control our industries, our fanning, our education, our lires. .1 But certain we are that surveys have been made and reports are being prepared which affect every property owner in Colorado most vitally: if they are carried out, it ¡s certain that ¡n some instances great irngated areas of our state will be converted into grass lands. tmgaiion ditches, which were dug three quarters of a century ago by the pioneers who reclaimed the Great Ameri can Descrt and transformed ¡t into one of the foremost agricultura) sections of the world, will soon be overgrown with willows and choked with silt deposits. The children and great- grandchildren of those home builders are to be denied the right to cultivate and to irrigate those lands under the existing theory of freedom oferiterprise. Fruits, which top the nation’s market; onions, the like of which no farmer ever grew before, sugar beets and all our other agricultural crops so sorely needed in the development and sustenance of life and the winning of the war, will no longer bring great incomes to thousands of now prosperous Colorado families. It is true that in the states watered by the sanie rivers which flow in Colorado or their tributaries, there are persons who are less fortunate than our people. There are proverey-stncken homes which deserve to enjoy more of the good things of life through a more intelligent direction of their activities and utilization of natural resources, by the development of electric power through the impounding of flood waters. But the fact that one man is unfortunate does not justify the , crippling of his brother in an attempt to make them financially) equal. / The Mississippi River near its source in Minnesota runs through a country as different from that ofthe delta below New Orleans as one can image. But who would attempt to average the wheat raising, industrial, snow-bound northland, with its Scandinavian people and their hard working habits, with the swampy, cotton lands of the lower river where extremes ofheat and constant flood threats and an utterly different type of people have fashioned a wholly different civilization. I am not preaching nan’owmirided sectionalism. These statements are neither impelled nor tainted by partisanship. The issue is broader than the question of states’ rights. Reional planning, If it continues and Is in any measure successful, will confront every part o(the United States. True, it encroaches upon the rights of the states. And those who are responsible for the suggestion are to be credited for their ingenuity in trying to accomplish what they plan by an attack which is not directed at the states as such. By dividing the country into regions, which include paru ofaeveral states, they have avoided direct Constitutional conflicts and may accom plish their objective by indirection. The real question ¡s whether any group of men may determine what is best for four or five or even ¡30 million. PAGE 4 JANUARY — ÆÐRUARY. l’7g. freemen by trcin their idca upon the people in such a manner as to nullify many of the rights and pnvilcgcs uaranLeed to the individual Under the Constitution. No, the protest which I am making Is on behalf of the individual. The right of the state, while important. is Inci dental. The rights of individuals must be protected. It is that individual who must be mainiaincd above every other con sideration il the American theory of government is tO continue and freemen are to be permitted to live their lives as they may determine, to profit from the sweat of their brows, to enjoy the fruits of their own labors. The whole argument here i.s that each section should be considered by and for itself and that human being, under God and the Constitution should be permitted towork out their own salvation and live their lives in their own way. That was the thing which first brought colonists to the Western Hemisphere and it forms the basis on which the greatest government that history records has been budded. This re’ional authority constitutes the moss violent attack upon the American Constitutional way of IVe that has ever hen madeandas it wiligrow, ifunchecked. it will develop the bitterest issue which ¡he American people have encountered since sakrry There arc those who charge that we aie narrow minded when we do not accept a so-called national viewpoint. The answer is that our country is so large, its climatic differences, its geographical conditions, the nature of local resources and the make-up and the mcntal attitudes and customs of our people are such that no man can sit at Washington and draw a pattern to which the livcs of all must be made to conform with í.e uf suc.css. Men ol’the Colorado General Assembly, it is your duty as the representatives of the people of this great state to be watchful—to b. iilant. You must protect our natural rcsourccs, the most valuable of which are our water rights. At the same time, you must see toit that no effort to infringe either upon our industrial, our social, our economic or our educaional prerogatives gain a foothold. The federalization of education in our public schools would sound the death knell to democracy. Let us keep our public schools free from partisanship. Let’s keep that institution in a position where it may train the men and women of tomorrow in the American way. I_et us hold out the hope to each that only under such a government he can attain any height. Whilc we have moved into finer and more cxpensi’.c schools with the growth öf cities and our industrial and financial declopnwnL, Praise God, the ideals of the little red school. house still continue to guide our educational systems. The people ofcounties like Weld and Otero and Larimcr and all the others have established school systems in Colorado second Lo none in the country. Those people live itt homes which even royalty never dreamed of a hundred years ago. They benefit from che accomplishments of science and invention. Surely they are not to be dragged down to the level of those who are less fortunate or who live in less favored parts of the country. We can never improve the condition of the unfortunate by reducing the circumstances of the prosperous. Let us look to the individual who needs aid and help him even by taxing his more favored brother, if necessry. But let us not drag down the others so as to establish a lower average. In closing—aye in farewell—may I say that the people of Colorado have full confidence in your ability to meet the problems of wartime. Into the hands of a man who is fitted by education, by long years at the bar and four years service as the Lieutenant Governor of Colorado and the presiding officer of your upper House, ¡ will deliver the reins of state government next week. To you and to him and the others selected by the people to conduct Colorado’s business in the next two years falls a task at once a privilege and an honor. To serve your people in positions such as you occupy in the greatest crisis in history is something of which you may well be proud. You owe a duty to those sons of Colorado who have already made the supreme sacrifice. To those who have joined the armed services and to those others who will lollow en the months and mayhap in the years to conic, you must lend every aid and comfort and support. So long as an enemy gun stands ready to be fired: so lone as those philosophies continue which would spell destruction and defeat to the Allied cause, you must plan and toil and legislate for the good of civilization. You have proved yourselvei. Colorado and America know that our loyalty is as constant as the colors in the Stars and Stripes. To that emblem and to the things for which it stands your lives, your energies, your thoughts, have been—they must be—dedicated. Gentlemen, on behalf ofihe people ofColorado. I salute you as Americans and patriots. AA I.iOe1qnd.nI — Pion-P)ti,s.n Asocue.eA L’CECU1IVE BOARD — c_il_ s. o.’..’ s.s.. 01M il SUM SUs.... M...b.i, Iw SSUi.... G.ø.. W s. W ( . C, N... 1Md ‘- M.nv 1M .UMe.. N..v& Per. P-_-i Cm. Id ê. .. L. 01r. F.... Id.w al lab 011dm, Cm.wv $,v. . .c. ( SU’ w—O.,i $.rC. SUBSCRIPTION FORM Cnclosed os $3.00. Pb... iend I Sbcip1iØi tO THE PENNSYLVANIA CRIER OFFICIAL VOICE Pennylvarna Committee To Save Our Local Governments P.O. Box 16042 -Ptúladetphia,Pa. 19114 NON PROFIT UNAEGISThRED ASSOCIATION _. .4.m_, hi.. W. .1 CAn. Celai M.. M M.m, J C ‘h,. ,‘, ) W wa w— b.. Ib. mm. ‘Ibm p..m. i o...., or M....,iANLJARY — FEBRUARY. 1978 PAGE 3 And that, be it said, is what threatens Colorado on at least one of its great rivers today. You must be made aware of all the facts available now so that you may be prepared to meet the quesbon when it actually appears. Even if Colorado’s irrigation development were to be excluded from the regional plannings which are going forward, that still would not furnish the answer to the things against which we protest. It isn’t the fact that they may destroy our agricultural development along one or two or half a dozen rivers. It isn’t that they may appropriate many millions of .dollars with which to condemn lands and to purchase water rights. It ¡s not that Colorado is so jealous of her position that she would selfishly stand in the way of the betterment of other American people who possess agricultural, industrial and economic possibilities. The basic complaint against these proposals is that they are against the theory of life which has built this country. The individual would be submerged utterly to bring him down to the plane of every un/onunate human, regardless of his capacities and his potent iolities. Freemen would no longer be perm hied to/unction and to grow and so build and to produce forthe improvement ofthemselies and iheirchildren, and/or the everlasting benefit rif mankind. The Allied armies are battling today, carrying ill the force of civilization against a plan which would control the lives of all other people and determine their courses. A plan which would move into any state and say to its farmers, to its industrialists, to its housewives and to its business men that they must change their chosen ways of life, is not very different from that other. Our Constitution was framed on the idea that the individual I hou’d be permitted to live hit life according to the dictates of ? hsownconscicnceandthacheshouldbepermittedtogoasfar ‘ as his own ability and willingness to work might perthit,J provided he did not injure others. Has any good reason appeared to change this plan of) living? Have we come to the point in this counuy where ¡t i. ( necessary, in order for us to live, that we must modify and ( control the attitudes and thoughts and actions of every \ human being in America according to a chan developed by some group which would make us conform to a national J scheme? If, in any section, persons are trying to live on farms which are too small or too unproductive to support their familes and dependents adequately, then the conditions peculiar to that section should be studied and met and solved with an eye to the betterment of those particular persons and their peculiar conditions. The fact that two areas are located on tributaries of a great stream, probably hundreds of miles apart, does not justify an effort to establish an average of the peoples, their educational standards, their industrial, agricultural and economic positions, their social structure, so as to revamp their lives regardless. No scheme of government has ever succeeded ¡n making all men equal economically, socially and educationally. The individual equation must be considered. Climate, geography, social and racial backgrounds, the natural resources of the various sections of the country—all these exert great in fluences upon their lives as individuals and in the mass which mere laws cannot change oc modify. Such social planning fails to take into account the fact that, while all men are born politically equal under our system of government, energy and brain power, inventive genius and untold personal factors, as well as rainfall, heat and cold, altitude and other outside conditions combine to defeat any plan such as is now suggested Once a regional authority is established, ¡t wilifurnish the basis for a system which will control our indu stries. our farming, our education, our lives, ,) But certain we are that surveys have been made and reports are being prepared which alfect every property owner in Colorado most vitally: If they are carried out, it is certain that in some instances great irrigated areas of our state will be converted into grass lands, Irrigation ditches, which were dug thrce quarters of a century ago by the pioneers who reclaimed the Great Ameri can Desert and transformed It into one of the foremost agricultural sections of the world, will soon be overgrown with willows and choked with silt deposits. The children and great- grandchildren of those home builders are to be denied the right to cultivate and to irrigate those lands under the existing theory of freedom of enterprise. Fruits, which top the nation’s market onions, the like of which no farmer ever grew before. sugar beets and all our other agricultural crops so sorely needed in the development and sustenance of life and the winning of the war, will no longer bring great incomes to thousands of now prosperous Colorado families. It is true that in the states watered by the same rivers which flow in Colorado or their tributaries, there are persons who are less fortunate than our people. There are proverty-stricken homes which deserve to enjoy more of the good things of life through a more intelligent direction of their activities and utilization of natural resources, by the development of electric power through the impounding of flood waters. But the fact that one man is unfortunate does not justify the , crippling of his brother ¡n an attempt to make them financially) equal. ‘ The Mississippi River near its source in Minnesota runs through a country as different from that of the delta below New Orleans as one can image. But who would attempt to aserage the wheat raising, industrial, snow-bound northland, with its Scandinavian people and their hard working habits, with the swampy, cotton lands of the lower river where extremes of heat and constant flood threats and an utterly different type of people have fashioned a wholly different civilization. I am not preaching nanowminded sectionalism. These statements are neither impelled nor tainted by partisanship. The issue is broader than the question of states’ rights. R4ional planning, if it continues and ¡s in any measure sucCessful, will confront every part o(the United States. True, it encroaches upon the rights of the states. And those who are responsible for the suuestion are to be credited for their ingenuity ¡n trying to accomplish what they plan by an attack which is not directed at the states as such. By dividing the country into regions, which include parts ofseveral states, they have avoided direct Constitutional conflicts and may accom p11th their objective by indirection. 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S0)OA OM1 ‘oiepuew G )OU ¿(iu!e1JoJ. £661 ‘91 )Sfl8flV U00)X!S J0U1flN ¿(liod IUOA tru 3216 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD — SENATE all the conflict. Ovirlapping. underlapping. The d,veklpment at public welfare pro and Ildewise-lapplog endly lmagtne4. grame in the United States la a recognition Thats what the Peeldet and the couniry of t.hi. Christian and humanitarian concern iace in aeklng for action. Zn the ew aig- for humeo n..4a. Amaricen demncrecy la land vernacular, the 579 comma., gum up beet eeF,ed when bluad eoclai wetters pro the pworkL gram. function under both Ooeernment end In fact, If we dont quit babbling about a auapc.. certain problem in the Coscazmzoeai. a.- Public welfare cervices a?. matter, of sua. oes the Kueilans are going to fad out that UOe and should be available to tho.. in need. : in this atucal ameba the United t1 U un uistad by ,.ildenc.. citizenship. Ct CU- unable to agree oc a national flower. Cum.tADCeS of birth. The vast publie wel While we talk about lib.rty the codlt1Ons ra programs muet be under constant eu eseenUal to oœ liberty are seldom men- PI’TtoI aDd t1uaUCn by public oclale Honed, One condition le not a and repreeeniattvee of the people to ueur. si,. Congram but a workable Congram. thS.t tael meet the changing needs of hindi BmaIy. no Coagiwe. la r.epoalve that U not capped people. Dut we muet tahe peat care highly workable, tait the necemery evaluation of pecirems The basic buuinlee cf Congreee U necee- end their admlnletratiOu doee not iranapo.. airily performed In committee.. z..egwauon tteelf talo general critielim Of the recipi. propoa.d I. referred fret to a comaiuitee. enta—lb. aged, the bU4, the sIck, children ThU Is wher, the overlapping problem atarte. under II years ot age. and othera who cannot Zn tact. eome cemmltt.œ exist in order to defend thameelvee. bypase other ccmmltteee know’s oppo. Z hope that EplaCopalianI will Jota with certain legIslation. The 519 total repee- ab men of good will in being alert to the aents the moram. Welfare need. of people In their Commuai- The ehal .hIp (very powerful and tied ties, and in eupporting the welfare .ervlo,e available to them. This U one way of loving to .eaiœlty) of every floua. end Senate cam- • OUttœ gam lo the petty that bee a majority thy neighbor u thyself in our preeent In the body, even If this majority Is only One _____________ seat. Republicans have conirofled Oocgreae sad thua held every chairmanship. Rut the problem was unsolved. Thi Democrats have D1SARMA)T held the same power, ea they do today. A Mr. CLARK. Mr. Prnldent, bow de dead hand remain, on the throttle, elIdan- gire to ieak for a few minutes on the gering the national train Ube C.iy Jon... subject of disarmament, the eftats to- Nothing importaflt 1. amy. Rut KhIti. g lfl the $( and ubch flexes. Our Nation’. tragic debt In the country, and the prospects foe dis- enormous spending ere heading n. smack toward a devaluation cf the ericen doliez armament In the coming conference st unlœe the irend is ravened. Geneva, Which convenes on March 14 Other problems. comptez .ncUgh to drain of thIs year. the wisdom of the hundred vissai men, tace Mr. President. the morning news- the Pre.tdeat. the 000gram. and an of us In papers carry the statement that the a oelais that shah.. the world. Zn Psi&nt Is shout to authorize the re Otu imperiled hour li It too much to ask the ¡umption of nuclear testing In the at- Congre.. to put It. Own houe. in order? What ala the Senators and Cong memen UiOsPlltt’e. If he dOes this. I shall sup- waiting foe? Port him because L am confldent that he Surely, the President would help In every has carefully weighed, on the basis of way he can. And, Lt the outnumbered .. information not ‘available to me or to pubucans aie ansious to do aomothing. why t of my colleagues, the basic facts don’t they show mce. lntUaU In this? ‘the Involved In that f atef u) decision. I am cell for a bette? Congiam U a duty: an ° alio conMent he would not and will not dus duty of Ocagres. itself. t this tragic step unless he Is con vinced It Is the only wise way to main PEOPLE ON PUBLIC RP!xrP RL tflfl our national security and our free d. 1f atmospheric nuclear totting Is Mr. CLARK Mr. Preaident the pro- to be resumed, obviously there Is merit siding bishop of the Episcopal Church to maklng the decision before the dis has apoken out, warning against gen- armament conierence meets. eral criticism of people on public relief There axe those who will say that the olla. ytnpgt of nuclear testing, combined Opposing an attitude spread by much- with the critical condition In Berlin. In publIcized recent controversies over pub- Vietnam, In Laos. and In many other lic welfare recipients, the Right Rever- parts of the world, makes this a mast In- end Arthur C. Ltchtenberger, DL., oppcrt time for the convening of a clearly points out its dangers Ì.u a state- »e confere00e on the perennial sub- ment which appeared In the February jest of world peace, world law, and dis- issue of the EpIscopal publIcatIon, azent Churçiiway;, i am not in accord with this view. i Z ask unanimous consent that the do not believe that the uncertain poilU- Reverend Iehteflberger’s tatoment cal condition of the world and the re Inserted at this Point In the ¡ŠSCOZÐ 55 S sumption of nuclear testrng mean that Put of my remsxks. disarmament cannot be brought about There being no objection, the stete- as a result of Intelligent diplomacy on ment was ordered to be printed In the the part of the members of the 18-nation Racoan, as follows: dlsarmamesn conference. The total Welfare of people le a basic COG- When It Is the darkest It Is frequently cern of the Christ Te1I(io. Just before the dawn. In business, in the Dy word and deed the ministry of J.n. Law, and In other Instances when men was largely given to the pœeone.1 end social come together to negotiate, frequently ..da of peopl, In trouble, The Christian church ha. always iopcd aervion for Lbs the break or the agreement comes at a poor and the afflicted. Chrlgu,,ns today jot. time when things seem most hopeless, at With Othsre In eupporung a wide range of I time when both sides are of the view voluntary social eer’vlcee. that no progress Is possible, but each Is March 1 determined to make one more effort to achieve a mutually desired result. So, Mr. President, I suggest that we should look forward to the disarmament conference In the hope that something meaningful can come out of It, in considering that conference, we must give some thought to what Is the position of the Government of the United States. I think that position has been substantially misunderstood both In the country and In the Congress. One reason for my so thinking arises from a relatively short insertion In the Ricain made by my good friend the junior Senator from Texas LMr. Towsal on January 28 of thIs year, which appears In the Rzcoen at page 1043. I ask rnan*mous consent, Mr. PresI dent, that my colleagues com_ments and a column which he Introduced Into the R5ooan at that point, written y a man named Ken Thompson, published In I T*flas newspaper, entltied “One, Two. Three—Surrender may be printed In the Racoan at this point In my remarks. There being no objection, the excerpt was ordered to be printed in the Rgcoin, as follows: 7w. Svasmcaut or Asæmicw ltzonm aim SovuwTT Mr. ‘Fowea. Mr, President, will the Senator yield? Mr. Mawerma. I yield. Mr. Towes. Every day more and mare people aher. a growing concern toe the pr.. Occupation of the St.t. Department and same people In high places with the Issue of disarmament. I think we an look for ward to the diy when men will “belt their ewoeda Into plowabar.a and their spears into pruning hook...” Dut it a Urne when W..t era cIvilization la coGfroaled by an extreme militaristic threat looking toward world omqueet, I think it Is naive and unreallailc to be preoccupied with the qusatlon of dIs armament. We know that the Communiai «‘n.ptracy he. no Intention of coezizUng with n.. We know that they are bent 0G domination of the whole world. I think we *.ow w.akne.a In the eyes of all other na tions at this e in talking of 4i’mament. In this connection, I ask to ha,. printed In the Escoas a very Sae editorial entitled “One Two, Three—8urv’ender,” by Zen Thompeon, editorial etaflwrlt.r, published In the Dalias Morning New. of January 25. 1952. ‘t’bœe being no objection, the editorial was order to be printed In the ficcoas, ai fo) lows: “ONZ. TWO, Tfl2ZZ—4oAom “(Dy Ken Thompson) “One of the moat Incredible documents ever to emerge from the foggy corridor, of the Slate Department U a bulletin entitled ‘Freedom Prom Wax: The Uß. Program 1m’ Oeeral and ptee Disarmament la a Pameful World.’ As skeptical as ¡ have al ways bqen of the measure of good sense and loyalty wIthin the State Department. I never would have believed that the peop1. we call our diplomats could iO completely and un abashedly advocate the surrender of Ameri can righte and sovereignty until this buII.Uo appeared. “What It amounts to, In cUed, Is the offlcIl Uß. position on the subject of disarmament More spac4’alIy, It Is toe basis of propo’Is which bave already been submitted to tiIr United Nations by the United Blata.. “Although this bulletin was published l*st tan and la available for just 15 ceuta Srcen tO. Oovernment Printing Office In Washing ton, there has been very little attention pidd to It.CONGRESSIONAL RECORD — SENATE Wby. ¡ c..nnot tell you. (or It is certainly ‘At the moment the future is looking very the meet f intastic. harebrained biuiprint ðark Por from Asia. they picked Burma for .urNndir On record. from Africa Nigeria an ztai ‘Oid Nikita himself might Just as well have cpi. from latin America. )(ezlco and Bra. written it. And if moe. at the American ail; Igypt from the Wd.. Zait, and 8wdtn people knew about this scheme there would train Bmop.. be a atlOnwldI uproar that would make the ‘71v, of the.. natløna— clair majority— y.actloU to Lb. Mg.r 51e. ,eandsj look Ilk. r.ceoUy voted In f avœ of ..atlng Red China another sr. of good tasung by compariem. tu the u.s. end kicking Chlang out. me.. “Last September Pv,aident Kennedy ad. 5v. nations are B3rma, Xgypt. EthiopiA. dNe.êd the United Nations and spoke of the India. and Sweden. of the Untied State. lo teach an .1e.- “or.oeer. MeXICO was the only Latin ment on disarmament. lii. stand bas bien American nation (other than Cub*. of ,choed by AdRal Ste,en.on. our chief dele- course) to oppose Sally a rwiluuon by the pta and Amba.sadoi LO the U.N. ‘ganlsaUOn of American Bissas calling for “Where Kennedy and Stevenson spoke in a Foreign Ministers’ Conference on the gene.al terme, the State Depariment bulletin Cuban threat of Communist invasion of the leal. In spsciflcs. It suppliai the term for hemisphere. lboee vague goals Lb. administration hopes ‘Br.zll, which refused to support thIs lo gain through the 011. same measure by abstaining on the vote, has “What ar. the.. term. The Stat. Depart- .h’eady proclalm.d ils diseppeoval of any nent document summarisee the propoeala es measure. which the Foreign Ministers might ‘Dew ptoam Iwbichi provide, for Lb. take to deal with Castro. The BrazIlian 0cv- eogree.iv. reduction of warmaking cape- .rnment bas ocIally called upon the United itUtie. of nations and the almuitaneous Stetee asid other hemisphere nations to co uength.nlng of international institutions exist with Cuban communism. o settle disputa. and maintain the peace: “Row many f riende does this lea,, the this program ii broken down tato tbre United Staim on the .fl-imporlsnt U.N. Dis ibasa. or paria. arm—r”t Committee? You count ‘em, rm “In the Stat ph..., all nuclear weapos u.k.” ests by nation, would be prohibited, pro lucUon cf 1e.ionahle material stopped. ¡tea egic delivery systems r.duced. and con entional arma sad .zmtd force. would b ut. “In the second phase. preaint stocks of ,uclear weapons would be reduced. further uts would be made in armed forces, arma. lenta, end delivery system., and millar, i.e. and tacilitle. would be dantie4. At be same Urn., e peace force would be e.tab shed for Lbs United NatIon.. “in the third and Snal phase, aU nations buid possess ocly thee. force.. nonnu ¡e.r armamanis, and tabUshmenus . ulr.d for the purpose of maintaining In irnal order they would she support and rovid. agreed manpower for a Oil, peace “This torce would be fully functioning. ad would be eufficl.nUy strong to overpower iy Individual nation or bin.Uon cf na- one resisting Ile will. “‘There you have it. On., two, three, bingo. b. Uit. rule. the world. “And who rule. the U.N.? That is the sestion. If for on. ioment old WIkita tlnks he isn’t going to nu, the UY. you bet your last kopak he’s not going to .11 for a leap like this. “As .oon as h. and Mr. W.hru, Mr. Nkru. ah, Mr. Sukarto, and a few other scoon el. count enough vote. to Come up with a inning CoEtbinatlon, such s proposal will be natural toe them, and there won’t bq any or. kOp.ks left for us to count. That’. 4 beauty of the system—from Mr. Zhru. chev’s point of view, of cour.., It’s heads As akepucal a. ¡ have always been of the , wine, talle we los, measure of good sense and loyalty within the “And speaking of votw. one of the most Sti.tt Dep.rtment. I never would have b. tenaillaI—If most trtghtealng.—’asp.cts llevad that these people we call our diplo is proposal Is the lineup on an ¡$.‘na mat, could so completely and •‘i1-”qdly loUstiJig body in the 021, which , advocate the surrender of American rights Il be considering thIs disarmament and sovereignty Until this bulletin appeared. e. “Originally, this committee Was compaied Mr, President, I submit that both the 5v. Western nations (Br*t..ln, enatta juor Senator from Teau and Mr. unce, Italy, and the United States) end t,\/’fl)011Pon are pretty far off bese In tue ‘Viet hice nations (Bulgaria, C.scboelo.1>COUUfleflLS WIICh I have noted. kia. Poland. Rumania, and the USSR,). I In the flrst place, the program enti it the sharp division of theee two factions I tied, “Freedom Prom War: The U.S. ailed in a Complete deadlock, and on ¡un. I Program (Or Genera) and Complete OLe- . 1950, the Soviets walked out. I armament In a Peaceful World.” is not “Then somebody Came p with th. bright some pamphlet dreamed up In what Is sa of s.ddlng sight independent nations to I referred to as the “foggy comdors of C Committee as a compromise—two Asian, I o African, two Latin AmerIcan, one Middle I the State Department.” It La the flaed. stern, and one Zuzopean I detet’inlned, and approved policy of tie “The futWe Of taie country—and 0f tn. I Government of the United State, of e world may very well depend upon how I America. ¡t was laid down by the Presi oie eight nations line up. dent of the United States, John Pit, Cvm—20a gerald Kennedy. In a speech he made I before the United Nations on September 1 25 of last year—a speech which I think I will ring down through the corridors of hIstory, That program, when It was submitted by the President of the United States. had the approvs.l not only of the State Department but also of the President’s then disarmament adviser. Mr. MeCloy, who was Ita prindpal author; of the De partment of Defense; and of the Atomic iergy Commission. It represents the flzed and determined polley of the exec ut,tve arm of the U.S. Government. ¡X Individuala. whether on or off this &œ, ðsslre to critlolse that program, they should toen their criticIsm not against some subordinates In the State Department but against the Comn’w.nder In Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States of America, the President of ti. United State., X recaU to Members the drpmatic statement made by the President In that splendid address before the United Na Uons, to the effect that he chaflenged the Soviet Union to a race for peace, flot s race for war. In that connection I sug gest that the program presented by our President .t that time baa, by Implica- ton at least, the full support of the Congress of the Uliit.d States. Mr. President, in my view the Pre,sl dent’s program for total and perma nent dimrmament. enforceable world law Is not onljtEat of his ad inistraUcn but is also the kind of pro gram which Congress envisioned when, last summer, it passed the statute cre ating the 0.8, Aims Control and Dis armament Agency, That bill was passed on September S by the Senate by a vote of 73 to 14 only approxImately 2 weeks before the Prðent made his historic appearance before the United Nations. The bill was passed a few days later by the House of Representatives, by a of 280 10 54, As expressed In the first annual re port of the 0.8. Aims Control and Dis armament Agency: 8uooe,ul aime control and disarmament negotiataona ase, of cour,., thi chief pur. pose of 1h. Agency’s existence, 514 the goal to which Ita energia. are directed. Z’lberefore. Mr. Pre.Ident. I submit that the ggecutiv. and the legislative branchai of our Government ar, sub stantially In accord In supporting the President’s program for total and com plete disarmament under enforceable world law, and I suggest that it Is neither naive nor unreallstio—as was suggested by the Junior Senator from Texas—for the Congrres of the United State. and the people of the United State. to take an active, keen, and present Interest In the subject of disarmament. Far from iLl being naive to be pre occupied with this subject, I suggest that djsarmament, world peace. and world law not only should be, but are, the constant preoccupation of all inteui gent and educated men and women who desire to survive In freedom. Mr. President. I am not one who be lieves In a theory of either naUonal or International relationships by which we engage In s kind of lnternauonsi game 1962 3217 ‘ Mr. CLARX Readers of the Recoin will note that my distinguished colleague mad. certain statements to which I take strong diesent. First, be said: Ivery day mais sad more people share a growing concern for the preoccupation of the State Department and s people in high places with the leme of disarmament. Second, he said: I think It le naive md unrealistic to be preocctipld with the question of disarma ment. Third, be said: We kflow that the Communist censpiracy bes no Intention of coexisting with us, Mr. President, ¡ take strong exception to each of those three statements. In the column which the Junior Sena tor from Texas Inserted In the Rzcoin, Its author, Mr. Ken ‘Thompson, retes-red to what he calls—as stated In the article: One of the most inoredible documente eves’ lo emerge from the foggy oorrldors of the Stale Department Is a bulletin entitled “Freedom From War; Th. U8. Program foe Oetwre,i and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World.” I continue to quote from Mr. Thomp son:962 -wny, I cannot tell you. foe it I. cartainiy e moat tantaitic. harebrained blueprint r auit,fld*T on recoed. -Old NlkÌt.i himself might )ust as well ha.. ritan it And if moee of the American cpI. knew about this mh.m. thee, would . a nationwide uproar that would make the .cUofl to lb. Alger Rise ethadal look like othtr lR of good feeling by cOmparisui Laet Septenber President Kennedy ad eseed the United NaUcna and spoke of the aire of the United States to reach an agree sat on diearmam.nl. leLi stand nSa been boed by Adiai Stevenson. our chief d.L.. g. and Ambeedor to lb. U.N. where Kennedy and Stevenson spoke in neral terms. the State Department buli.Un ais lU spccl&a, It aupplias fbi term for cee vague goal., the e minielzetlon hopes gain through th. U.N. Wbat are th...e terms? Th. State Depart. mt document eumma,ls.e the propoeaia.. ‘Dew Provi.m I which provide. to, lb. )çr.ealv. reduction of warmaking cape. fUie Of p.ations and the simultaneous .ng’.hening of lnternauonal institutions situe dispute. and maintain the peace.’ ii program Is broken down Into thiec eses oe parte. 1n thi Ir,t ph.... aU nuclear weapons ta by nations would be prohibited, pro ruon of fllonabl. material etcppld_. ates.- fc delivery system. reduced, end - .Uaal arm, and armed forces would be “At 1h. moaient the tutu,, is looking very dark. Poe from Asia. they picked Burma and India: from Afflea, Nigeria end lUi- apia; from ItIn Asnina. )feziœ and Bra. ¡U; ypt from 1h. Middle met, a.nc Sweden from Europe. ‘7ive of the.e natiofls.—a clear majority— reoenUy voted In f seo, of meatlog Rad China in the 0)1. and kicking Chiang out.. Thee. Ave nations are Burma. Egypt. Ethiopia. India. and Sweden. “Moreover. Meaba we. the only Latin Amertean nation lotie, than Cuba. of course) to oppo.e flatly a re.Olutioc by the Organimticn of American States caning (or a Foreign Mtnhei.ers’ Conference on the Cuban threat of Communist inva.ton of 1h. hemisphere. “Eistl. which refused to support this eemc mcaeuie by abstaining on the vote, ha. already proclaimed Ile disapprovel of say measures which Lb. Foreign “trs Zight take to deal with Castro. Tb. Rrs.wif an Go, erument baa oc1sfly called upon the United Stales and other hemisphere naUons to co. ehist with Cubau communism. .15 many friend, does this l.ave the United St..te. on the afl-lmporlant 0)1. Dii. ermement Committee? Ton count ‘em. Fm ikL Mr. CLARK. Readers of the Racoes will note that my distinguished colleague made certain statements to which I take strong dissent. First, he said: Every day mœe ahd more people share e ewing concern for the preooca*icn of the State Department and some people In high placee with the lieue of disarmament. Second, he said: I think It Is naive and unrealistic to b. preoccupied with the queetion of dtearm, ment. Third. he said: W. know that the Communist conspiracy has no Intention of coexisting with tse. Mr. President. Z take strong exception to each of those three statements. In the column which the jimio, Sena tor from Texas inserted In the Racoin. us author. Mr. Ken Thompson. referred to what he calle—as stated in the article: One of the moat Inadibl. documents e to emerge from 1h. foggy ocrrtdœs of tb atete Department I, e bulletin entitled ‘Pree4Om Prom War: Tb. U.S. Prcgr.m for General and pleta Disarmament jj Peaceful. World.” I continue to quote from Mr. Thomp son: 3217 gerald Kennedy. In a speech he made before the United Nations on September 25 of lut rear—s. speech which I think will ring down through the corridors of J history. That program, when It was submitted by the President of the United States. had the approval not only of the State Department but p.150 of the President’s then disarmament adviser. Mr. McCloy. who was Its princIpal author: of the De partment of Defense; and of the Atomic ergy Commission. It represents the flied and determined policy of the exec tiUve arm of the 0.8. Oovernment ¡f Individuals, whether on or off this floor. desire to criticize that program, they should Uun their criticism not agaln4 iome subordinates In the State Department but against the Coanmc.nðer ha Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States of America. the President of the United States, I recall to Members the dramatic statement made by the President In that splendid address before the United Na tions, to the effect that he challenged the Soviet Union to a race for peace, not a race for war. In that connection I sug gest that the program presented by our Presldmit at that time has, by implica lion at least, the lull support of the Congress of the United States. Mr. President, In my view the Presi dent’s program for total and perma nent disarmament gy enforceable wçrld law Is not only that of his ad lnl..traUon but Is also the kind of pro gram which Congress envisioned when, last wsmIer, It pa.es’ed the statote cre ating Uit U.S. Arms Control and Dia armament Agency. That bill was passed on September 8 by the Senate by a vote of 72 to 14 only approxImately 2 weeks before the President made bis historic appearance before the United Nations. The bi» was pssswwI a few days later by the House of Representatives, by a voteof 280 1054. As expressed In the first annual re port of the U.S. Arms Control and Dis armament Agency: Suidul srm. omte’oa and dlaarmsmsrg nagotiaticea are, of cour.., the chief pur pme of th Agency’s eXistence, and the goal to which its energies are directed. Therefore, Mr. President, I submit that the executive and the legislative branehea of our Government ere sub stantlally In accord In supporting the President’s program for total and com plete disarmament under enforceable world law, and I suggest that It is Deither naive nor unrealistic—as was loggested by the junior Senator from Texas—for the Congress of the United States and the people of the United States to take an active, keen, and present Interest Isi the subject of disarmamern. Far from It being naive to be pre occupied with this subject. I suggest that disarmament, world peace, and world lew not only should be. but ire, tite constant preoccupation of all Int.efll - gent and educated men end women who desire to survive In freedom, Mr. President, Z ..m not one who be lieves in a theory of either national or International relationships by which we engage in a kind of international game I t . CONGRESSIONAL RECORD — SENATE In the ee000d phai.. prent .tochs of iaer weapons would be reduced, f u,thœ e would be wad la armed foro.., ‘,....- ola, end delivery .y.tema, end mIlItary ea and tacilitim would be dleieåntled. At same Urn., a peace torce would b. eaten ed for the United Netiocs. in the third and final phase, all nations ud pomea. only thoee forces, Donnu. ir ermament., and eetabUsnm.nts rs- rwl far the pW’po.. of maintaining IL- ial oeder they would aleo support and rid, agreed manpower for e 0)1. peace w. rais force would be fully functioning, would be euclently .trong to Overpower individu*l nation or combination of na a,seisti_ng its will. ‘her. you have It. One, two, three, bingo. Oil. na] the world. md who nabea the 0.5.1 ‘that Li the ition. If for on. moment oid ¡tinta ka be I,fl’t going to rub, the OIL, you bet your last kopek he’s Dot going to for a cap like this. Is soon as he and Mr. Nehru, Vr. 5km. ., Mr. Sukarno, and a few other ecoun • count enough votes Lo come up wits a sing combination, auseb a proposal will be Ltural for th*m, end there woa be any . kopeks left t us to count That’s beauty of the system—from Mr. Khru ev_i point of view, cl cours.. It’s heads As skeptical es I have always been 0f the ilLs, talla we lose. meesur, of good sens. and loyalty within the .nd speaking of votas, one o the mg Stale Department, I never would have be ‘siting—is most frightening. g lI.ved that tbe.e p.opZe we call Our dlo. proposal Is the Uneup on an IS-nation mass could so completely and unsl,eshadiy tinting body in the 035. whIch eoon advocate Use surrender of Auneilcan right. be considering tisis dl.arn and sovereignty until hi, bulletin appes.red. me. Iriginally, this committee was compoeee Mr. President, I submit that both the ive Western UaUo (Britain, Canada Junr Senator from Texas and Mr. ca. Italy, and the United State.) aDd 5vei/Th0mPaon are pretty far off base In the et bloc nations (Bulgaria, Ceho.J,J>comments wh.Ich I have noted. iPoland, Rumania, and the 0.S.S,R.) i In the first place, the program cutI- the sharp division of theee two facuon, f tle, “Freedom From War: The U.S. ted In a complete dC6lck, ene oc June Program for General and Complete Dis 150. the Soviets Walked mat. I armament in a Peaceful World,” ¡s not hen bOm,body came up wits the bright I some pamphlet dreamed up In what Is of adding eight Independent naUona to I ummittee is a compr , i referred to as the “foggy corridors of If rican, two Latin American. on. Middle i the State Department.” it Is the fixed, on. and one European. I determined, and approved policy of the be future of this country—and of . I Government of the United States of world may very weal depend upon how I America. It was laid down by the Preal eignt nations lin, up. I dent of the United States, John Pits cyrix—203I s From PPO—ÆT TILE INC. h 6, PHCNE No. : 1 215 533 8616 Feb.15 1995 1ø:24P?i F05 Li . D P’ ii a ‘ ¡ • ..From : PRO-SET TILE, I NC. PFG4E No. : 1 215 539 86L6 ¿;•,‘ m’ ••‘cì 4J z FL 1E 1995 10:23PM P04 ¡r b D a. cD 0* [ b 2 ; r I •1 4. t . ..... ,.,, 1 L—4 . cz i-r---4 L.-cJ From : PRO—SET TILE, INC. t-1ŒE No. : 1 215 539 61 e Feb.15 199S ie:22pt1 P03 , I t, Ó e 0 ,t 4 rr c,’ Q i- y () cO P Ç) ‚4 V ,. ‘4 o z ). o ••b4 -.4 = C, ., -b a — — r -Q CD .. Q CD j a’ CI) 1954 t.o be Incud.d in the flsUoæLI orgeDIrSUona, which have ¡DdlCStsd In..; ¡D hi 0 po.Id mimic CiD ter. R..peet fully DUN, AmCa$ Ou.a 0V OISANIST. 2. Lewis n..u. NItiOnaS pre.de*t. Iadebtedaeis of italy to the Ugited Stales EXTENSION OP REMARKS o. HON. LAWRENCE H. SMITh o. wt.coisi IN THE HOUSE O? REPRZSE$TATTV Mo’id. AprIl 12. 1954 Mr. SMITH of Wisconsin. Mr. Speak er, under leave to extend my remarks. I am herewith Inserting Into the Cosi CSISSZONAX. BaCO.) In IlenlIZed report on the indebtedness of Italy to the United 6 Lates, prepared for me by the Library of Congreu: R.p.ymezits: ?rlDclpIl. funded debts Principal. uDiuDded debts munit. funded debt., Intsrt unfunded debts,..... $7. SOI. $52. $2 Total 100.121, ioo. il 2,507. 015.190.14 Rqp.yinsnts.________ 100. I. 880. ii Belance...._..__..__.. 2.009.112 775.19 Leod-lesie ald (ciimuis 1tiI7, MM. li. 194i— )Ssr. 21. 11•t ‘ ‘leU end vehlcles,..,._ Ves. el. and other wet.rcr,.tt Mlic.Uanœim mWta,y Aglicultursl. Induetnial. and other commedl. Services and espeoee.__ Pbne*n grant. end medita (period Jl I. t940. through ¡une 30, 1252) OrsDts• American id dimy (civilian sup— p1tes). interim eJd......_ Mutual ilcuetty: Economic aesialanc.,. Whist1 Ud_ iechiiical eeaìitance.. t7NRRA. PO’g-UJ4R_aa,_...__ TTe.uy (civl1la goods) CONGRESSIONAL RECORD — HOUSE Net .i,tbefl- mUs iœ ewiSg Z.p.rt.l.p.rg Sack I 8147,UiC00 Dii* eoiœab pee lidi SlutesI bmrtl. lienS.... i&iem i4eiiiime A4.bLt%Uie IU.iIt000 IIi LImIaI . fesspue peepcny. .__. T.i ... 5.le .eia*onIíi Oi 3UI I. ita’ Prterip.I ripieS by July i,tS._.......,._. ‘7.1.1 lies erS en 1i4. 072. 000 4êoio im7.oaø 4*I.( ¡l4.i I $1lt00O. 14L272.a’êis ICI HON. USHER L BURDICK OP WO D&ZOTA si. too. Dl T HOUSE O? R”BTATXV Monder, April ¿2. 1954 . 719: Mr. BURDICK. Mr. apeúor. the Oenocide Convention pamed by the United Nations is a ne-sotmdixsg docu ment, but like other conventions adopted ________________ by that organization. It has an ul1or purpose. The dictionary defnes genocide is the systematic destruction of a raclai, politi cal, or cultural group of people. Very few people In this world can be found who would not be In favor of putting a ¡top to this barbarous practice, but In • framing this conventIon the United Na- LIons used this great appeal s.s an lmtru si. , -—. ment to shield Its real purpose. In deftning genocide the United Na- 182. 039.75 tians hes gone beyond aU peat under standing of It.s meaning, and under the terms as this organizatIon Interprets It, If anyone, anywhere, even makes a state ____________ ment reflecting upon any group or a member of any group which has the effect of Injuring their feelings, then a crime has been committed, and the per sons or persons ?neblrg the statement are Ipso facto guilty of the cr of geno cide. Knowing t uU well that such a law could not be enforced in the United Statee. the United ?btions has made elaborate preparations to Implement It. First of all, the Interpretation of this law, and Ulala conducted under It, are not entrusted to the omirts of this or any other country, but come under Lb. Junta diction of a court of Its own which the United NaUona hes sel up—an Interna Uonal Court of Justice which has civil 134. ui. ooo. and criminal Jurisdiction, For several years now, lawyers have been working oc the construction of this code, and under It a person charged with the offense of genocide is tried wherever the United Nations may decide. The Total 2.199,202.000.00 ‘No ‘ever.. lend-leas, aid wea received from Itajy ‘N pey, requestee on grants. alleged offender can be taken out of this country, U here is where he uttered the statements that hurt the feeling of some group or a member ot a group, and sent to any country the United Nations deems proper, for trial. When he Is tried—and It may be for his life—he does not bave the protection of the Constitution and the laws of the United States, but he is subject to the United Nations code of law and Its cori Stitutlon. In order to get around the provisions of our Constitution In regard to free speech, a free press, and free religion. and deny the citizens of this country that protection, the Genocide Conven tion and the Covenant of Human Rights boldly attempt to redrflne these land marks of liberty, and a new definition of tree speech, a tree press, and tree religion appear. It flatly denies the terms of our Constitution which guaran tee these fundamental rights to the peo ple of this country, and set, up condi tIons that were not even thought of or discussed In our Constltuuons.l Conven tion. The effect of this new defln)tlon of these three basic rights actually is to set aside the provisions of our own ConstltuUon. Why is it necessary to abrogate our own Constitution In any prtlcular If the only purpose of the convention Is to put a stop to the crime of genocide? Does any provision at our Constitution favor this crime? No. sir; not a single pro vision. Why cannot our own courts be trusted to handle the crime of genocide? No, sIr; they cannot be trusted; hence the United Nations builds a court of Its own. In defiance of the protection given by United States courts Lo every person charged with crime. Every move made by the United Na tions In framing Its various conventions are of the same character as this gene dde convention. The covenant of hu man rights Is another example. It sounds well, on the fice of It, but Im mediately It attacks the Constitution of the United States. The very charter of the United Nations dom the same thing. The United Nations Is not an organiza tion to preserve peace, but a sinister at tempt to form s world government, with a house and senate, a Judicial system, a tax system and a police system, UNESCO Is another attempt to de stroy the United States. In that agency patniotiem is attacked, and instead of buildIng love of country, the United Na tions Educational, Scientific. and Cul tw’aI Organization directly attempts to eradicate it. Children are taught that reverence for the great men of our past tends to build a strong national spirit and that conflicts with the United Na tions design to build a strong reverence loe a world government. Nothing the United Nations has yet proposed In any field seems willing to ac cept our ConstItution and way of life as It is and to proceed constitnUonally, Every move made Is a move to abrogate, or redefine, or amend our Constitution. The purpose behind this drive is to pre pare the United States for entry into a world government—and under our Con iUtution this cannot be done. The soy ereignty of the Un.itd States Is squarely R.capitulaUon cis as of July 1. 1953): World Wit I eld.....,,.,,,_..$2. 006. 112. 2. 18 Land-lease ____ III. 571. 178. li Orants ____ 2.804. 205.000.00 Loane 314,120.000.00 ‘total ......_.,_5. 111,188.419.01 What ¡tiAr ows tk r.lnItsd State, Lethal Ge,oód. Co.ve.t.. D.iboys World Wit I indebt.dnese of July 2. 1051): Iadivid.ai Rights PrincIpal $1, 615, 400. 000.00 _____ Due end uapeld...._ 210. 100, 000. 00 EXIENSION RE4ARXS Interest 102. 112. 900. 34 Total 2, 107. OU. $90.34 132.310.223.05 197.319.94 Total 1H.I1•1. em. ¡7 2, 183, 000. 00 410. 101.000.00 175.009. 000. 00 1.829223.000.00 il, 745.000.00 1.170.000.00 41e, 709. 000. 00 111,414. 000. 00 .-5066 end flrmly based upon the ConsUtution. and unless it can be abrogated our great Republic cannot be taken Into titis spur :ous world government. ours is the only Government In the world that unqualifiedly exista for the people. The people built IL. IL was done by them. It was done for them. Most foreign countries have the opposite view. “here the people exist for the govern- mcm Now in the world can true, loyal Americans believe that a Government like ours could mix with governments of opposite views, end present a mongrel world government that does not believe in our CozislltuUon? J The avowed purpom of the United Na /Lions was to bring peace to the world. It had a great appeal to all clisses, be cause in this country the people do not want war. But Urne has revealed the fact that Lite United Nations Is more concerned with changing the Constitu tion of the United States than It is with or)d peace. We would need no organ- CONGRESSIONAL RECORD — HOUSE ization of this character to obtain peace 1f it were not for Russia. Russia and her satellll.es are Lb. only ones indulg ing in aggression, yet Russia Is a mem ber of the organisation which professes peace, but is actually spreading war. Russia holds a powerful position In the United Nations, for the military bead of that organisaUon has always been a Rus- ¡lan citizen, and always will be. for a secret agreement made In London be tween hfolotov and Alger Hiss provides that the Russians should hold that ornee permanentiy Russia La recognized by ‘this country and maintains a cesspool of CccsmunLsI.s right bese In this great Capitel City. She can speak her lam with impunity. She geta all hi privi leges of the United Nations, yet her daily action Is absolutely against what the United NaUons we,, avowedly organised for. Under the United Nations and under the recogniUon of our Government. Rue ala ha,s a powerful position of advantage April 13 from which to carry on her cold war end cause u.s to expend ourselves until we are resourcelesa. That Is the doctrine put forward by Karl Marx. and the Rus sians follow that course not only gladly. but thoroughly and consistently. Rs,ia s only hope to overrun the United States Is to do it by intrigue and the spread of communism among our own people, and throueh our recognition of her and her position in the United Nations this process is going forward, to the everlasting satisfaction of the So viets. Bow long It will take the American people to rise up Ip thew might and de mand our withdrawal from Lh15 corn munlatic enterprise I do not know. But I they are becoming more enlightened as1 the days pass. Our only fear for the security of the future is the fear that our own people will f all victims to this Russian world propaganda. HOUSE OF REPRLSENTATWES Tt’tso.ty, APRIL 13, 1954 The House met at 12 o’clock noon. The Cha plaln,Rv. Bernard Ereakamp, D. D., offered the following prayer: O Thou God of all majesty and mercy, daily during this Holy Week, we are re minded of those events and scenes in the 11f e of our blessed Lord whose sacred sic nificance our finit, minds cannot com prehend. Give us the humble spirit and the contrite heart as we follow, in thought. the King of Kings who, on Palm Sunday, proclaimed Bis .overttgnty and ib. High Priest who, on Good Friday, laid upon the altar the acceptable eacrtflce of Ris own life for the sins of the world. We penitently conf eu that we eannot fathom the mystery of Ris suflerings and death but may we find in It ill the ¡u— preme revelation of a Love (.bat seeks our red empUon and will never let us go. May the days of this Passion Week evoke within- us the faith and hope that the urne Is coming when ib. whole world hafl be lifted by the spirit of the cruel . Saviour and risen Lord out of Its .gedie.s and tribulations, Iii chace and .oniusion. into the glorious orbit of Jus tice end righteousness, peace, and good wilL In Rb name we offer our prayer, Amen The Journal of the proceedings of yesterday was tead and approved. SPECIAL ORDš ORANT Mr. BAILEY asked and was given per is5iOO to address the Rouse for 30 min utes on Wednesday next, following any special orders heretofore entered. STAND PM. MR. DULLES Mr. BYRD. Mr. Speaker, X ask unani mous consent to address the House for I minute and to revise and extend my re marks The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from West VIzgtnia There was no obitectioc. Mr. BYRD. )dr, Speaker, recently Mr. Harold Stamen. Director of Foreign Aid Operations, went to London to con fer on the easing of restrictiona on nat West trade, and the United States sus tained a diplomatic defeat. Tb. Brit ish-French view obtained, not only to the extent of encouraging more That— West trade but also in the agreement to revise thoroughly tite definition of what constitutes strategic goods. One of the primary conflicts between Red totalitarian philosophy and eco nomic democracy is the unen”g con- test to demonstrate tite superiority of the respective system. Clearly, the eco nomic philosophy of Western democracy has proved its supclontty; so, with the cold war in full force, with MoecOwi campaign of bate America unabated. with the West pledged lo bring the op portliDities of self -determination W capUve peoples, what do we do? We surrender et one fell swoop the eco nonio advantages we have won In the struggle against comm”' Moreover, tite prom today. Mr. Speak er, brings us the disquieting news that Anthony £d.n, British Foreign Minister, Is presently endeavoring to persuade Secretary of Stale Dufles Lo retrain from seeking a unified warning from the West to the Communist bloc against any pos sible aggression In SoutheUt Asia. Mr. Dulles flew to Landen In an effort to eL tite Western Powers to present a united ftcnt on this crucial imue. But I am sed Lo say he has been met apparently with titi old ostrich-like pse—Munich appease ment hflem This kind of weak. in decisive, vacillating policy, Mr. Speaker. never protects the peace; It only Invites war. Now, as never before I the time tos constant vigilance. The a,,i1ni.tUon and the Congress need to be ever alert to new and subtle forms of appeasement. Peace through strength must be OUf policy, and it should be implemented in all of Ib varied forms and ramifications. Stand firm. Mr. DuUes. stand firm. THE lATE JOSEPH P. TUMIJLTY The SPEA. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from New jersey tMr. HAIT). Mr. HART. Mr. Speaker, on last Thursday morning I was profoundly shocked and saddened by the receipt of news that Joseph P. Tumuity, who bad been confidential secretary to Woodrow Wilson as Governor of New Jersei and as President of the United states, was deed. The l&.dIng newspapers of the Nation and the radio Informed readers and listeners of this ‘.ragic event. But their accounts dealt almost altogether with the achievements and influence of Mr. Tumulty after his arrival upon the national seine. The fullest and most moving of these reports and the beet that bas came to my attention Ls that which David Lawrence wrote In his syndicated column for April 12. which I ssafl Insert In th. Race» Immediately after mr re marks. Mr. Lawrence, highly talented observer of publie affairs, was well ac quainted with both Woodrow Wilson and Mr. Tumulty before their advent to Wkinrton. In fict. be had been a stu dent of Woodrc, Wilson while in at tendance at Princeton University. But. the sad InteUlgence of Mr. Tumuitys death set me to Indulging In recollections. recollections of days long, long ago. and of fine men associated with them, nearLy aU of whom have passed to their reward. litare been thinking of the Persian poet. and of the cruel finger which having writ moves relentlessly on. I bave been thinking back four decades and more. il most to the turn of the cetu_ry. After a long period of complacency, de mocracy was stirring ?.galn. It was com ing alive to the realization that it was being throttled by overpowering forces. that devices conceived by cunning groups of men were frustrating itS larg er purposes, an..å that it uat bestir it—3066 cnd firmly based upon the Con.stlt.ution. and unless it can be abrogated our great Republic cannot be taken Into this spur. ¡cus world government. Ours ¡s the only Government in the world that unqualifiedly exista for the peopie The people built it. It was done by u,em. It was done for them. Most foreign countries have the opposite view. ‘There the people exist for the govern. ment. How Ln the world can true, loyal Americans believe that a Government like ours could mix with governments of opposite viewa, end present a mongrel world government that does not believe in our ConsiltuUon? / The avowed purpose of the United Na Uons was to bring peace to the world. It had a great appeal to all classes, be-. cause in this country the people do not want war. But time has revealed the fact that the United Nations is more concerned with changing the ConsUtu lion of the United Stales than it IS with orId peace. We would need no organ- CONGRESSIONAL RECORD — HOUSE IzaUon of this character to obtain peace If Ii were not for Russia. Russia and her satellites are the only ones indulg ing in aggression, yet Russia is a mem ber of the organization which professes peace, but is actually spreading war. Russia holds a powerful position In tile United Nations, for the military head of that organization has always been e Rus ¡lan citizen, and always will be, for a secret agreement made in London be tween Molotov and Alger Hiss provides that the Russians should hold that oee permsnenuy. Russia Is recognized by ‘this country and maintains a cesspool of Communists right here in this great Capita] City. She can speak her 15m with impunity. She gets aU the privi leges of the United Nations, yet her daily action is absolutely against what the United Nations was avowedly organized for. Under the United Nations and under the recognition of our Government. Rus ¡la has a powerful position oC advantage April 13 from which to carry on her cold war and cause us to expend ourselves until we are resourcelesa That Is the doctrine put forward bi Karl Marx. and the Rus sians follow that course not only gladly but thoroughly and consistently. Russ1as only hope to overrun the United Slates is to do it by intrigue and the spread of communLsm among our own people, and through our recogniUon of her and her position in the United Nations this process is going forward, to the everlasting satisfaction of the So viets. Row long it will take the American people to rise up in tneir might and de mend our withdrawal from this corn munlstlc enterprise I do not know. But they are becoming more enlightened as the days pass. Our only fear for the security of the future is the fear that our own people will fill victims to this Russian world propaganda. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATWES Tttso.ty, APRIL 13, 1954 The Mouse met at 12 o’clock noon. The Chaplain. Rev. Bernard Brasframp, D. D.. offered the f allowing prayer: O Thou God of all majesty end mercy, daily during this MoJ Week, we are re minded of those events and scenes in the Life of our blessed Lord whose sacred iii nl&ance our n1te minds cannot com prehend. Give us the humble ¡91x11 and the contrite heart u we follow, In thought. the King of Kings who, on Palm Sunday, proclaimed RIs sovereignly and the Mliii Priest who, on Good Friday laid U9OC the sitar the acceptable sacrlflce of His wn life for the sins of the world. We penitently confess that we cannot !athozn the mystery of Ris suferinss and leath but may we tnd in it 5.13 the su sreme revelation of a love that seeks our edemption and will never let us go. May the dam of this Paseion Week cvolce within us the faith and hope that he time Is coming when the whole world hail be lifted by the spirit of the croci Saviour and risen Lord out of its .gedies and tribulations. its chaos and onfusion. Into the glorious orbit of lus ice and rIghteousness, peace, and good vIII. lu Ris name we offer our prayer. The Journal of the proceedings of ‘esterday was read and approved. SPECIAL ORDER CIRAN’IED Mr. BAflEY asked and was given per nisnon to address the House for SO mm itas on Wednesday next, following any pecil orders heretofore entered. SThRD FIRM. MR. Dtfl1 Mr. BYRD. Mr. Speaker. I ask unan] tous consent to address the House for 1 ainute and to revise and extend my re The SPEAKER. Is there ob)ection to the request of the gentleman from West Virginia? There was no objtection, Mr. BYRD. Mr, Speaker, recently Mr. Harold Stassen, Director of Foreign Aid Operations, went to London to con ter on the easing of restrictions on East- West trade, and the United Statu su. taled a diplomatic defeat. The Dril ish-P’rench view obtained, not only to the extent of encouraging more Zut— West trade but also in the agreement to reve thoroughly the deflnltion of what constitutes strategic gooda. One of the primary conflicts between Red totalitarian philosophy and eco nomic democracy is the unending con test to demonstrate the superiority of the respective system. C1e34J, the eco nomic philosophy of Western democracy has proved its superiority; so, with tite cold war In full foros, with Moscow’s campaign of hate America unabated. with the West pledged to bring the op— pOrtm1t.Ies of ssil-determlnatloa to capUve peoples, whet do we do? We surrender at one tell swoop the eco nomic advant,ag we have won in the struggle agelnq comu Moreover, the press today. Mr. Speak er, brings us the disquieting news that Anthony Ideo. Diluai Foreign MInister, Is presently endeavoring to persuade Secretary of State Dulles to refrain from seeking a unified warning from the West to the Communist bloc against any pce sible aggression in Southeast Asia. Mt. Dufles flew w London in an effort to get the Western Power, to present e united front oc this crucial Issue. Bull am sad to say he has been met apparently with tie old ostrich-like pee-Munich appeam ment blindness. This kind of weak. In decisive, vacillating policy, Mr. Speaker, never protects the peace; It only Invites war. Now, as never before, is the time for constant vigilance. The administration and the Congress need to be ever alert to new and subtle forms of appeasement. Peace through strengti must be OUI policy, and It should be implemented in all of Ita varied forms and ramifications. Stand firm, Mr. Duller, stand firm, THE LATE JOSEPH P. TUMULT? The SPEAKER. The Chair recognizes the gentleman from New Jersey [Mr. MARrI. Mr. HART. Mr. Speaker, on last Thursday morning I was profoundly shocked and saddened by the receipt of news that Joseph P, TumulLy, who had bees confidential secretary to Woodrow Wilian as Governor of New Jersey and u rresident of the United Slates, was dead. The leading newspaper. of the Nation and the radio Informed readers and listener. of this regle event. But their aunta dealt almost altogether with the achievements and influence of Mr. Tumtalty after his arrival upon the national soene. The fullest and most moving of these reports and the best that has come to my attention Is that which David Lawrence wyote In his syndicated column for AprIl 12. which I sall Insert tu the Ricoao immediately after my re marks. Mr. Lawrence, highly talented observer of public affaira, was well ic quainted with both Woodrow Wilson and Mr. Tumulty before their advent to Washington. In fact, he had been a stu dent of Woodrcw Wilson while In at tendance at Princeton University. But. the sad inteljjgence of Mr. Tumulty’s death set me to indulging In recoUections, recoüectlons of days long, long ago, &nd of flne men associated with them, nearly au of whom have passed to their reward. ¡have been thinking of the Persian poet. and of the cruel nager which having writ move. relentlessly on. I have been thinking back four decades and more, al most to the turn of the century. After a long period of complacency, de mocracy was stirring ‘gain. It was com ing alive to the realization that it was being throttled by overpowering forces. that devices conceived by cunning groups of men were frustrating Its ¡erg. er purposes, ini that It must bestir It-A62 with my ftngn’. oeoued. Looking iDio the crystal bah reminds me of thor. distorted æwror, In a f un palace at the beech. In Oni 70U 1005 1k1aD7 In anOther y-OU lOok fit; bi tts the eame y-OU aU the time that appear, to eaeume aevml d1œeat shapee. You cannot blip but laugh it Ihiel lop aided redaction. of y-oui trw. ielf. When We tuT frOm riCrSaUOD to the mote serious matters of hie, we know that e thing of the same proc... is sitU at woth. we as, only what we want tO ale in a given att1iaUo. Ignoring Other deiaI. Trying to p.er Into the future is i diR- cult as we try to e.. with the miDd. .7.. Nut this we must do to prepare ourselves for ib. unknown, ivan though this combi of foreknowledge and gueuwork turn. Out right only IV percent of the tim.. Thata e good bitting average in any League. In looking bach so the beginning of 1li2. I checked ib. predictions of on. service that tried to gage the iwias. Under the haad log 01 personalities, or the name. of thor who Would be most prominent in the polit. leal nws, It mentioned Achesoil. 30711. Trum, Mccarthy, Mactbur. and Gabriel son. home are etill controveralal right up to the closing day. of this year. A couple feU by the way-aide and we have a bard time try- tug to remember who they. were. Others. u.’tm.ntioned in January of iNI. ste now In Ui. news almost et*17 day. So ea we look Into th crystal bill tot l93 we know that some names end some iCIUee that cannot b. sein there wilt coso. into ht picture as ib. year’s story develops. Cobfining myself to the probable tacloes. ben’. bow the first sesebco of the new Congrees abapee up. Tb. nominal Republicana are In control by a small merlin. Allied with 000aer,atlv. southern Uemoaa*., they ,tU bave a much larger maartty to work with. Thor. is .1- waa a honeymoon period When a new Presi dent enter, the White Nous.. Congre.. is dispoled to hiten to him for a while. In Laenhcw,r’a case, this haxmony may coo- Unu. much longer, because he will not la- Slat on extreme m.aaur.s. Prom bis Cabl.t selectIOn,, we anticipate a tusineisman’s approach to the problems of government. Ris appointment of an ac ti,. union leader to the post ot hecretu’y of Labor, on the other hand, show, that be will try to pour oU on the troubled watess Of soans4.ment.Iabœ relajione. 1k. ¡s toward a atronger Mediation Servioe. 3e be lleves that thete should be mare real collic tit, bargaining belw,.n th. parties and leu Iflterl.rence by the White 301m.. Row this works Out will depend somewhat on the eco nomic climat, during hi. administration. Some Oongrexnoeu, elpeclally Demoaats from lndustria.i districts. believe that the Taft-Hartley Act should be repealed Re. Chien Is all that can be hoped for under the new lin..Up. On firm aid, the chancis ere that Congre.. will have mar. influence than thg Whit. House. Fric. euppores will be maintained at 90 prcent of parity se a floor, Rural alee triLtatien will continue. The fermera them. gelve, will have more to sey on the iou-con servation program. Both parties hay, a healthy re,ect foe agrtcultui,. There win be talk from tim, to uso. on the issue of civil right.. but I feu thai thei. will Dot b. much press. Seoul security will go on sa Is. The,, may- be come extenalou in coversge but no ali able florease In benefits wilt be approved b, the conaervative eoalltboO, An chott will be mad, to cut taxe., but thie won’t be esey. A long as Korea and the cold war continue, w. cannot abed to penny-pinch oui defenses. There will be some overhaul in the tas itruCtur, In an at tempt lo bring acme oede, out of this chaos. Right now. it. Ilk, a Gross-word puskle that noliody can solve. With other,. I have been personally inter etted In securing statehood for Alaska and Hawaii. Con.ereatlvea. especially in the Sen ate have heretofore blocked the recognition which theas Twyitories deserve. The pror. pact, with a luger number of ooniervatlves now on hand. la somewhat leu than prom laing. In the absence of any change in the in ternational held, the draft will go on. As a law it will be cfectlve until June SO, 1955. In my opinion It should be revised because it presently fayots certain poupe and db’ c?iminate. against others. There I. not enough opposition In eight to forCI a Change In the seLegt1v.-e’vic, law. Universal military training will be side- etepped. This not a popular Idea. Only the mort necessary public works will be approved. A backlog win be kept In mini ready toe construction at the first sign of any drop In employment. Controls otor prices and materials are on their last lIp. Controle over wage. don’t meen otuch even now. Aid lo education la a thorny Issue. ISo one doubts the need tos it. but where It should begin and where It should stop Is a problem that can become very emotional. Congre.. will go elow on this. perhape pro viding Federal ecoatruction aubeldies only tm e.rtoin .teu In backward State.. Publie housIng programs will not com mand mucn attention Present plans will continue with come minor revisions, but the need is not u urgent ai Il was In the poet. war years. Slum clearance is alwayi a prob lem but eepsrate from the orn-sIl bowing shortage that ha. eased considerably. There wIll be a ilowdown in tarif cuttIng. We know that foreign rad, cm never be a one-way meet Il we ir. ever to cut down on ib. money w. gi’. to other free DatIons in cider to keep them going, then w. must give them an opportunity to sell some of their product, hers. 3t not at the coet of throwing Americans OUt of work. Alter all. w, esnnot b. expected to give sway our money and our Joke at the asm. time, Fed eral policies bave hurt eome New Zogland biduebles. without providing any cosopen eatery- help. fi. trend will be stopped. No TVA’e or Federal power-distribution net works are In the cards for New Zagland. This sria will be byped again, .v.n though appropriations for projects In he Wut will b. approved. Republican leader, from New Nngland will bave much Influence in the new admlnisu’ation, but what thry can and will do for us remains to be seen In Urn. they will be Judg,d for their suc.ese or their neglect. We hop, that they will hot foeglt New Nagland. We thought we bad enough unvestigatlone during the past year to provide daily copy for our newspaper., but the Republican, will make them loca elementary-. Tb. .Justice Department and the State Department ere due for the Sherlock Rolms treatment. No fila. Will be hidden from CoDteea Isol*ttonlsm will not gai far, Most Con gressmen know that we must have allies and that we must help them Foreign aId will conunue. but not on a Sauta Claus beaia with no .ts-lxig. ettached Tb. Ameytcsn people will Insist that the aid given be used to the beet advantag.. Foreign natlona will hiv, to lrn that they- cannot leen on us fotever without doing something to help themselves. What we do . I. that they- live up to their promises. ForeIgn aid may be cut a bit just to ihOw them that we m.an busine... Likswiae no agency of ib. United States Oov.rnmsnt will get what It u.k. on lie own say-so. Whq eppropriationa are requested a lot of whys will b asked Military epend Ing will come In foe a chois look There is waste her. that can be cut out without weakenIng cur build-up. ‘flhow me the real need for l1 will be the attitude of the ad ministration and the Congress toward every item la the hilt budget which. atrangely enough. wUl be submitted by President Th.i. man early In 1553. , GOvernment has gon. so faz and so tait during the pest 90 years that ita time wi lock stock ‘as to our position. On the do. meetle scene there will be f IW experiments. Moderation wUl be the eue. In foreign policy there will be earn. changes. The Stat, Depertment is up for an overhaul J. In.t.ad of sitting back waiting for the Communiste to make a move and than trying to counter it. our Oovar. ment will now take the initiative. W. will begin to make the first moves and let the Communist. do a little worrying for a change. Th Volee of America will stop whispering. We won’t bI afraid to beam b. truth to ail the dark placee behind the Iron curtain. The United States will become stronger mill. tartly-, and it will speak out clearly f rom this poehtion of strength. Arms aid will begin to flow to our allia.. beekiig them up and giving them more courage. Moscow will have to pull in it. horn. or risk real trouble. The new administration will not be pushed around by the Communist., Chzistmaa. the moet hopeful season of the Tier, Ii JUSt aroUnd Lbs cc.’nœ. There ire many gifts that we could ask for our Goveenment. and not material ones b. cause it seems to be getting all the money and thing, that It needs. We would esh in au alnosrIty that It be given character and ability. Sot the Government of ib. United States is euch a big responsibility that It need, the very beet men It can get. Urgent e that need is, we will not put it list on our list, because there is something elle that I, much cloeer to our hearts. There Is one gift aboya sil that we want on. that mankind baa been seeking ever since that blessed flight i.953 year. ago. it is pues on earth, good win among man. Although it I. not poealble to have our men home from Noria and with us on this Christmas. there is reason to hope that the end of that treadmill war Is not too many- months away. The men In Korea at. not forgotten. We want them to know tha. Perbape we wire tricked lato ar-calied truc. negotlatima by an enemy who seems good will and only use. it to gain an idvaD tap. But at least we gays that enemy a chance to cooperate for pese,. That he baa betray-ed it is anothet crime added to his aggreeslon. The fir.t thing that our Preildent-etect did was to go to Nina and alla UP the situation first-hand. That la the Up.cb to the future. We will not appease, and wi will not go on feeding our men Into an endless war. From no’s on there will be ,teppd-Up pmeasure against communism •verywhcre. The new Conpues. backed by public opin ion, will woek with tb. adminl4tratMn to make the, Nation stronger In every way. That Is the only road to peace. Oar Liberty Mint Be Guart!ed lb,NSION OP REMARKS o, HON. JOHN W. BRICKER o, orno IN TN! 5(Š1T OP TRZ tINfltU 5TATS Friday. ¡anltaly 9. 19S3 Mr. BR!CKER. Mr. President. I ask unanimous consent to have printed tri the Appendix of the Rscoso an editorial entitled “Our Llbeity Must Be GuS rd*ð,” publIshed w the Ohio State Journz.l of December 19, 19. IL deals wtl,CnaW COtijGTŒSSIONAL RECORD — APPENDIXtUtKLLU1NAL K1L..U1U) — AI’k’.NULX AbJ ReSoIuUofl 1. VtllCh X aubozitted on of tflt.rnatlocel law. no aeco_tc We ibcuid be at 1._t .. concerned abolit Wed.nesdbi. political FIgb ere beyond 1h. reach oS 1h. the rreedom of our po.t.rlty Ii WIf• Our There betng no objection,- the ethtorleI P° It DOW FI In toiditbœ. who liiIted OD ê 8U1 Ct Right.. was ordered to be pttuted tu the ReCOSO 0OVfl.nt under 1h. ConStitution. W• .hould 001 bæitat. to amend the Con. 0ur Stat. 0.partment, 8.wœ n. •tituuou now to luttant., that 1reedo any as f oliows: ha. saId, ,a promotlEg this reeotut)ooary or. th*n dtd our forebears when they 001 Lllr ¡tuer Ss Ousisee t.pi theory by .tat._eote that 1h. dlatiflc- amended It with lb. Arel 10 amendments, To Americana their freedom ._m. md.- 1100 betw.,O tê4n and docautic atair, the 3111 at Right.. .1,uctibis—becau.. tb.y ha.. Oct haowa a li VIYIUaII7 DOflerlalent’ nêtionai lit. without it. They rely oc 1h. At the Urne the CoOStitUtio@ wee tub. CoaeUtuUcn and the Sill of Rights to iwo- 1tted to the Stale. for raU&atlo in tact Sham. Sceau.. the Declaration cf z. Ifll4L ther. warn a wide.preeA feelIng that SLat.m.aL of Polky by Joseph H. Fr.ešI1, Gepead.uci spant. cl their unaUeonble did not 1e. .uctsat ciente., of liberty right. they are prca. ta think their liberty O Individual citleen. and it wee u.oary for Director of Price Stabdt.atioe cannot be taken away 1h. ijt•i to pFvii early SUbIOUê1O of _____ Today there is a very real and preetut ê Sill OC RightS 10 1h. plople ID Ceder to t ______ threat to Lb. freedom guaranteed to us by the Constitution ratiSed Such ê 3111 of L ¡ nr’lfflON OF P.1ARKS our ConstituLi and it. 3111 at Right.. ¡t Right. we. promptly iubmItted and joined - le in the propoee United Nations Covenant SO 1h. .titutlcn. on fluman Right. whIch Ii favored by the The Sill of Right. In oui Conetitutlon pto. HON. PAUL H. DOUGLAS Stats Department under t. miman edmin- tecla the people agatnat my abridgment cf I.U*tloD êfld which. in It. Snal form. wiU tTe.dO cf aP1ch. freedom Of the prom aLO or U1,DIOIS eom• before the United Stata. SenaS. foe Of religion. Et guaientaee them nt OSi4ATS OP T U)umu STATES nticatlou te trial by jury, protects that? property trvm The danger to the treeoom of the Amen- ••lZ• without due proc... at law and FTS44V. Jmawy 9.1953 can people 1s . san., WIC ihieLds Sham from ornaI lad Inhuman pun. Constitution In general, hamming from a labmenta. Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. Prtstdent, T ask loophole In the Conetitution by which the Z4t U ¡00h St a few evamplee of bow the a! nhImj consent that there be printed United Nations charte,, having 3W at Right. end the propœ.4 U. N. Co,.- In the Appendix of the Rscoeo a state- by Sb. Senate a a treaty, may b. bold to aLfil on Roman Right. would be In .cict. ment Issued by Joaepb H. Preehill. newly aupersed. the Constitution. The 3111 of Right. eaye: “CoDge .hill appointed DIrector of Price Stabilisa In order to limit - • of make no law reep.cung an eetabUahment of to tito poucy which bi future end to f creetail a 1m. of Amen- reUglon or prohibiting Lb. tree .zarcl.. that. oce will follow. can liberty through United Nation. cove- and other treatim. nsr , Sut 1f the U. N. Covenant wue to become There being no objection. e state. of Ohio, eevœsl month. -_- our “rJpt5 )• by treaty b. le what ment was ordered to be printed In the pope0 an a’’drn.nt to the Constitution freedom of rCtigion wetild mean to the more Rzcom. es follows: of 1h. United Stat... The Siimen amend. than MO Luths ID America today: ,..( W. coneteatly bear end read claim, that ment will be one of the m_t important ‘?iiedom to manif_t one, religion or b.. tns.uon Is no langer a fact or a danger in cl beelne.. befar. the new 000gm.. Uek ahall b. lubject only to .uck Untie- 1h). country, and thee 1h. price itablimation ccv.fllng in January. tians at. peeeuant to law and are reseon- pinpam has .e,ved Ile ula— If submitted b7 Congre.. and rattßed by ab). and ieeeary to pelee: public lately, me.. ,tatm.autS. to my honeSt opInion, three-fourth. Cf 1b State.. lb. Seiche, order. mcrla, or the t”nta1 Fights just aren’t leu., and I, for one, am certainty Amendment may take It. place am on. of at other..” - t p’nnlng to dIrect ib. operations cf the gre. I charters of American freedom Under Nich a laced CInUa.. ioligioti COuld ce Of Price StabiItIon e. though they UnI... It le adopted, the dock of i.rni- be ,upprem.d on the gTotmda that public ,, cen freedom may b. UIYU.4 ‘,e eef.ty was threatened—and thu. ê Cou- Pint,! want to make n clair that w ere end lberty. am we have hDowfl It, b. _t 10 mua_t or Pe.clet war on religion could b. j very mush tu ce.a About ‘12 poe. u. r o,e,er. amI Of all item. on the BLO wholomie price Senator Simm do.. Dot popo.. that 1h. Our 3111 cf bt. “geom 8 indu e. of November 2e, were under price United Stat.. withdraw from the United Na. mik. 00 laW • abridgIng lb. tree. c00tin . heu.... he a o.IsILk. 0m. of epeecb. or of the p...” y Moreo,.r, pre_tJ_Ily every ma_joe etaumue do to. Sut be beflevee Sut Iba U. N Covenant Teede: ‘Fbe right ‘ebow. that prie., are high. that pouur.. to muet b’,ilwa,h hail! against Iba’ Of lib- to ..ek. receive. and impart information and torce them ven higher .Uil exist ewengly erty through 17ti.l unO, further through Ida.. carrIsi with It ap.clal thalle. and re- and litai .11 titi underlying factor, thai ._cutiv. agr..menu b7 which _t .- 0eIbU2t1ee, end may therefore b. aub)ect could ma toe a bee and very aertoua round admlnIstdaucn. bêve been circumventing the tO œrtain penaltlie, iiabWti.., and re,5z1c Of both consumir and industilal pelee .phr*l.l tzeaty rattiIoc power, wetad In t $. Uona, but thaea ihail be euch only as are ar. pe’eeeni. at. by the ConsI*tutlcc. p.0,10.4 b7 law and “e’y for the peo- Thu.. the Constr Pric. tades. which El. po.ed amendment would provide Section Of national eec_try. public ard&. mea.urea what .ach boueeboôd muai pay toe that “no treety or executive agmemen: ihall aafaty, health. or morale, or of the right., the normal item. of ev.ryday living, stood ai be made respecting the right. of oit_tas of tre.doe. and reputation at alba,..” 1.0.2 on October 15. up 0.1 percent front Ib. two stat.. potecte y inis Ooc.ti. Sitien could have belied much a etum., end September 11, and Indications are that It tution, or abridging or prohibIting tre. Penon would ch it, 5eDat Sascnza bit ê Dew peak again by November 13. Soma cauda. thcreot. pol out ta this poflaton oul “.tap 50 perc.t 01 aU Itsmo on Iba wholesale price At the tinte the Corutitution of 1h. United the approval of a United Nation. treaty on indu are within 2 percent at their 2.ye.r Statu warn w,itten, freetice drill with the trial and impleonment et WillIam peak.. With prie., at thai, lave)., with am- relations between nation.. They — Ostia.” the Aseociated P?e.a correepondcot cumulated vlnge and .tpendlturee at attempt to regulate dom_Ile at.. and 10 now Imprinned in Ccbo.lovakla In on. of record high, with the tens. Internatonat deAne the right, of Individual. in vertoum Lb. mo,: dlecefu_i In ow latir- tuatian, w. cannot iSard to be complacent nation.. Rights of I dividuals ‚e, by national relationship through lb. year,. about LaSaticu or to weaken our pilca can- the various govrnmenta.’ The Constitution PItIy-.etgbt Senatota joined Senator B.icwm teal eSoet.. Of lb. United Stat., wea ta. Ant written SPOD01 P0Pe imindntent tO Cer_Inly. Were we to do to. price. Would constitution guaranteeIng the rigni.. of the ConsUtUoS which would prevent the laor.aee eub.t.atLuily in many major areas. p.091. of a nation and it was a great Step abeldgemenl at Arnanic.n freedoms through Z am particularly œrne4 by the great forward in the history Cf m--. treatS.. undir “the new fashion In Inter, numbir of applications for price ceiling ta Thereto,., Senator zmczm point. out, national law,” crasse. and Seconirol which hit the OPS there was no reason at the time the Con-. There is not mimb chano, of the U. N. every weak. StitUtlon was Wl1tt.u to limit the ti_ty. Covenant of Suman Rights being ratlOed by ‘Through Octobe, OPS had cei;ed noce making power. so am not to .S.et the L.C- the SaLaI, In the new Congrom The Risen- than 15,000 appUcetlom Lar individual price dont Of American citlzinê, ¡t vis not con. how.? administration certainly will not etend .4justntunla, a LOOt of which are aWl delved that lb. treaty-making powers Would for ratiß_tina. John ?o.t.t Dull... who will outetendIng. ever touch thom be 5yeary t Slat. in the oe adminisUl- ¡n addition, since September. w. have had Sut nowaday, thirt I. a ‘n.w fashion in tico, le on record against raUScailon of the application. by 36 entire mOuette. for eut- In trn.tIonal law” Senator SaicKsa .ay,, O0,5U,ant, ,.,, 10 determina It every company within Which is to 1h, eSect that ‘‚th. relationship Sut the Conetitutlon should bq ern.nd.d’\ lb. industry should receive ceiling Increase. among cit_tn. of the earn, government and f now to forestall a Ion of freedom to our I undet the industry earning, standard,. ¡ii. between tb. Individual and-his government ( children and to or’..’ntiflg generations dusty advisory cam_tIle., repie.eniiflg t. appropriate sub).cta for negotiation. 4eS-1 through the power at trestle. end Si.cuti,. I ponte 35 Other indu.trl.. have met with OPS IIIII, enforcement b7 mUltilateral \ agreements designed to circumvent the Con-i sInce September 1, and almost without ex ttqatiqs,” Under such a theory at the tuno. etitUtiOn. cupIlca ha requcuied pom-tbrougbs ouCONGK11UAL KCOKD — APPhN DIX ReS0IUUOD f. which ti m_Itted oa of lDtnsUcsIJ law, no ,conomtc ol We .hoil4 b. et Iceet a. cOnc.rnod ahout W.doesdIY pohucel right. mr. b.yocd the r.ecb oC the 1h. tr.ido at o pt.œ1t7 l were Ouf Ther. being no objecUon, the editorial Poe” It aew yIeld.. to £orefetb.Te who Iaaied oc a Rin of Right.. out Ooverrzen under the Cocsutuuort W. .boiald not hiettat. to amend the Ccc. was ordered to be printed ta Ibe RzcoID. - 01st. Dsp menI.’ e.natœ RaicK eIituUon now to gUaranI., that freedom .nv as follows: ha. este ‘Ii promoting thu re,oluocer7 mor. than did our forebear. when they 0e’. LIs?v tKi,s c Ou*w.. legel theory by atatoment. that th duUcc- sm.ndid it with the dIet 10 am,odeDt* To Amtllcan. their freedom .,ma led.- Itou b.Lee, Ecreign ted domestic mRd,, 1h. DIU at Rlghte. Ih.7 haSe not 11 vtrtuaUy aOoez11tmat” natlnn1 life wIthout it. They rely upon the AI the tim, be 0eSSUIUtIOC ea. sUb CotltutlOn end the Sill at Rubia to pro- milled to the Stat.. foe rststIcc la tect them SecaUI. the D.ciaraUoo or . 1IR1-U. there wee e eldsecir.s4 ‘ StaIemeot .1 PolIcy by J.uph H. Freehifl, dependence speck. at their unalienable it did sot give .umcteat gualant. at liberty righta they u. prone to uunz tuieit liberty to Individual CII*IOI end it w.e noceses_ty fol Dfr.ct.r of Prie. StIitabon b t. .w’.. the .poa.ore to promue. early eubmiedoc oC _____ Today there I. e vf, yI5 4 cR111 of Right. to the people la eider to pt threat to the freedom guaranteed to ui by the 5IUtUI reUSed Rich a SW at ZXTENSION OP RDLARKS or Con. tuuou d it. RaU t.. Right. we promptly eubmitted sed )oled t. to the proeiee4 Unttd Reims. Covenant 10 the Oanasltouoc. on Numen Right. which le teromd by - The RU] CC Right. in Out Cos.tIt*itlon PrO- HON. PAUL H. DOUGLAS Stat. Department 4e_t =• ruman tecle the people against any of lefretion and whIch, ta lid Seal freedom of .peech, freedom at the pr... and or cam, bel or. the United Siete. React. for frI•daC) of religion. Et guar.eleee them L ¡31i o m UN1TD STATIS Iscatuon ea e fristy. trial by Jury. protect, their property from The danger to the freedom of the Ameil- eelzure without due procese of a, and Fvidm. ¡onsarii 9 1953 c..n people t. Se.O which confront. ahIeldo them from oeuel and inhuman pun. Oocitltutloc Is genial. hemming from Mr. DOUGLAS. Mr. President. I ask loophole in the Coozutullon by which lb. Lot u. 100e aI a few etamiile. oC bow h. twaflftnouj consent that there be printed United IIeUos Charter having ya 3111 at Right. sad the propoeed U. N. Ccv.. In the Appendix of the Rgcoe. s state- by the Senate a. e treaty. may be held to nahi on Sumac Rubia would be ta eolct. ment Jasced by Joseph R. Yreehill. ew1y eupoesed. the Constitution. I’ t R my. appointed Director of Price StabUita En order to limit the mope at tieatte. in mak. na law reep.ctung an e.iabUebment tion, with reference to be policy which th, tutu?. led to toesetall a lam of Amen- ° .- ‘‘‘ that e vU) follow. mn liberty through Pelted NaUcea cove sate end other treatise, R.naicr 30Kw W. Rut If the u. ii. oa,ewit war, , Thre being nô objection.. th• stat. Baam. cC 0io vim.i me’nte our .qs.me law by weety. b. what ment eu ordered to be printed In the piwed cc amenent to the conotitwuon freedom of religion would mean to the more Ricoeb. ne follows: of the United Stetee, The Snote? amend- than RiO f IlIbi in Amoelca today ( w. ooeetanuy hear end reed cialme that ment will b. ace at the mml Impoetant tieedom to manuse one’. r.hgbon or be. indaleca no longer a tact or a danger la piece. at bo..inem before ta new corìgr lets ahau b. sUb)ect only to mob limita. this country. and that 1h. pic. at.bUlmaUon ccri,eeing In January. a. aie peasuant to law end are rmecc- pam ha. served im meiuine.a. ti rJltte4 by Congre. and reUSed able and n.am.ary to pi..teet publie 111.17, These eteent.. In my honest opInion, three-fourth. Of the ales the œ. marais, or the fundamental 11(111e 3u.t a,ee’I true, and I. toe one, am œrtetftly cm,ndmflt may take It. p15cc ae ace of the o other..” • sot p’.”’g to direct the op.r*Uoea ot the great charter, of Amencan freeda.. eh a t.’c.d CISUhe. ?.UØ COUld Oce Of Prune Siabulailioc ea though they Unlew It le adopted. t e b. eeppreee.d on the groun that pub we,. mn freedom may be turned bech 175 y., eafeti va. threat.c.d—..ad thu. a Oem- PissI. Z east te make ¡t clear that we are end ‘Wes’ty, a. We bave beowe It, b. lest to manuel or Psedee war on religion could be still very much in bu.In About 79 per u. forer. rS”ouSIlsed. amI cf .11 Item. on the SEA wholseale prie. Senator Earenra not ¡w...,.,e that the Our SU] at Right. y.: Congr shall Ind, .. of November to. nit. under price United State. withdraw from the United Ra- make no law • e e abridging 1h. free. controi., lions, Re belie’se It would be a mistake to of speech, or OC the pi’” V ¥ar.ovœ, practimily every maJor statistic do w. Ru; he belidvea that gia country Rut the U. W. Covenant yIa: 1he right above that prime u. high, that presewee 10 muet br.alwarh Il_1f against the IDee at lIb- to 10e. yIe.IVI. and Impart inicrueation and toe’.. them eves hlghi cliii exist strongly ity through treeU.a eOd. futtbar, through 14.1. careim with It epeetal duties ld Fe- and that .11 the underlying factor. that executive a(Theœente by which the peat two iponetbiUtiw. and may thief era be bJect could mae. foe a now mad vw’y linon. round .dmlnhat.’sUona have been circumventing the e.rialn pesaltim. UabUttiee. and reewic. at both consumer and lndu.trlel price apirsia lively raußcauon pow,,, _ . liana. but thee. ahall be 515Db only es are are pmo.c eta by lb. Cocatitutioc. provided by Law and “-c—’y toe the pro- Thu.. the usIer Prie. Index. whIch Ris ,..opamd amendment would prOvide licIten cC national emewity. public order. memeures what ..ch boemhold mu.; psy foi’ that “no treaty or executive a veement aheil eafety, health, ci marais, or of the ligate, the normal itam of everjIlay Using, stood at be made reap.cting the rIght, at clteieca et e rePUtation at Othea” 1909 on October ¡L Up 0.1 percent from the United Štate, protected by Ibis OOnsU- 31Uoe could have belied rich a clan.., sAd September IL and Indication. are that It tuUcc. or abridging or prohibiting the U,. rou would cheer It. ena --—.. hit a new peek again by November 15 Rome esercie. therevt.’ patota out that Ible provision would ‘stamp 50 percent of all ¡tema os the wholeesle prIce At the 1m. the Constltut$o cf the United the approval at a United Nation. treaty on lade. si. within I pereant at their 2-year States waa written, li’eatl.e dealt only with 1.11e tuai and tmptt.ccmeat cf WUhism peeks. With prime et them, level., With cc reletlone between natIon.. m.y ¿te not Oatia, the ‘e1a’d Preis correpondant cumulated eaving. and upendItures al attempt to regulate dom.etjc aRair, ana to imps’t.oaed In Coechoelovabla In one at l.cord high, with the tmae international define the right. cf individual. In 55flØj5 th mml dlmgrscefui ept.odm in our later- eltuaUon. we cannot iSard lo b. pI.ceeL nation.. Right. of tudividuais wet. Cmd by national relationship through the years. about. Inflation or to weaken our price con- the serious gove’nm.n ta,. me constitution Pflty.eigbt S.netoel Joined Senator Rm t’ai .Rarta, Of lb. United States wa. the nt written In eponaoring his propmed amendment to Certainly, were we lo do co. prie., would constitutIon guaranteeIng 1h. right, of 1h. the ConstltuUon which Would prevent the Iacreeee eubetantlally in many major creas. People of a nation and it wee a gr.at step ebridgament at AmerIcan fte.doe through I am particularly concerned by the great tcewerg In the history trestles uad.r ‘tbe new f mahion in inter- number of application. for pese. ceiling in- Therefore. Senator Es pointe out, atioca1 law.’ a’ueee end decontrol which bit the OPS there wa. no reame at the time the Con- There le not much chance of the U. N. every week. St*tUtion ea. wvltten to zimit ta. u.ty. Covenant of Human RIght. being ratified by Through October OPS bad received mor, nlaking power. m ae not 10 sleet the tree- the Senate in the new gvem. The toeen. than 15.000 application. tot Individual price d0K of AmcricaL cltlzeas. ft we. oat con- bowi 1raUoa certainly will col stand adjuetmente, come 3,000 of which sr, cliii celved that the treaty-making power. would for ratification.. John Fueler Dull.., who will outatandiag. “et toUch thoee freedoms, be Secretary of State in 1h. new admialetrs- ¡ addition, since Seplember, we have had Rut nowadeyl latre Is a new f a.hloa in hoc, on record against ratification of the ..pçiiceuoca by $5 etlre induelrtea for mur. lnie_,,sj Iaw’ Senator !. ..,.. covenant. veje to determine U eveI7 company Withia Which Is to the effect that “the rstatIonsbip Rut the Constitution chouia b. amand.d\ the Indu.iry ehotald remis. ceiling Incr.a.e. sAong citizens of the earns government and f now to f or.elalI e lam of freedom to our I under the Indwt’7 earning, .taadaJ’d.. En betWm, the lUdividual andhl. goverumsns children and to onccmin generations I duetry sdvt.or7 committees repr.eeeting are sUbject, toi negotiation, dcfl. through the pow.r of treatise and Raecutite I iome 35 other indu.tile. have met With OPS niuon end ealorceuient by WUJateyel agreement, designed to clicionvent the Con./ abc. September 1. and almoat without ex tivitili” Under .uch a tbey the runc- eUtutlon. ception have requested paee.througba 008012 toi private retlrent plane would be fr.. to take suCient private lector employment to qualify them for Social Security upon re. t.irement at 62 or 15. thereby enriching them selve. at the expanse et people who bar. spent their working lives entirely in the ¡ya tam. The entirely lal but otherwise question able practice by which Federel employ.,. take early reWemente and than enter pri vate sector employment so sa to qualify for SB pensIon.. has stirred acrimonious con tFovrsý r.c.nt)y. L. tt.ntlori has b..n paid to a perallel practice by ¡tata and local employee. coy Irsd by public pension plana separate from SocIal Security. This advantage, Of COUTS, Is not enjoyed by public employees who have elected the 88 option. It turnhed them with a powerful motive to opt out. That this amounts to * profound inequity. subj.ctlng one clase of clUwls—private sec tor .mploye..—to a tax from which public sector employ... are exempt, is an Lncap. able conclusion. indeed, the injustice at the situation Is so glaring as to stgest the merits of a clase action suit on behalf of private sector work ers. Such a suit might argue that petitioners Were victime of diåcrimination. denisd the equal piut.ction of the Iws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment. Th. way the personal Income tax laws Operate lo this ares tanda to compound the injustice. Social Security taepeyerv get no personal income tax deduction foi th. money dlv.rt.d from their pay to the payroll tax. On the contrary, their Income tax liabUity Is cal. culited on their Income prior to extraction of SS tax. Rowever, employer payments to a private retirement pian are not eubjeci to personal income tax, They are an exempt fringe bine. St. The money Is sequestered. So are its earningS. The Internal Revenue Servtce does not get at these funda until employees retire and begin to receive them. Private sector wo*ers hav, no eecape from th. SS tax. And, of course, their income taxee must support tile advantag, the go’ erumint extends to participants in em ployir-tunded private retirement plans. A not unreaeonabie and certainly equit able approach to rectifying these Injustices would be to obl, ail worker., without ex c,ptlon, to p.rtictp.te In a Social Security system lleve4 of the welfarlat burdens it preeently bear,, inat.ad. public employ.., are dropping out, many with the Intention of reinstate. ment. ci qunUfication by “moonlIghtIng.” If the treOd continues, the consequences for the system could be disastrous. (Chairman Al VUman, Democrat, of Or. ron. committee on Ways and Means, U.S. Eou.e of Repreeentatl,ee. and Chairman Jame. A, Burke, ocrst of Mae.êcbttts, Subcommittee on Social Security of Ways and Means Committee, announce public hearIng, on New York Cttrs request to ter. tanate social a.curlty coverage (OF its mm. p1ev....) ‘ The Sonorabi. Ai TUrnan (D.. Oregoti). Chairman of the Committe, on Ways and Means, US. Bouse of Representatives, end Booorsble Jame. A. Burke (D., M).. Chah man of thi Subcommittee on Social Security of the Bous. Committee on Ways and Means, stated that they deplored the action Initialed yesterday by New York City la taking the first step in depriving It. City employees of vital retlremet, survivor, disability. and health Insuranc, protection under ib. social security program. The Social Security Act provide, that two years notice of a propoeed termination must be given, but such a request can b. with drawn at any tizne during this period. Once the termiaetIo, Is eect1te however. It ti Irrevocable. CONGRESSIONAL RECORD — HOVS Sfr, Surit. announced that at be request of Congreemisu Charlee B. Rangsl ED.. N.Y.). the Social Security Subcommittee mili hold publie hearings on this development ea soon as can be arranged. considering the schedule of the full Committee and the Snbcommlt. la., The exact dates and details of the bear ing will be announced at a later date. A DECLARATION OP INTERDEPENDENCE The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a. previous order of the House, the gen tleman from New York (Mr BENCHAM) Is recognised for 10 mInutes. Mr. BINOHAM. Mr. Speaker. a major event in this BIcentennial Year has been the formulation of a Declaration of In terdependence. written by Henry Steele Commager and endorsed by 30 Senators and almost 100 Congrestmen. It was my honor to go to Philadelphia on January 1 and sign this important document, along with a number of my cofleagues. A further signing cereniony here in Washington Is planned for May 12. The declaration has become the target of violent attacks by various American nghtwlng groups, attacks which seem to bear no relation to the declaration It- sell. The best response to these attacks is the text itself, and I herewith Include it In the Rxcoxn. along with a set of ques tions and answers about It: A DxCi.a**tON OP l,rramroewcK (By Benry Steel. Commager) When In the omarse of history tite threat of extinction confronta mankind, It Is nec essary for the people of The United States to declare theIr Int,rdspend.ence with the people of all nations and to embrace those principles and build thee, Inatitutloas which will enabLe mankind to survive and civilixa tion to flourish. Two centurie, ago our forefathers brought forth a new Patton: DOW W must join with others to bring forth a new world order On titis historic Occe5Iott Is proper that the AmerIcan people should rearm those principles on which the United States of America was founded, acknowledge the new crisee which confront them, accept the new obligations which history Imposee upon them, and set forth the caus, which Impel them to asirm before all peoples their com mitment to a Dee)sratlon of Intesdepend ence. W. hold these truth. to be seLf-evident that all men ars crested equal: that the in equalitIes and Injustices which alct so much of the human race ar. the product of history sod society, not of and or nature: that people everywhere are entitled to the bI.e.lnge of life end liberty, peace and secu rity and re.ll.ation of their full potential; that they bay, an inmecapable moral obliga tien to preserve thee, rights for posterity: and that to achieve thee. ends ail the peo ple. arid nations of the globe should ac knowledge their Interdependenc, and join together to dedicate their minds and their hearts to the solution of those problems which threaten their survival. To establish ange world order of corn pe.ion, peace. justice and security, It la es senLisi that mankind tree lts.lt from the limitatIons of national prejudice, and ac knowledge that the forces that unit, it are incomparably deeper than theee that divide j.-that all people are part of one global oom,, (tonnhty, dependent on one body of resource.. bound together by the tlea of a common bu I manity and associated In a common advan j tugs oc the planet Earth. j Let us then join together to vindicate and lreal1ss this great truth that mankind Is ‘tL- --------.-.. one, and as one will nobly save or ir lose the heritage of thouaa.nd. of nvllaation. And lai us set forth ti pIes which ahoU4 animate and : - our civilization Is to survive. We adlrm that the re,ource. of UIt are flotte, not infinite, that they are tir, itagv of co one nation oc generation, b all people.. nat)ons and of pcat.rity, our deepea abligltion is to transmit po.terlly a planet richer In materia] in beauty and UI delight than we Narrow notion. of national sovereIgnty not be permItted to curtail that oh:lga We ailirtri that the exploitation of .. by the rich, and the weak by the strong lates our common huuianity and c*Cr arge segment, of roclety the blcsslr,gi, liberty and hsPplnees, We recognize a obI1gaton to sWv. for a more prudent more equitable sharing of the reaou the earth in Order to s.ntl.Ln’ste hunger and disease. We e.ftarm tb.at th. resources 3f nat, :.umctent to flourish and sustain all Ut. cot Iflhabltanl.s of he globe and that Is an obligation on every society 10 dli those resources equliably. along with s lary obligation upon evary society to that ita population dors flot place upon lure a burden heavier than It can is’ We am our reaponsiblilty to help condition. which will make for peac. security and to build more effective chinery for ae.p;nf peace among tta tiers Because the Insensate accu’—»1 of nuclear, chemical and biological threatens the survival of Mankind w. the Unniedla’,. reduction and ecentual :nauan of these weapons under internat: supervision. We deplore the reliance on to settle disputes between nation states between rival groups within such alaise We alrtn that the oceans are the co property or manitlod whose 0epedcr ibsir innomparable re.sour oe, of cou and strength will, In the next century, conte crucial for human surtival, and their exploitation should be so ‘-‘- to servi the iOteresta of the entire globe. Of future generations. We a1Trm that pollution Sos-s with waters and flies with the winds, hat It I Dires no boundary lin, and penetrat defenses, that It works Irreparable d alike to Nature and to Manklad—iltro. lug with extinction the life of the sees, floss and fauna of the earth. the he..l the people In etc).. and the coon alike—and that it can be adequatel trolled only through International lion. We afirm that the exploration and lion of outer apace Is a matter equally portant to all Lb. nations of the globe that no nation can be permitted to expio develop the potentialIties of the pi system exclusively for ita own benefi We a6lxm that the economy of all la a SeamleSs web, and that no one can any longer effectively maintain I .IOSB of production and monetary without recognizing the necessity for clatie, reguiatlon by International We. We srns that In a civilized so institutions Of scierie, and the never at war bd call unan all na’ exempt these Institution. from the Of chauvInistic nationsusm and to that great community of learning an aUvlty whoe. benign functIon Il Is Vflce cIvUls.tion and the health and flees of inankind. We amin that a world without world without order, and we ceil u nations to str.ngthefl and to sus’ United NaUon. and Ita specialized and other Institutions of world order. broaden tue jurisdiction of the World that thIeee may preside over a reign March ?5, I .‘ I, I t ..-.5, 1976 ed wara but end as weil that lenos which le,Torizea our ac . times of pece. o longer afford to make little ourSelCel to be the capuvss of roroes Ove, which we have no ult our fears rather than our cell upon the Amerloan people, ou old of the third century of their atence, to display once again that enterprise. magnanimity and ,ialo csNed the founders at øUî Republic forth a new naitV and inaugurate ra In human history, The fate of bu bangs in the balance. Throughout the -4rts end bopea wait upon us, We .) Uarkb to unite to meet the —. 5T1ONS AND ANSWS Declaration of lnterdepend. of Interdependeace is i . statement 01 ., global view au he World Affairs Council ot Lpnla by Henry 91.ele Commager and 3-year. 1cantennlal ‘a edùcational “tecujiion. debato and study by cadera, citizen poupe and ¡tu ,d to produce American uiitia rhich respond to new global interde. nu ene Concept of “Interdepend .r.gtnat.? recognition of the Inescapable (lot my of mankind. problems—and op. Lies—extend beyond nkUonej hoe use been developing rapldiy through this WY Both Presidente Kennedy and Ford called fc, “ciaratiozu of interde lente” In speeches delivered t Phis Lila Many group. have sued lnt.erde. lente 5laLeineflt‚ and the term his be- e increasingly used to describe the con r*ry lntoTrellUonships of peoples and m. The WDrld Affairs Council accord. r catis the Coenmager document A Dec. bon at interdependence” by an ‘Ameritan Response”? ie World Affaira Council reeognims that ibm to global problems depend Ulti ly on the cooperation of many nat1oS. ever, It, seemed appropriate during this ciencIa) period for Amertcaw to take t of heir role In the world and to T.. ii their manifest deetinr in canteni ry tIme,. the New Declaration a Suhetitut.e for the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD — HOUSE The absenc. of effective agreements In many area. today constitutes a major threat to world stability and progrwe. Why Philadelphia ea a Conter foe Inter dependence Activityl Philadelphia U not only au historic shrine and symbol of a peoples genius in creating a new nation. but increasingly a world can ter (or international conference.. study and tnsutution.buudlng. It. heritage, educe tional and rsseareh InstituUoas. its geogra phy and cultural character have combined to make It e, major oenter of interdependence Investigation and InItIatIve. Row mn CItizens and their Organisations “Respond” lo Interdependence? They can ideuufy one or more of the global problems: then study, discuss and debate them as fully as possible. They can then communicate their thinzing to govern mental repr,sentattves and non-govern mental organizatIons In the field. What I. the Objectiv, of ‘A Declaration of Interdependence”? The World Affairs Council hopes that lis program will (1) contrIbute so Increased understanding of global problems and (2) stimulate efforts to strengthen existing In ternational institutions or initiatives to crecte new InstitutloDa capable of dialing effectively with those problems. URUGUAY: TORTURE CHAMBER OP LATIN A).ŒRICA 8013 rogatlon. temporary arrest or imprisonment. And what la the ratio between persecuted and persecutors? One out of every 30 Urn guayen. is a meinberof the Armed Pareas or the pouce. Due to the political and eco nomic situation. 300.000 persona, 12% of the population, have left the country since the eut op olpe. Amnsety International Is concerned with the terrible, consistent violations of human righta [n Uruguay. Under the pretext of combatting armed subversion, ever wider cir cles of peaceful dissent ere subjected to op pression and persecution. Widespread and systematic tortur, Is one of the more promi nent feature. of this tragic situation. The Information presented her. has been carefully gathered and authenticated. Am nesty International Is independent cud non partisan A nwjor portion at Ita ontinnin work lo safeguard human rights Is directed toward the .boliUon of torture—everywhere, unconditIonally, wttut exception. These four pagea ere not easy reading. The themes are torture, death, brbariam, injus tice and Illegality. Husbands, mothers. wives, fatbe. sons and daughter, subjected to the most brutal treatment. Up to this time. the urne of torture In Uruguay his received too little attention. These barbarous prac tice. must be exposed. As pan of Ita ongoing Csmpaign foe the Abolition of Torture, Am nesty Intsmnstional ¡s oegaing a concerted International effort to raise awareness of this appalling situation. Som, 01 these victim. of torture were known members of th. National Liberation Movement—IlLit, the Communiai Revolu tionary Party, the Communist Union, the COmniunlst Party, end the Broad Front. Others were people with no known political alIation œ activities. Amneaty Interna lIonel believes that governmentally e.nc tioned torture, whether to extract informa tion, Intimidat, the OpposItion and general puiic, or out of the petty sadism of police and military force. is morally unacceptable In the third quarter of the twentieth century. After the public scandal of the omciallv coTtoborated death under torture of Luis Carlos Batalla In 1972. the authorities [isve taken steps to prevent other case,. from reaching publie knowledge. Arrests hive been denied, Investigations stopped. relatives and docto,-. threat.ned and tntlinid.t,d, requicte for autopsies refused, bodies shot or thriwn out of wLndow to simul.te suIcide or armed confrontation. In spite of all this, reliable reports supported br cirewnatantial evidence end numeroua testimonies hate made It p cible to idenUfy some of the people who have lost their Ilvia at the hands of Uruguay’s torturers, We present here twenty-two verified ceses of death by torture. There is no help for these victims, But their familias, friends, nelebbora. co-workers, teachers and students desperately need the help cf the outside world. This information comes frocs .ourcee which Amnesty International con*lders triw?. worthy and relIable. lu December 1h. list was sent to Pr,sldent Boedaberry with the re quest (or an Impartial ou site InvestIgatIon. No reply has been received to data Luis CAII.05 RAT)1,LA,, 5LSt 25. ¡Cvi The A ret and last death under torture to b. oReislly admitted. Batalla was 32-yetri oid, a building worker and father of two. Be was not known to have been engaged In any illegal sctivltiee. It is beIlc,ed that he was Interrogated lu an attempt ID extrtct names of persons whom he thought might be linked with the Tupemaro guerrlllh move ment. No chsrges were brought against blm. either before or after his death, He was ar rested on May 20. 1912 and died Ove days Iater The oc)el death certlflcate read: ‘ “u’• anemia caused by liver rupture. The f:nIetr- of De’ene admitted on June 22, 3973 tbst the autzçey proved that Batallas 1I -‘, r j, ; [ 1• Mr. KOCH asked and was given per mIssion to extend his remarks at this point In the Racoap and to include ex traneous matter.) Mr. KOCH. Mr. Speaker, Uruguay. whIch used to be the Switrerland of Latin America, has become Its cesspooL The appended report of Amnesty Inter national tells you why. What the report does not tel) you Is how much aId, mili tary and economic, we are givIng that dictatorshIp. In 1975 we spent roughly $10 miflion in milltm assistance to Urn- gua3-, and an additional $7,7 mll)on of economic assistance In ow’ AID program. The blood of these tcrttzred prisoners Is on our collective hands. The report follows: ToRl’umn vo Dram re Usucoay: 22 Casts r onu_rl, not’ The Dedarat.Ion Of Uruguay was once known as a democratic ,Iland In Latin America, This small country inte remains one of the most power-of 2.500.000 people be,d maintained a cousu- and relevant statements ever produosd onai tradition, polItical stability, and a ny people. It cletrly serve. as an InspIra- nigh level of education and culture. Ail of to LLime who now wish to challenge such has chsn.ged fliee 01 our age as global Inflation, Beginning in the 1970’. the inllltsry that armament, International terror’ tered the established traditions. Their per ,intercontineniij pollution, and dIs5s sisteut Invu.v.rnent In the political life of • imbalance. of food and population. tuie country over a period at two years led e A Declaration of tntsrdependence” Inexorably to their assumption of absolute or Specific PolItIcal Action? control over the exeOgUve, The elected civil- It seserta that we are economically, ban President. Juan Maria Bordaberry, will nmentfly. Culturally and in other lngiy yielded his effective po lo, the ibental respects Interdependent. CCC” Armed P’orces. The name foe what has hap it,ly, if we reek to Solve a problem pened is the autgo)pe—the “self-coup.” , h global as U It were purely domestic, Compared with the immediat. military LI] achieve et beat 0h17 s short term takeovers in other oouutitee, the autogolpe Dfl The Declaration challenges Amen- was gredusi. The autagolpe was tisa first to Understand today’s world and to coup In Uruguay during thIs century, ways to cope with lnt.rdep.’nd.nce, Tise total number of political prisoners In hes. ways are to be muet be decIded Uruguay bas been .stlmst*d et between 3.000 through the various political (by Newsweek. JUne 2. 1975) and 6,000 (by .. viii democratic system. Uruguayan exile groupe). Amneety Inter- - DeclaratIon look toweid a World national believes that there are approzi 1’’n and/or Oovernmant’ mately 5,000 polItical prisoners In the cotre- t debating the pros and cc&ia try. What that mean, In a country the Site government, It h not an objectIve cf Uruguay isstartilng as of December 1975. Declaration of Interdependence.” one out of every 500 citisme was a detainee nier and harmony do not depend on cci poilticel charges. WOrld government or oonstltutlou, Uruguay ha. the highest concentration ‘‘ depend on various lnternational per capita of political prisoners In the world. and authorities which nattons Approximately one out of every 50 citisens abIWi LOF their c,m,on benefit, sometime In the pan suffered from inter- 5E E i4 LA) CIQ.t,z O.4-i..only eDd wart but end ai well that . ,ice-nœ which terroriSa! our se , ta Urnes of peace 50 100IST aZOrd to intke little )w ourSalVM to be the captives of nd forces over WhiCh W5 have no cotUlt our fears rather t.han ou? uoou th. Arnertoan people. on of the thUd century of their mee, to dlle7 ooce Igl.ln that —--,. magna Ity and vision thIrd I founders at our Republic forth s r.. r Dat)OO Id inaugurate lu human hi.lo7 the Tate of hu p in the balano.. Throughout the ii and hopes watt upon us. W. all Mankind to unite to meet the linge. cTTow; AWD ANIws ‘ Declaration of luterdepeoct rroognltlofl of the Larecapable fe.ct iny of mankind. problems—and op. lies—.ztend beyond national boy sheen developing rapidly through this ‘ oth Presidenle Kennedy and Pord d for “Declarations of lnterde In ep.eches delivered In Phtl. lany groups have LMued loterO. .tatescenta. and the tarin hat be. .aslngly used W d.aertbe the con lnter?e)atbonthtpl of peoples and ‘-, World *11.1ra CouncIl accord. j the Commager document ‘A Dec n of Int.rdep.uci.nce I RespOnse” s Coundi recognizes that 0m lo g t problems depend ulti y on the cooperation at many nations ‘r. K seemed appropriate during titi. Onial period for American! to take their role in the world a’d to re Lheir manifest destiny in cont.m thee. New Declaration a Substitute for he CONGRESSIOÑAL RECORD — HOUSE The absence of eSecuve agreement. In many arasa today constitutes a major threat to world itablllty and progrees. Why Philadelphia as a O.ntar for Inter dependence Activity? Philadelphia Is not only an historic ehitne and symbol of a people’s genius in creating a new nation, but inertasingly a world cen ter tar international conferences, study cod lnstltution.buUdIng. Ita heritage. educe Uocal and research institutions. it. geogra phy and cultural character have combined to œak. it a major center of lnt*rclependenoe investigation and initiative. Ifow can Citizens nd their Organisations “Respond” to interdependence? They can Identify on. or more of the global proble: then Study, discute and debate them as fully as poesible. They can then communlmte their thinking to govern mental representatives and non-govern mental organizatIons lu the 5.10. What La the ObjectIve of “A Declar*tion of Interdependence”? Th. World ÅdSITS Council hopee that It. program Will ill contribut, W tncr.ated understanding of global problems and (2) stimulate effort. to strengthen existing in ternabonal institutions or InItiatives to create new Institutions capeble of dealing effectitely With too.. pzob1e. rogatlon. temporary arrest or Imprisonment. And what II the ratio between persecuted and persecutors? One out of every W Urn- guayana ia a member of the Armed Poro.. or the police. Due to the potlUcal sud eco noinic situation, 300.OCO pervom, 11% oS Ue population, ha.. left tb. country 1100e the eutopoips. Amnesty international la concerned with the terrible, consistent violations of human rights in Uruguay. Under the pretext of combatting armed lubveflion, ever wider cir cles of peaceful dissent ars .ubjccted to op pression end peraecution. Wideepree.d and eystematlc torture Is on. of the taon promi nent features of this tragic situation. The information presented here has been carefully gathered md authenUcated. Alu nasty International l independent and non partlaah. A major portion of It. oontiuulng Work to eafegilard human rights la directed toward the abolition of Lortww—eveiywbere. uncondItionally, without exception. The., tour pages are not easy reading. The theme. sr. torture, death, bmrbe1t, InjuS tice and illegality. Husbands, mother,, wire., father.. enna and daughters subjected to lii. most brutal treatment. Up so this time. th. use of tortur, in Uruguay has received too little attention. Th.ae barbarous prac tices must be espoeed. As part o it. ongoing Campaign for Use Abolition of Torture, Am nesty international is organizing a concerted international effort to rai.. awarenees of this appalling situation. Some of these vjs of torture were known members of the National Liberation .Loveinent—3fL3f, the Costmuit Revolu tionary Party, the Communist Union, Use Communist Party, and the Rroad FrOnt Others were people with no known political afflllatlon or activIties. Amnesty interna tional believes that governmentally aanc tInned torture, whether to extract informa tion, intimidate the opposit and gamral public, or out of the petty eadlsni of police and milItary forces. II morally unacceptable lu the third quarter of the twentieth century. Alter the public acandal of the aMclaflv corroborated death under torture of Luis Carlos Batalla in 1972, Use authorities b.sve taken steps t. prevent other cases frost reachIng publIc Knowledge. Arrests hase been denied. investigations stopped, relatives and doctors threatened and intimIdated. requests for autopaes refused. bodies shot or thr,wn out of windowa to simulate suicide or armed confrontation in spite of all this, reliable reporta supported by circumstantial evidence and numerous teatLmonle have made It p3a- albis to Identify snute of the people who have lost their lives at the hand. of Uruguay’s torturers We present here twenty-two yenned cases of death by torture. There te no help lcr these victims, Dut their Laintlle*, fr%ede, neighbors, cC-WorkeZ’5, teachers and students desperately need h help of the outside world. This information comes frocs eources which Amnesty International considera irust worthy and reliable. ¡n December the list was sent to President Bordaberry with the re quest for an impartial on site Iizveatigauon No reply has been receIved to date. Loss castoS asialia, ¡(57 la. t?s The ftret and last death under tortur, to be ostcially admitted. B,talla was 22-years old, a building worker and father of two He was not known to have been engaged in any illegal activities. It Is believed that be was Interropated in an attempt to extract names of persons whom be thought might be l’.niked with the Tupamalo guerrilla move ment. Ho cbages were brought against him. either before or after his death. 8e was ar rested on Uay O. 1972 and died five days late?. ‘The oWcia.l death certificate read u’ anemia o.usrd by lIver rupture.” Tb. M:nlzter cf Detenve admitted on Jun. 22, 1912 thst the autpa7 proved that DateUse L5, 1976 8013 of interdependence” is a .tatemsnt of a global view au th. World Affain Council cl by Henry Steele Commager and Bicentennial a educational ii ucUaIiOZi. debate and itudy by ial leader.. citisen groupe and stu gued to produce American Initia- respond to new global loterde e Concept of “Interdepeod URUGUAY: TORTURE CHAMBER OP LATIN ACERiCA 1M?. KOCH asked arid was given per missIon to extend his yema l’ks at thIs point In the R.xcoao and to Include ea traneous matter.) Mr. KOCH. Mr. Speaker, Uruguay. whl:h used to be the Switzerland of Latin America, has become Its cesspool. The appended report ol Amnesty Inter natIonal tells you why. What the reDort does not tell you la how much aid, mili tary and economic, we are giving that dIctatorShip. In 1975 we spent roughly ¡10 mlUon in military assistance to Uru guay, and an addition.] 17.1 million of economic assistance in our AID program. The blood of these tortured prisoners Is on our collectIve hands. The report follows Tosiwazo to Dga’ni n. Usucoar: 22 Cases ¿.e Uruguay was once known as a democratic unie not ‘the Declaration of ladi- tiland in Latin America. ‘Xbis small country remains one of the most power- of ,soo.ooo people had malntalnd a conerl — tde,ant statements ever prodUced tutional tradition, polItical stability, and a il! people. It clearly serves sa an Inspira- high level of education and culture. All of to thra. who now wish to challenge auch changed of our age as global LnflaUon, Beginning in the 1W?O’s the military chat 1154 armament, InternUonai terror- wed the established traditions, TheIr per niercontinental pollution, and dues- Listent Invuirement In the poliUcal life Of imbalances of food and population. .. a p.nio of two years led A Declaration of Interdependence’ Inexorably to their aseumption of absolute r Specific Political Action’ control over the ezecutive The elected civil It eseerte that we arr economically. ian Preeldent. Juan Maria Sordaberry, will tizentally, culturally and in other ingly yielded his effective power to the rttpects interdependent. Con- Armed Ponces. The neme fol’ what ha: hap If w seek to solve a problem poned Is the autogolpe—the “self-Coup.” Il g1Ob as Il it were purely domestic compared With the ImmedIate œllit,,77 achieve at beet only a ahort term tavera in other countxtea, the autogolpi The Declaration challenge. Amen- gradual. The autogolpe was the 5a understand today’s world and to coup in Uruguay during this century. .aya to cape with interdependence. The total number of political prisoners in bi.. way, are to be must be decided Uruguay baa been estImated St betwen 8,000 ‘rirais through the various political (by Newsweek, June 2. 1Q’?S) and 6.000 (by of our democratic system. uruguayan exile group.). Amnesty Inter OC Declaration look toward a World national believes that there are approxl tion a Government? mately 5.000 polLilcal prisoners in the cosan Ithout ‘- ‘g the pro. and cons ti’y. What that masos to a country the .lx .-... ...nent, It is not an objective of Uruguay Is startling’ ai of December 1875. Declaration of Interdependence.” one out of every 800 duzeus was a detalOee r and harmony do not depend on on political charge’s. government ecuetitistlon. tlrugu.y baa the highest concentration do depend on various International per capita of political prisoners In the world, . and authorities which nattons Approximately on. out of every 50 clUsens etablwh for theIr common b,.fit. sometime In the past suffered from inter-3ENATE COGURRENT RESOLUTION $rre1 No. 113. (Not prWit.d). Leaiau,, ¿ournai page IlL 87 Maser,. FARRELL C.h.RR sad WOODIUNO. PROVIDING FOR 4. DECL3JLÅTION OF THE FEDERATION 0F TEE WORLD Xe Lb. Senate. March 9, 1943. WHRE4S. it z necessary at the pcezeut macfur. of ha- man afsirs to ,nlari the boar, of oraoaz.d society by setab lishÃag a gov.r eut ter the community of asUena. La order co prerve cuvliiaaUon and enable stankied to live it peace sad be free. te toUowcn; principles and objectives are hereby enunciated in TEE DECL&!LATION OF TEE FEDERATION OF TEE WORLD hico, the eocreq of sU poliucsl authœigy, is a manifold political being. H. Ii n citizen of severa] cmmnni.e the city, the state. ch. oatAon and the word. To each of the cocnminitics he ewes iaalleuable obUdons and from each be receive, eeduñng beneths. ComuuLles may ezist for a ti. witont being lacer- periLed boL ceder the stres, of idverty, they disintegrate unless Legally organized. Slowly but purposefully through the ceturies, civilization be; united be world. categrabag ita divers. loes.] Interesta and creating so interestiomal community thnt now embree,, every region end every person on th. globe. This commuait; has no government. end eouimuniti.. without goveramenLa persh. Either iks community must euceumb Lo anarchy or aubauc to ti. restraiab of law and order. Governments can only be ettiblished through the deliberate eorts of men, At this houe two elemental toree, are etrug gliag to organize the international community totalitarianism and democracy. Tb. former. a recent version et zvpudlated militarism and tyrnuny. is predicated upon he principle of compulsion, ralee tiroeab dictatorship end enalavea men; the Latter, a proved bulwark of the nghto at man as a human being and as a elLzen. d.rlvea Its authority from the consent .1 the governed. embodies the will of tree men sod render. their coLlective judgments supreme In human affair,. The corner staDe et totalitarianism Is the ethnographie agate, whose restricted interest, dedne the scope of its favor,; the founds- Lion of democracy La man whose Integrity t, invioLable ad shoe, welfare is its primary concern. The motivating power of the former ca violence: et the latter freedosi.. One teed, cipo. unscrupritous ambition; the other upon an enlightened stare of obligation. One or the other of these torees siLl now triumph and govern menklmd.. Th. present confit ma irvepremibi. and decisive. It is the chaUenge •t the ages to the geuerition of today, and repreveais Chose ‘pirigually cosmic forces which violt the world at critical poslod It human history to shape the destinies of men. This world cannot remain haif-olave, ball-tree: bait totalitarian. half-democratic. The lisa et civilized society pr. vent Intercourse between slave, and tree meo ‘roto being either congenial or profitable. It totalitarianism win., this cvnfiict. the world will be ruled b tyranta. and individuals will be alare,. It democracy wins, the nitren, of the earth will be united In e commonwealth of free peoples, and Individuals, wherever found, will be the sovereign units of the oes world order. legislative sad judicial sphere ceo accompiLeb such a task. CiviIiz.an no. requires laws, lo the place of treaties. ¡e in strumenta to regulate commerce betweeo peoples. The Intricate conditloaa of modere life bave redeted treaties ineffectual and obaolege. and made laws meenual and inevitable. The age of reeuea ma dead; the age et ass is her,. Government,, limited me their urtediet1on to local geographi cal areas, can no monger satisfy the needs or fulSIl the obliga taeu of the human rece. ¡est sa feudalism served ita purpese ta human history and was superneded by nationalism, co hie natIonalism reached Ita apogee in this generation tad yielded its hegemony in the body politic to Internationalism. Tb. frit duty of government is to protect lit, and property, sed wben governmv., cease te perform tua function. they capitulate on the fundamental principie et their raison d’etre. Nationalism. moreover. is no longer obi. to preserve the political indepead enes or the territorial integrity cf nations. as recent tiatory co tragiall; confirms. Sovereignty le an Ideological concept without geographical harriers. It is better for the werld to be ruled by an International soverlgsty of reason, social jus’ tice and peace than by diverse n*Ùoual aovereiguuee or gengeaUy inespable of preventing their own thseolcitlon by con quea, Mankind must pool its resecjrces at defense 1f civilisa tion Is to endure. History ban revealed but one principle by which fr,. peoples. inhabiting extensive territories. can nuIts under vue govern- ment without impairing their local autonomy. That pñriple is federation. who,e virtue preserves th. whole without de straying its part, and strengthens Its porta without Jeopardiz ing the wboie. Federation vitallie. all aatiòn, by endowing them with security and freedom to develop their reepeetive cultures without menace of foreign domination. It regards as sacrosanct man’s personality, hia rights a, an Individual and as s citizen and his rule as a partner with sil other caen in the common enterprise of building civilisation for the benefit et tnemiklod. It suppresses the crime of war by reduela; to the ultimate minimum ch. poselbillty of its occurrence. I: ren ders unnecessary the further paralyzing expenditure oC wealth ‘or bellirent activity, sad cancels through the ages the mort gages of ser against che fortunes sod service, of caen, It re leases the full energies. intelligence and asaete of society fur cre*d’e, ameliorative sad redeeipthw wutit on behalf .t hu manity. It recognizes man’s morning vision of hic destiny *1 en authentic potentiality. It apprehends the entire human race ai one family, human beings everywhere se brothers and all nations ai component parts of an indivisible community. There ii no alternative to th. federation of all nations et cept endless war, No substitute for Tie Federation of the World esa organise the internauoael community on the basis of freedom and permanent peace. Live If continental. regional or ideological federation, were attempted. the governments of these federations. In an effort co tuake impregnable their cep- erice defenses, would b. obliged to maintain stupendously coin peritlee armies and navies, thereby eondemoing humanity it dedmltely Co eah.aosclve taxation. compulsory military service and uttitsat. carnage, which history rvvvals to be uot otly crlmlaa]ly futIle but poeitivelv avoidable through Judicious foresight in federating all nations. No nation should be va chided from membership in The Federatlom of the World that is willing to suppress Its mLlItry. naval and air forces, retain ing only a constabulary eu8cleut co police Ita territory and co maintain order within its jurladictlo.. provided that the eligible voter. et that aatien are permitted the free expreeeboe of their opinion, at the polls. ¡t Being Our Profound Conviction: That man should be forever free and that bi, historie rights as so Individual and as a citizen ehoid be protected by all che safeguards sanctioced br political wisdom and experience. That governments are essential to the existence of com munities and that the sbeeuce of government Is anarchy. That there exists ¡o international comomunity. encompang the encire world, whIch baa no government and which le des tined. a, e consequence of the present war, either to be ruth’ Ir,siy dominated end exploited b, totalitarianism or to be ted’ eritid by demorr,t’y upon the priacipie of freedom tot all sa’ non, end Individuel,, Tut alt human being, are citizen. of this world eommoalti. which requires law, and not treaties for it, governmenL 154 STORY OF SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTIONS e ‘‚ L C o ‘ e g p Is .‘ di Pt al et ar Cs. pr ro. fu. LOI dom 24’ mo’ ¿or pa: Ho of Ce, Wo Sta iti S sud the’ S and R . 31es has struggled tram tIto, immemorial to endow the In dividuel with certain fundamental “gbt, whose very existence is now imperiled. Among chose rights Is man’s freedom to worihip. speak write, assemble and vote without arbitrary Interference. To safegnard these libertie, es a heritage for the human race. government, were instituted among caen. wIth onetltutmonnl guarantees against the despotic exercis, of political suthorict’, such as are provided by elected parliaments, grial by jury, babea. corpus and due process of law. bLeu must now either consolidate bi, historic rights or lose them fr generations to come, The ceasele,. change, wrought I. human society by science, industry, amid eeoaomic’a. as well a, bI h. spiritual, social end Intellectual force, whleh Impregnate all culture,, tuake po lltlral and geographical isolation of nation, hereafter Impos. suie. The organic tile of ch, human race Is at list indissolubly uoiðed cad can never b. severed, but It muet be politically enlaicred and made eubject to law. Only e government capable That the present conlic’t wilt determine the survival of fr et discharging all the functions of .overeigney In the eteetIv., institutions throughout the worLd. and that It is morally 5’cumbent upon thu eeradon. ieee. at the declared objeedve. et the current war, to federate the nataOaI to order to oak. pieu re. and hereafter unchalle.g.d. tm,dom for aU peoplaa everywhere, and lo otd.r to Imper t. thon. who are celled I. gee their live, and fortuna tot the tñ.mpb et d.mocrac? the poelcive asauranee of the incerruptthle utility of their aacridce. That World 7edertIoo t. Lbs keystone w the arch .f civd lEattOft. humanity. charter at liberty toe aU people. sed the signet ..themtlcadng at last h. union at the naaoo. ii tree tom and peace. That the universal ordeal, through which mankind Is now pealing. mar» the birth of e ne. epoch that viii ajm for all Izo, the indestructible nalidarity of dvllizaboa and the abiding oolty of the human race. That there are euprema emants la biatary when nations are aumooed. a. trust of civilisation, to defend the heri tage of the egea and m create inailaticca a.tied toe human procree.. In the Providence of God. m,á e agila z. this hoer, compelling la duty and unprecedented In r,epoo,zbillty—e tite- tul moment whe. men meet deeUay for the [email protected] et bi, tone taa Now, therefore. B. it resolved by the Senate. the flons et Repr.sentativ cvncurrtng: SECTION 1. Tbst the General Ae.mbly qf Pennsylvania does hereby eoiemnlr declare that s.ll people. of the .art abould new be united In a commonwealth at nations to be known ., The F.deration of che Wçrld. and ta that end it hereby en dories. Tb, Dciaration of the World as I. ipeciIeally set forth in the preamble hereof. and makes said Declaration e part of this Resolution In ch. m. manner as It same vsi. ra- cited h.reti. and requcegi Lb. Senator, and hlembers of the House of R,prerencntive. In Congre.. (rom the Come.oaweatth of Pennsylvania to support and rete fer a R,eoludon In the Congrom of the United State,. approving the prld1I. of World Federation and rtque,tng the Prenideng of the United Stats, to Initiate the procedute necegeary to formulate a Con-1 etitonon ter The Federation of the World, which shall be sub ætted to each nation for ita ratilcation. SECTION !. That a copy of thu Rpioletloi b. sent to each of the Senators ad Member, et the Roua. of R.preeenca tires la Congres from the Commonwealth et Pennsylvania. SECTION 2. That this Resohuteo shall b, in foU torce and effect from end after Ita rnUcag5ea. Referred to Committee on Federe] RelatIon,. March 9. SENATE CONCURRENT RESOL.UTION 3cra1 N.. 114. (Net preated). Legislative Journal page 7. By Mr KEPRART. MEMORIALIZING PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS To DEFER ACTION INVOLVING SOVEREIGNTY OF UNITED STATES UNTIL RETURN OF ARMED FORCES In the Senate, March lO, I43 Whereas. A etreng and wholly commendable .enu.meet exists throughout the Nadan In favor of the development of a pian or plana for international orramnatlon.. or at least cooperation, to the end that any nation or combination at nations may hereafter be prevented from izopoetog LI. will by torce and In violatina of law, right, and initiai upon any other astien or group of na tices; and Where.,. The participation of the United 8tat.e. In any such plan. If such pian I, to be effective. will noeerlly involve a modì6eaLlon et Impairment of ou national eeverei.gnty and Independence; sad Whereas. Any eueh modl6eatIoo or Impairment of our natloual *aierel%ty and Independence must be accomplished only by the President of the n.Ited State. by and with the advice and consant of two-thirds of the Senate, a. pro’id.d by Article II, Section two of the Constitution of the United States: and Where.,, Approximately one-fourth .t the vedas coostita cita of Lb. aforesaid President aid of the members et the Senate are now, or shortly will be, engaged In earring their country i the armed forces, sad therefore prevented from exprenaing any eleve or exerting any ioßnen.ce of a polibcal nature concernIng the inteomta of both tb.omelve. and the Nation tos whIch they are khting: therefore 6e It Resolved, (1f the House of Representative cotent.) That the General Amambly of the Commonwealth of PennaTlvanza, through it. duly conatitnted ocers, hereby memeris,Llzee the President .f the United Staten. the President of the Senate, the Speaker et the House of R.preaentativea. end the memb.n of Cengree. from Pennsylvania that the participation of the United Stat., Iii any pian, conference, treaty, or other sedeo in,oIvlug any medilcudoc or impairment et the national soverainey et independence .f the United Stat.. shafl be deletreo and postponed until inch tim, as at least tve third, et the citizen, at the UnIted Stat.. caving In Its armed forces at the condesion ci the current boetilities abali have bren returned to their home., releaa.d from inch alivie.. and restored co a position (o suent their proper voice and induenee ¡n the political affaira et their eounay. Refetred to Committee on Federal Relations. Maz ia 15,5 IIISIURY UF SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTIONS ,-. li , ‘lei—-- --—---- - I SS IIIIUKY uF SENATE CONCURRENT RESOLUTIONS cumbont upua thu gineridca. ii onq et the decitred obecdvea of che current war, to (ederece che ascio... to order to make pecurt, ad hereef L,, unchallenged, freedom (or all peeple. everywhere. end m ord.r to lup.rt lo thee. who ere calleO t. gier their lives and forclroes for th. triumph of democracy the peettit. ateura.Ce of be incorruptiul. iUuí:y of their ..ctthc.. That World Federation is the ke7ltone lo the arch of tlvi] issues. humanity’s charter of liberty cor ail people, tad the ,agaet authe.ticaug at last the un,ee of thi eau000 In tree’ dom and peac-.. That the uniremol ordeal, reeg which mankind Is cow p..elog. marts che birth et a sew epoch that will ¡mmi for all time the IndestructIble soUdatity ai vahsation end the abiding ugtty et the hamac race. That there ire enpreme momeOts lo history when aa(Iona are summoned. u truste., of civtiizg(iun to defend the hen. tace of the ages and to create inlcitnttons ..e.tlal for human procre T. the Pro,idene, of God. inch a criais Le thIs Sour. in duty and unprecedented lo re.ponaihility— fat. tul moment when man meet deidj toe he fi1_Jlment of his cone *aka Now. therefore, Be It resolved by the Senate, the Boos, of Represeetauvu concurring: SECTION L That the General Aseembly of Prn.ylv.zu. does hereby anlemnir dedar. that all peoples of the carth should now be united In a commonwealth et nabona to he known as Tb. FedenÚoc of the World. and to that end It hereby en’ dors.., Tb. Dedaraboc et the World a. le .P.dIC.UT act tortb In th. preamble hereof. sad makes 4 Declaration a part of this Resolution . th. urne manner as 1f same were re cited her.i.. and r,queom the Senator, and lfembers of the Rouie of Representative, lo Conre,s from the Commonwealth et Penasylvania to support and vote tot a Resolution b the Conre.. of the United Stares, approving h. priocipi. uf World Federation end requesting che Pre,ldeot of the United Scat., t. initiate the procedure necemary to (orJatr a ecitotion ter Tb. Federation of the World, which aStil be sub mstzed to each nation ter Its radicadon. SECTION 2. That a copy of this Resohitiou b. acat to tech of the Senators and Member, of the Bons. of Repreeent.a cive. In Congreas from b. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. SECTION 3. That this Itevulurion shill b. lu full force and efect from .d after It. rauße.itiou, ReIerr.d to Committee o. Federal Relation,, March 9. SENATE CO?(CURRZNT RESOLUTION Serial N.. 114. (Not prettedj. L.egiaiati,e Journal page 750. By Mr. KEPRART. MEMORIALIZING PRESIDENT AYD CONGRESS TO DEFER ACTION INVOLVING SOVEREIGNTY OF UNITED STATES UNTIL RORN OF ARMED JORCES In the Senate. March 10, 1943. Whereas, A etrong and wholly commendable aentimmst existe throughoat the Nation in (aver at the development of a plan or plais for Inlernational organIsatIon. or at least tooperadon. to Lb. end that any nation or combinatIon of nation. may hemf tar b. prevented from lmpo.Iae ita will bi torce and in violation of law. right, and jaseice pos in, other naboS or group of nation,; and Wber.as. The participation of the United States In any such l. 11 such plan ¡a to be efective, will nœee.artly Invoke. • inodi&atlcn or impairment of oar national sovereignty end independence; and Wbrea, ¿ny inch modiSescios or Impairment of oar national sovereIgnty and Indeendeoee must be accomplished only by the Preddat of the United State, by end with the advice and conseec of two-thirdi of the Senate. e. provid,d by Article II, Section two of the Coostitutios of the United States: and Whereas. Approz.im.teIy one-fourth .1 the voting coostita enta of che aforesaid President and at the members o! the Senate are now, or shortly will be. .ngapd in aerving their country Ip the armed tor. and therefore prevented from expressing any viewa or enarùng any inhece of a poiittcal nature concerning h. Interests of both them.elv.. and the Nation for which they are Ighting: therefor, b. It Resolved, (It the Rouse of Rcpresentaüve coarars) That the General As.embiy .t the Commonwealth of PennsyLvania. through Its duly constituted omceea. hereby memorialin.s the President of the United States, the President of the Senate. the Speaker of the floua, of R.pre.estataves. .nd the member. ut Congreso (rom Pennsylvania that the pertitipadoo et the United Stat.. in .ny plan, couferece. treety. or other actIon Larolving any modiSesdon or Impairment .t the natIonal sovereignty or todepend.ce of the United States ehall be deferred and po.tpooed until each tim. ea at itast two hcrds of the citizens et the United State. .ervinx in itS aruied tore.. at the cuednajon of the current hooti1ita shall hive been retursed to thur homar, relee-sed tram ucb service. and re.t.red to a pomùes t, e.siert their preper voie. and inS.e.c. in the political afairs of their country. Referred to Committee en Pedral Relations. Mar* i, j I j a •1 ,‘ II, ,. fMRY 17’95 17:57 No.006 P.02 Seismograms Possibly Associated With The OKC Explosion By Raymon L Brown Oklahoma Geological Survey Tuesday, May 09, 1995 Two instruments near the explosion in Oklahoma City (01(C) recorded signals which appear to be related to the blast. Station FNO near Norman, Oklahoma SE of Blast The station near Norman, Oklahoma received three signals after 9:02AM which could have possibly been associated with the blast. The first of these signals has a high frequency character very much like traffic noise that is frequently observed on these instruments. This event could potentially be related to the direct P-wave arrival from the event, but the relative amplitude compared to the later arriving Rayleigh (or Lg) waves makes this interpretation unlikely. The second two events have a low frequency character very much like the signals associated with quarry blasts around the state. Omniplex Museum - NE of Blast The Omniplex museum has a seismome ter on display which records at reduced gain from that used at the Norman station (to reduce the noise from the city). Admittedly,: having a seismometer in a noisy enviropment may not sound like a good idea, but the instrument was placed there so that the general public could see seismic wave trains recorded from large earthquakes. -4f-LDGICflL SURVEY 10:4053257069 KRY 17’95 17:58 No.O0 P.Q3 2 Two strong seismic signals arrive at the instrument at about the time the operator of the seismometer felt the blast. This is fortunate since the clock for this instrument was out of sync. because of a power failure. However, the recorded signal and the relative timing appear to be in good shape. In spite of the reduced gain at the Omniplex, the signal amplitude was large enough to cause the loss of the high amplitude portions of the signal. The heat-sensitive pens were moving so fast that the details of the signal were lost during the highest levels of ground movement. The twos large events on the Omniplex recording are represented by the white portions of the record where the signal trace disappears because of the pen movement. The total signal duration at the Omniplex Museum is approximately one minute. Initial Interpretation: Determining the location and origin time of an eveçt, i.e. a source for seismic signals, requires at least four recording stations. The two stations mentioned above do not allow a unique assignment of the seismic signals to the blast. However, the signals are recorded at about the time of the blast. Thus, even though the exact origin time of the OKC disaster is uncertain at the level of accuracy required for seismic studies, these seismic signals can best be explained as being related to the explosion or explosions responsible for the blast. —5-1E1LOGICRL SURVEY ¡D:4053257069 MAY 17’gS ¡7:59 No.006 P.0 3 Interpretation of Two Signals Each of the seismograms has two distinct signais. The simplest explanation of the two signals is the occurrence of two events at the site. Other possible explanations include: 1. the second event represents the collapse of the building 2. dispersion acted to cause the Rayleigh wave to split into a low frequency early phase and a later arriving Airy phase 3. air wave 4. air-coupled Rayleigh wave (1) The collapse of the building is not a likely to cause a shorter duration pulse (observed on the šeismograin at the Omniplex) than the direct signal from the explosibn. (2) The difference in frequency between the two signals observed at the station near Norman is not large enough. Dispersion is not the likely explanation of the two signals observed near Norman. (3) The air wave (a direct wave traveling through the air) is a possible explanation for the second event at the Omniplex. However, it is difficult to describe the second event at the Norman station as an air wave because the speed of travel would far exceed the speed of sound in air (1100 feet/second). Admittedly, the velocity of the air wave must be supersonic for a certain distance away from the explosion. This possibility should be considered in future studies of the blast. Based upon the information: ‘ILOG;CL SURVEY ID:405325706g MRY 17’95 18:00 No.006 P.c 4 at hand, it is unlikely the air wave travels at a velocity much different than the speed of sound in air. (4) The air-coupled Rayleigh wave is a seismic wave excited in the earth by a large explosion above the surface of the earth. The resultant Rayleigh waves then travel through the earth and appear to have been created by the explosion. These waves travel at the speed of Rayleigh waves (because they are Rayleigh waves) but their arrival time depends upon the nature and distribution of the air wave associated with the explosion. Most of the felt accounts of the explosion were to the north, east and west of the blast. Few, if any, reports of the blast being felt to the south were recorded. The destruction of the city away from th explosion was also predominantly to the north, east and west too. Thus, the air wave associated with the blast probably had a south-to-north propagation. This means that the air-coupled Rayleigh waves generated from the air wave would be propagating to the north. Thus, the second signal at the Norman site is not a likely air..coupled Raýleigh wave. Admittedly, the study of the signals requires more thought. However, at this point in time, the simplest explanation óf the seismic signals recorded at the two stations is the occurrence of two events. The Omniplex signal is a near- field measurement in which many different seismic phases (separate signals) are likely to be arriving. The onset of the large events recorded in the nearfield at the Omniplex are not likely to be representative of the difference in arrival times of the Rayleigh waves observed at the station in Norman. The differences in the relative timing of the two -7--tr ‘EJLOG1Ci. SURVEY ID:4053257069 MRY 17’gS 18:02 No.006 P.0 5 events observed at the Omniplex (approx. 16 secs between events) and the two signais recorded at Norman (approx. 12 secs) can simply be an artifact of the number of waveforms arriving. Since the Norman station is thought to have simple surface waves (Rayleigh waves), the difference in time of approximately 12 seconds is the best estimate of the time difference between the two events. The time between the two large events recorded at the Omniplex is probably complicated by the arrival of many different phases and the relative timing is difficult under these circunstances. In summary, the two seismic signals observed can be explained by a number of different wave phenomena and/or secondary events. The simplest explanation at this time appears to be the occurrence of two events. -g--2 GEDLOGCL SURVEY o :4053257069 MRY 17’95 18:02 No.006 P.0’ 26Km Oklahoma Geological Survey Omniplex OKC BLAST DOWNTOWN OKC Museum Approx 6.95 Km 4.34 Mi Approx 16.25 Mi Station (FNO) _c.:•. 0GICL suvv ID:4053257069 MAY 17195 18:03 No.006 April 26, 1995 On April 19, 1995, The Oklahoma Geological Survey’s seismograph station in Norman, Oklahoma, recorded a Lg surface-wave “train” at 9:02 and 13 seconds a.m. (140213 UTC) shortly after the explosion at the Hurrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The seismometer is located approximately 4 miles north of Norman and 16 miles from downtown Oklahoma City. A second t.g surface-wave was recorded at 9:02 and 23 seconds a.m. (140223). The location and source of the second surface-wave recording is unknown. Detailed investigations at th. building site may offer an explanation as to the cause and origin of the second event. The record is read from top to bottom and from left to right. The small vertical offsets of the horizontal lines are minute hnarks. Hour marks are twice as long as the minute marks. Date and time is UTC which refers to coordinated Universal Time, formerly Greenwich Mean Time. The Richter Magnitude can not be defined for surface and/fr near surface explosions. Therefore, none is reported. . k copy of this record can be obtained by writing the Oklahoma Geologicál Survey. . Oklahoma Geological Survey 100 East Boyd Norman, 0K 73019—0628 -/DQjhylÀ iii— - .LêJ(iL SURiìEy jf[i rl ‘: V’gS ! Iii e $ !‘ I1?95 -. . ! .1 p V J: I rl HI t ..‘ -j- ‘ •118:10 No.006 P. % % % P:4Q53 25706g ,. MRY 1?’95 . ,. :Nç . :‘ r ‘I’ ‚. •9-. ..% ‘I .s “ is r —/3-- ,: I ‘4. \It is noted that the FBI. after insisting for severa] days after the bombing that it had occurred at 9:04 am, had now changed the official time to 9:02, which conforms to the seismographic record from the University of Oklahoma. MICHAEL RICONOSCIUTO Gunderson. realizing that the official word being released by the government sources was that a fertilizer bomb was used to destroy the building and that there would only have been one detonation with this type of bomb, thus contacted his experts and furnished them the results of the University of Oklahoma seismogram. (This included two persons -one does not wish to be identified). Michael Riconosciuto stated that based on the briefing given him by Gunderson and the unidentified expert, he is convinced that the bomb used in the Oklahoma City bombing was initially developed by himself. He described it as an ELECTRO - HYDRODYNAMIC GASEOUS FUEL DEVICE. (see exhibit A). Since Mike Riconosciuto is the original developer of this device it would be helpful to describe his background and the events which may have led to the dissemination of the information necessazy for someone to have built this type of bomb. Mike Riconosciuto is the son of Marshall Riconosciuto, who was a powerful municipal leader and politician with numerous major west coast political connections. When Mike Riconosciuto was young, he was surrounded by relatives and business associates working with the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and later the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Marshall Riconosciuto, his father, owned and operated a “public relations” firm which included long-time friend and colleague “Fred Crispen” an OSS psychological warfare specialist working against the German effort to secure the atomic bomb. It is still rumored today that Marshall Riconosciuto held a powerful position within the intelligence community. His son Michael, was born and raised into this secret lifestyle. From an early age, Mike was a technological child prodigy.(see Exhibit B) At the age of ten, he was experimenting with radios, television, sound amplifiers, and remarkably enough he was one of the first persons to discover the biological reactions in plant life that are stimulated by external sound. Mike Riconosciuto grew up in Berkeley during the early sixties and was already making a name for himself as a world class scientific genius. While at Stanford University he developed a method of extracting nuclear isotopes using a laser(see Exibit C), something which has only recently been perfected. Because of his family connections to the intelligence community, Mike was a perfect insider for the CIA to use during their experimentation with LSD. -/5.-21076 with the workers or they took ue vaguest of heU measures against them. Omdal sources evenguafly l1.it.4 some 4$ kUed ind 270 wounded. Mr. Speekey, on this commemoraUve day, I want to eke Che opportunity W salute our American citliens & Polish cia.cent and pray thai the cowig. of their brothers and sIst.ze aceces the seal will soon be rewarded with freedom Rod true selt-determtnatloc. CLEAN AW. DEEATZ HON. JOHN Y. McCOWSTER o, N’•Eå IN THE HOUSE OP RRrATATI ven Mo,tde, June ¿1 117$ Mr. McCOLLWTER. Mr. Speaker. the House Will have before It within a month. the long-awaited Clean Air Act amend meats. There are many serious and aig nlfteant policy queaUoni which this bill must resolve. One of the most seilous, but rolativaty unpubticksed. Is the quesUon of prevent big the anticipated anticoinpetltiv. end anUconsumer Impect of the performance warranty provided In the 1910 act but never implemented. our Rouie Small Businem Committee. In 1914. recommended reductiig the length of this warranty irvin $ yeezs in 1 year. The Interstat. and Poveign Coin— meros Coxnmlttee unenimougly accepted an IS-month warranty—the compromise worked out hi the subcommittee. ‘Iwo experienced and thongWul re porters of events In our Capitol Cita’, Jereld terHorat and Dirwin dation. bave made the performance warranty question the topic of recent newi stories. Because they provid, a useful Insight in understanding titis problem. ¡ am includ ¡ng them In the flacon at this point: Irvom ib. Sunday Sews. ISay le, 11711 Nasse Swe. me ou a.zew Ame’ DelaTe (y J.?. teroret) WasNiNotwi —White publ attention W b.tng dl,œt.d by the pobtioni emeg over the p.eidenttel primarus. the U.S. heat. W ebout Lo bgln hot debele on the - awaited e.a AIF Am.nðemats et 107L fiat could have moi. edict on the a e breath., the piece, we WOT SAd the iy we apead than alœt anything else ibi ha ag. and Lb. White House candidate. bave e.14 and doue all ye.r. ¡r. e pity the ez mesa AIF Act OC 1970 ha; sot curbed the noalogw emWs$Oea .1.04 1h. campaign treti. And, te Lure seri ous, It sa pity that no preetdential ptraat Is ‘.‘g a big ses. of the propoeed changes la the law that wee adopted es the means toe cleanIng up the nations a by the lad et thi decada. Nearly a year has gone lato the ap4ng of the amendment. thai will be offered by the Senate Public Works OommlSe As 000greellonal Quarterly oheerv.d. every et.p along the way bee been iao0lbered by a siasU army et lobbyleb representing enviroamen. t-sUite. consumer poupe. 1h. .l.ctrtc utill. ties, 1h. oil. sud and chemical industries. DoboIi’e auto makers and local and state goverumenta. . Two major coatroverelel will be up toe juogawut. On. Involve, what otht to be don. to preserve unspoiled parts of in. EXTENSIONS OF REMARKS OOUAU7 S(SIt industrial 5mOe and Anoih.r battle sill b. t.ught Over 1h. auu. companies’ effort, to lower the .tandard. for v,hloi. .mudiom. 50th of ib... .truggI.. Sad .uvlrOzga.0t41 ana consumer orßnhsn alone on one sid, and Ib buslues, communi ties on lb. ether. Yet one tacet et the aute-ceubelou oculto verey atilkee ma as intriguing because the hattie lineup Is dIfferent, even unusual. There are consumer champions In oppeaitlon to each other. th. auto makers are e.e.aUaIly neutral and seem very poIlai bueinem poupe ictually sr, promoting the case. et “the little guy,’ along with their own. I am ret.Tnng to the amendment to be offered by e.u. Lloyd 3.nt.ec, D-TeL. to the pselormeao. warranty on poilu Isea-ceutsol 57111mo oc new cals (rom Se yare and 10.000 mli.; to la month; and is.ooe call... On thi surface, Ihel de. seund. like an antI-consumer mo,. by . prebu.inem asee loe. And that Il what 5*lph Nader and the National meen AI, Coalition of se.orIld environmental and conluawl’ organisations thinks about It. nut then you find a procon.umoe liberal like Sin. Philip A, Kart. D-lOch.. and others listed as es-ml of the 3e.bee. p. And ou Rad it bee staunch suppotl frese the lad.pandant auto-peru oompaæ. the cerner gee statlon owner and 1h; big Auto motive servies Industry a—eeUeu. And it W no longer esq to distinguish the good guye bum the bed guy.. Independent garego m.cheaiœ and parte manufacturer. contend that the “540” war rau.ty now on thi b.ohe eW. It put into by the In,tre.meat Proteotien Ages.y. prevent thea (rem repairing care and trucks until they ere five years old or b*v $0,000 miles on thee.. The American AuObUe Ame-’-Uoa argw the esleang law would pveotheUy toro, oir owsess to have all repels, and meln’eoawq doue b? now ear dealer. or ,tak voiding their wsrraatb.. That $ks. Sente.u and KarL ai aMi vutielt. ¡t limite a material’s ability to am a repairman of hi. own, ¡t offers the Detielt aube mohos a competitive edg. over Lb. whot Cute repair market and that threatens th. tutor. .siateooe cC the 400.000 lnA.pead.at parage.. servio, stations and other. who now perform about eo .eat at thi reptare to America’s Ile miflion mo. and U- Nader and the eoemimer-envtroemeutal ooautlon contend this far be unjuielSad. Their own (ear is that any tampering eUh the “S-W’ werfanty would - the proa — ce ear mohos toe quality em eon. trois. Set se, counter the pi.o.’t. of the -is-ar warsunty --t, since DstTeit etni will have to build en device. to a “S—ID atandard provided in b. prodhiOUon w.maty and not afectad by chaoging the performance warranty. My te.U.og oa this upcoming senate betilo Is that Nader ot4ht to loes and your eœ repairman should win. ‘oiLy million care and trucks have been built sine, the Clean Mr Act went late edict La 1910. At ini rite of nine million blclœ a year, shoe, covered by the act mec will comprise moat Cars and trucks on the road. Thor. la no good reason why in. RUto makers should be given e prospective macop. oty over the auto pelta and repair bucle... And It Is not pbpelcelly pomible tar the 25,000 new-os’ deaters to handl, .U bi arce and maintenance wc if in. caz buyer le gni.nj to havi to pay sa entra iSOO or mot. oc a new ear toe the manufacturerl Uo. “1-10’ war ranty, the roir from Amefican motorisU may even shah, up ee presidential candidatas who cannai e.eca to Sad specific issues to talk about. And It should. June 28, 1976 I lqo’u libe Omaha (Nebr.) Morning World. Herald, June 7. 11711 T4CCflI3 liTin “PIw.arm” 5v AuTo Law moi. WsalUwcvoN.—pei’suadiflg CollsfLguCS that nansuffier. would benefit from his amend- mist lo reduce the wirta_nt7 on poUutien control qu,mo on new care has bean “a seo.t trultretiag espartano,.” according to Sep. John McOollislo. But his smend.mint. which has been ap proved by a Hote committee, now hung pushed by a group cf senatore, Including 14071 Sonseen. D-les., and Philip Kart, D ¡t would lower the emlmion ooctrøl eyei..m warranty frese fi,. yea,. and 10.000 miles to 1 and ¡LOCO mues. P.alpb Nadir and a eoalltioQ of enviroli mental and eeremie orpnlaatloca ?Iew IL as anti-cosetoner legislation that would ana. primer. on mo seekers. ma Imsodmect has be,n hard to sell, Mc 00111.1er uaid. “beaus, It give, tUi Impte. mo. of takto, eoemthlag away from the con sumo. ‘It has been a mon frustrating experience trying to ip.’a that It Iæ’t taking sore. thing away, 3usd the iweree,” hi said. “This body dials so much with appear. nees and se Utile with eubetahe..” he edded. McOoUlet.r said under the Zv.-yeer. 10.000- mile wenunty mo owners would be forced to bave repaire eons by dealers to protect their ware.sti. Not only would that bare an antlconup.t1- titi el co indepuadeal repairmen and survive sateons, he laid, but LS would bay. 1h. mo owner with no freedom of choice. “W.’,. pre,euhng the consumar from til ing placed la the dtnault poobion of not being able to take bis auto where b. wanti to ha’, it asad,” To pot.et their tve-y.ar warranty. b. said. oar owaure would be reluctant to go lo en Independent repairman foe almost any repairs . T1 MINNE$OTA ENDOR84ENT OP TBZ DBOLARA”flON 07 IN TDCE HON. DONALD M, FRASER o. iuucora ZN TBk KOVU OP flTAT1VZ Momdeg’ line Il, 1174 Mr. Mr. Speaker, largely through Lb. efforts of Mr. Lynn M. 1iag. the Wmie,ote Endorsement of the Declaration OC Interdependence 1. a iough pubilcily bas .tteded Heni7 Steele Commeger’s eBoit so that It 1 urn necamaty for me to further ldenUty the Decisratton of Interdependence. How ever, I would like to Introduce the text of the declaration Into the Rzco;o at titis point: A Daci.aaaTrow or hrrzawrrcorwer (by Bicry Otaela Commager) When la the cewee of history thu threat of enunctiod confroOta mankind, il Is nec ei7 for the people of Toi United Btat.5 to declare thuir Interdependeno. with the people of all na’uc and to ee.brace thou princIple, and build thee. institutions which will enable mankind to survive end ciruhe tian to RowlIb. Two centuries ajo our forefather. brought forth a now nation. now w. must jota with other. to bring forth a new world order. On this historic occasion It is prop.r that th American people should readirm thor. pria ciptee on which the United insti, of Amer- 7ÆEA 5ÓN 8AJ 4 POe’T a€ i’72a ,i,. L/...L44S A/O W. Ó1, aVO / WE WA AFT CL S JE7A? F’’c! June 28, 1976 EXTENSIONS OF REMARKS lea wee toundd. acknowledg the new trials ogIz.s no boundary ltnle aód pou.tvage ,bob confront them. accept the new obliga- au deternes, that It workS IlTepItebI. dam lions which hiStory Impoace upon them, and age alik, to Nature and 10 “‘d—4hr.es- L forth the u.. which Impel them to cuing with eztlnctlcn the le ot ib. .ies, aril befo,, aU p.opl.. their coilmitmaut the 6orl lad taufll et ib. earth, the health so a Declaration of interdependence. of the p.opw Lu Cilile and the countryside W. bold thea. truthe to be .eiJ.4014eU1: alike—end that it can be adequately con that au men are created equal: that the in- trofled only tbxoi International coopere .quaLtUea and Injustlon which alct ac tiofi. much of the human tam are th. product We arm that 5b leplœatloa and utilise- of history and society, not of 004 or naini’.: lion Of Quiet SICi is a matte, equally im that people everywhere are .at*Ued to the PCTtaat 10 all tb nettoie Of the glob. and bleaCup of life and Liberty. place and el- that no nation can be permutad to ezplolt curtly and the realization of their fell poten- ce develop the potrnilaUtiee of the planetary liai: that they bare ea “‘.pable moral I7lL izelilve17 for lii own blondi. oblIgation to preserve thme righie (or pea- We erm that the economy of eu nations t.rtty; and that to achieve tb. eoåi all the 1$ I Web, lad that no cue nation people end natio. of the globe ould can any ioager edictively maIntain It. pece- acknowledge their interd.penöeaoe aZd Join 1111 of production and monetary ey.tema together to dedicate ilieb’ mmdl and their without recognising the necty for cul- bIelle to the Solution of Iba.. problema laborati,. regulation by totoenational au- which threateD their survival. thortliue, To ,.tebUah a new world order of coso- We arm that In a elvUijied society, the _____ pwion. piso., ustlce and eatwity, It h ce- iSlitntJ5 Cf .CleDc end the arta ai, nevar eladal that mankind (t.. Imef (roe to. at war and ieU upon all nations to eamapt limitations of national prejuthea. ad so- thea. InstitUttoc. tF0 the Claima Of ChaU- knowledg, that the fore., that malta it IN vinlouc oluonallom and to toe that greet incomparably dpœ than ibo.. that dI,tde iOlehhIDhtY of learning ‘n4 ormilvity who.. f tt—t aU people are pert Cf ce. global ‘boelgu function it 15 lo advance civiuantton community. dep.ndent on one body .1 re J and the health and happiDl of mankind. I eoco’cca bound together by the ttm of e/ We lF that I 0Wid Without laW I. ê ‘4 —‘ humanity and amaciated to a earn- world Without order. and is i UPOD all men advautore on 1h. planet rlb. nations to .u,aithec and to IWtIID the tat us then join tcg.t to vindicate United Nation. and it. .p.daihed agenlese, end realise this gr.et truth that la and other Inarnuucu. of )d ceder. and to one, gd as one win noty eave broaden the imisdiction of the World Oom’t. bce the heritage of ibowande of yesue that theal may pisto. over a reaga or law ct,Iiisattcn. And let us eat forth the piin that will not only, end war, but end ea wall aiplue which should animate end Inspire us toSS adTh41 viOtaDo. which toeTcetlea 0W U oœ civilization t. to vi,e. 5C7 ivan In thai. of pied, We arm that the raeomu.e cf lh• globe we — De longer abed to make little ai. Infle, not indulte. that they are to. plane. snow oms.lv.. to be the mps’. cf heritag, of no ene nation ce generation. ornta and (a.us, over which w. have no of all peoplac, neuma end of poetisity, and 00011t 0W tillS Nib.? than our that our d.epœt obilgaison to sant t. hops.. W. mli upon the Amailmo p.apl.. on ‘that poltuehty a planes richœ in materiel the thlbold of the third century of th.ir boanty. ta beauty and ta delight thlfl ne.-’ ehatieoe, to display oece again that _____ found It.. Nance notices of na”’ boidnase, uulprlee. magnanimity and timiD itgnty muet aoi be permitted to curtail that Which mahild the f cS Cf our Republic obligatioG. to bitai torts a new Delis. and aeugu,eev W. arm that 1h. axploitaiton of the poor a new oes In human hIsy. The fate Cf _______ by the itch. and the week by thu suwug humanity bangs In 1h. balance. Through ViOtatee our vewn humanity ad denise oui the globe. bierta and bopœ welt upon ______ to Large segments Of aoty bligs at us. W. rom—ce all “nkfttd to unite to hIe, Ub,rly and heppinwa. we r.olae a ..t th, grist Challengu. moral obhiat)oO to suive tar a we The Mianceota endorewaent Ii limply diet and more .qultabl. sharing Cf the re ‚maoue ot the earth lu ceder to am.Uœe*. tbêt.-4’0Dg enpport and endorr”ent poverty, hunger and dilema, of the DeelarCUoll of ZnterdeVelÅdence We aMrm that th rueourma Cf nature ai’. bi the political leaders of the State: the PuReicul to nourish end sustain an ib.e Oovernor end Lieutenant OoVernor. the preecot Inhabitant. of the globe and that atJflty, and inlnot1 leader, of both _____ there le en obligation on .,ary society tO ito’ Roui.. of tbo State legislature end the taibute 1h01. reacurce. equitably. aloeg with officers et the Slate. a corollary obligation upon s,aiy society to meir. that It. population do.. not pias. Z addition, a grOUP of ItrseOiaiu upon ici’. a burden heavier —- Including the chief Justice of the Miii beer. no.ota Supreme Curt. both U.S. Sena ,, am our respousibtilty lo help triste tof s. th. leaders of both major politliel conditloce which will make far peace and pertjep end other Important cithani. .cW117 end to bUild motS .bective commended, In a further endorsement. tot hauping i.CI macnj toi flI’ 5h salt for lgndlng their because the insenzage accumulatloê of nu clear. chemIcal and bInlo(is.l nam to the proud. thresteni Ibe survival of ilankhnd we call Mr. ZUluS baa done a utagntcent job. tar the immediate reduction end •veuttmL In tuIs 200th year of our Independence, aIi.iv.aai0o of thee. w.epon. undue Interna- the Dechrntion Of Interdependence Ii lionel eupervielon. We deplore the r.li*nce en appropriate Bicentennial iment, on tore, to Settle dienutei between nation r.mrmlng, among other thingi, thon. mata. and betwean rival groups within such states. principle upon which the United StaId We eRrm that the oceans ai’e the common founded end recognIzIng the flew property of -‘d wt01e dependence on crise. that confront u.. their Incompareni. r..eourwa of nourishment The Mlflneota endorsement follows: and strength will, In the neat oustiury, be- Titi Mrwto toois.KiitT Or TitI come crucial toe human survival, and that DictAetrios or IItrUIWZWDI3eCZ their eaptottation should bi lO regulated U R.cocn 151 ng the urgent oued to mo,. to serv, the Interest. oC the ei,Ure globe. ahead with this Iice1rnnlet Project, end end of tutura generatIons. Ft,rtlier revngnjflag Minrnsota lied W. adirm that poliutio,i low, unit thq ip rule In promoting World CttI?ettahlp Waters and die, with the nd., thet II rec- wI’h ‘le lirsi Rtt, Devlrntion. 21077 Bi it reeoivid that It le appropriate and hung foe thIs great elate to aber strong support end eudo,ecment of This Declara. tian of lfltirdep.iidenc. B. it further resolved that ai a eymboI of our eupport (or this D.clatatiot. We can-’ Uuue to proudly display the United Nation, nag with the United Slaha Leg at the Stat. Gea. Pinaily. we urge the imdunbip of all other atalo. 10 take Smilar action, If.etive Law Day. May 1. 1,71. Wendell R. Ad,ou, OO$aynct State cf hflnnieota. Nicholas D. Colidan. Senate Majority Leader. Robert O. Aabbecb. lenste Iflimoelty I4ede. Jim Lord, Stale Treaeww. Rudy Poepich. LA. Govoenor. Martin O. Babo. Spuaœ of the Koeae Jonu Orowe, Soeritary of State. Warren eainaus. Attorney General. try Ad.ru_, Rouse Majority Lced.r. Runty J. Rev.Ikoul. Rowe Minority Leader. Robert W. Maimo, State Audite,, we, tRi ueeiga,, command 1h. Stat. 0cIale tar this endorsement Cf The Declara tion of Jatœdepinduc. We urg. other etas... our malice and other natious to fol low Ita. em-pIe, which 15 a valuable step lu buUdIg a Weld Commur.ity of Peace Udœ Just Law Don Pr, Member Cf ogr / artm N. docum. (mauman. Independ. V cut-Repubuca. of Rico Reel D. theig. Jr., Psideai, 141s. Urban Os.tien. Odoeg. O. Melar, Praddiet. Mina. State Bar An. T. M, fliobee, President, World Pederalista Kber M, Summwy. UI. Senator. David Roe, Preeldont, idln, AFL-CIO. Roboet J. oeaa, ColiC ¡celici, Wan. Su preme Com Joery ‘ Pwseuat, Leegue of Womia Vows, John a. Roach, ArchbIshop of Wnpolts b. St. Paul. Walter P. —“-‘.. U.S. Senator. V Reek BooSt, Coebusan, Miss. DPL Petty. A. O. th.een, Jr, laie. Ditiitu.’, Mina. Couacti of Chwch. O, Peler Magrath, PrusIdena, University of Jchii ROIe, Preeldeni, UNA of Wan. RUNDR TZARS AOO TODAY HON. CHARLES E. WiGGINS e, Ut TIlE ROUSE OP W’RZamITATWgS Mondeg, Jane 26. 1176 Mr. WIOOU5. Mr. Speaker. 200 years ago. oc JuJy 1, 1775. the Continental Congress began the formal debate over declaring Independence from Oreat Brit ain. The Maryland delegation declared that their earlier lniucUcns forbidding them to vot, for Independence hid been superseded, and they were new prepared to vote for Independence. Their new in structiocis reed in part: The D.putlee of this Colony, attendut1 iii Congruas, or a Majeelty of them or OC fll this. or mare of them. (ale authorized sad empowered to concur with thu Othur Delted Colonial. or a Majority of them, la dsclar lag the United CoionI.i tres end iud.peod •nl SLates - During the same debate, the New York dcleucetioi, rend a letter fi’om Its colonyAi ô: WE WA Air o u. 3 ‘/a 6’fyw 11F ‘L /! EXTENSIONS OF REMARKS tea eu foud.d. seknowtedg. tb. n.e ctiee ognlw no bounda Unu and penalista. *blcb cooìroot them. accept the new obtig.. aU deten..,, that It Watt. Irreparable dam tian. wtlcb history l.mpo... upon them. and .4. alIki to Natu?. and to Uanklnd-.4hr..t- .t beth Lb. o.n.u which Impel them to •nlag with •ztlnctioO the Uf. of the eu., arm befo., aU ploptu theIr Ooumtteunt the hera and f iu of tb. earth, the health to a DecLaraUon of interdependence, 0f the people In alU.. and the eouatry.Jöe We bold tbe.e WoLbs be be ..tS..vldent: aitk.—snd that It can be ad.quamiy oes. that all min ara CrMted equal; that Lb. La- troltad only through Iniernatlenal onopera .quø.llU and lzjuattcu which a.lct so taon. much of the bian race ara the product We &ro. that the et lorstion and utU of histOry and society. Oct 0! Ond or natcre taon of outer space Is a matter equally 1m- that people ee.rywbere ara enutled to the porbent ta ah thi DaUcas of Lb. globe and btlhgl et 111e and Uberty. peac. and u that DO alUon oen be permitted to elpiolt curtly and be vealiseUon of their 1i41 peton- or develop lbs potenusilifee of the ptaastary tUl; that they have ah tnrapebte morel P’tem eZCIU*1ee17 tot ¡II D benadt. obligation lo pmeœ,e thu. righti toe po.- irm that the ecunomy or an naticos benty and thai lo achieve the,. mdi all the a iiL web, ehd that So on. no0 people and u.toDg •f lb. glob. ,hould can any bagar mecuVy maintain ite peon eo**owledg. their Laterdependene. and Join lie. or production and emoetary .,meu. lcg.tbir to dodical. their miade and their wIthout rinistng the Ocu.alty to. coi bea,te to Lb. sot nuco oc tboee problem. labc1I,. regulatiOn by tAtmrnaliooal au which tareama their attta. thoilule. 1 .tabinb a new rL4 order 0! . W arm that In a cI,t1U.d eod.ty. the paaelon. peace, JustIce and .eclnlty. it Is e. loStItUtiOnS of PCIDC end lb. art. aie new? eutial thai manhiad t,,. n.eiz n iba at war and call upen au Dalton. lo eamaps hmftaUous at natioDal preJudice, and at. ibe Instateboas heu the claim. of chau knowledge that Ib. toro. thai nlt. It are ,thktU hetiOnLIma and to tutor that glOat lnœuperably deeper than thu. that divide uDhty Of 1mZWI0g slid CreatIvity Who.. / It—that all people are part or w ØobaI Lben*S f UDCtiO@ It la to Sdishce uan ¡ eoœny. dependent on one body of re- J md the health and b.ppi et ‘.‘-‘—d. ...,a. boand together by the ti at a/ We earm that a World without law U a —‘a humanity and utorlaled in a eau- W1d thOut dit. and w mil upon ah men adventure on the pet zeb.. Dations tO etetbe. and lo male the Let tu than Join together to vindicai. United ibtions and It. sp.Ilied ag.ute.. veatte. this peat iruth time h and o1 Institution. Of world ceder. to one. and u ono will nobly uve or Irreparably blOndeS the Julediattan .1 th World CmoS. lue lb. heritage of tb.unda or yu.e that theu may produ. over a reign or law d,nhetton. Arid Iii ut that ‘UI nOS 0017 end war, but end e well oipia which ebould animal. ad Inspire us h mmdliii vicloece which teU our U car ctvitluttu la to swvive. clety even be u al peace. We ahim that the ru.iaxeee at the glob. W• Oa& DO lOuper ahiiti lo moho Utile ma halte —- lIait., that they are the pb. allow moedvu lo be the captiv, of buttage of no one naleoo or generauca. bu event. and tue.. o’er whIch w hav, no Of an people., natiOS, and of po.tuuiy. -— 000ttOl. eoumit w fmi. ratb.r than oar that Ola? deepe.t obligation lo toa.t te hope.. We call upon the Au.rlo.a people, 0G that poeterity a planet richer in matutal the Ih1I4 of Ui. third o.C7 of theIJ ty. In beSuty and la delight than w catisnal aene.. be display anca egairi that found It. Nnow notice. of aitianai uve.- bolIae. œiá’pi’t.a, magnanimity eau vtees eignly must not be permitted to curtan t Which umbled tcn.dari Of our .pubUc obligatIon, to bolag forth a new aation and Inaugural. W. arm that the eeplcite.Uoo of t. pou’ a new era ID human history. Iba fat.e of by the r4rb. and the w by th oa hange be the ‘aaw. Through ‘leteo.. Our ‘-‘ hwnt?y and denise oct the globe baceta and hopee wait upon lo large segmente of lonely the bl4berig. of We r-—— all to unit, lo lUe. liberty tad bappinem We r.ccgnU. a meet the puai challenge. moral obligation to sirte. toe a more me Mlnvueaeta exidoragment Is simply dent end more equitable sharing at Ib. re— .ou,vii 0! the earth la order ID am.Uorate Um.t—cng support and ondore’uig poverty. bunge and dIse.... oC Lb. Iaroticxi of TLtet’dePezideSo, We aroe that the reeouru. os natur, ase bi the pollUcal loadora of the State: the PUeaL lo DOUrwh and taln ah Ib GoVernor arid ZJeutexiant Governor, the priant Inhabitant, of the globe and that jcat, and minotity leader, of boUt thc’e Ia en obligation on every eedety be dis» ao..e. of the State leglelature and the wIbut. thee. neourcee qultnbty, ag WIth ca*tfluUons ocem of the State. a ocrotiary obligation upon every lootety lo amare that It. pepnItLtis doe. act place Xxi add.IUOU, a group of Wnntaii upon Nature a burden heavier than It ma IncludIng 1h. Chief Justice of Lb. Min. eaz. imeota Supreme Court. boUt U.S. Sena We arirm Our reaponelbwty t. beip ornate tors, 1h. lead&s Of both major poUtioai [email protected] which will mahe tu peace end pertlu and other important citheni, security and to build mo.. eheotivi commended, In a further exidorsentitit. ery fi.’ hoeptog peace emong the natican. 5ecauae the tnaetiae.g. accumulation et nu- the State odal for lending their ele... chemical arid biological weapons tO the Project. threatens the lurvival or ‘-‘-i . --« Mr. ElUng baa done a magnilcent job. foe Im.ql*ate r.dcflon and ev,taii In thIs 200th year of our Independence. elimination Of tbiie Weapon. under Interna- the DeclaratIon of Interdependence 1m tional eUpevelalon. We deplete the nUance an appropritte Blcent.rmlaJ document. en toree lo settle dboutea between nation Imlus among other things, those stetas arid b.twe.a uval poupe withiri such principle. upon which the United States We aarm that the ocean. are the oeo.o wai founded and recognizing the new property et m.nt’4 whoa, dapeDdec, o Clises that confront us. their laoceoparabIc resOUrce. of nouriahmet ‘The Minnesota endorecnient follows and sorengtb will, In the next century, be- Tc icu,ao ibvoossesagwv o vue e crucIal foe human iurvIve,l, and that DS.cLtaayao,. or ¡$?mnmww.ce their exploitation .hould be so regulated as w.coenlelng the urgent need So o.o., to Nr,. the Iritereeta or lb. chupe globe, ahead with ta Rni Project, enu and of tutu,. generations. Pi.rther r.cncuiz*ng Mlnna.ota’a leader. W. aRro. thai pollution Oowx ecUt the ship rule In promollog World Ct1l’en.hIp sud lles with the wi’id,.. tIilt IL roc— cPb I ‘le llrq 7,t*(e D.,ritloii. Re It Neolved that It Is appropriai. a4 Ittlag tot tala great atat, to oher strong euppcrt end endorsement of ThIs Declara tion oS interðependeooe, Re h further resolved that ea a eymbol of our support fr thie Declaration, we con.’ Une. te pewudly display Lb. United Ne*.lo,i. flag With the United State. Sag ai the State CapItol. Plnally, we urge the leadership of au other elate. to take allar action. ecUve Law Dey. May 1. 1010. WendeLl R. Anderson, Gotuno,. Stat. of Minnuota. Nichote. D. Coleman. Senate Majority ‘- Robert O, Aahhtch. Sonate Minority Lender, JI,. Lord, Slate 1u.uret. Rudy Pœ$c, JA. Governor Martin O. Sabe. e.Jt.r of liii Hou.. Joan Otee., Semu.ry of State. Warren ..—.—us, Attorney General. 12v Andœao.. iou.. Majority Leader. flanryj. Sevelkoul. Rouse Minority t.*tder. Robert W. Matmon, Oint. Auditor, We, the underelgned, oommend the State ORobeli for this esdoneuni of ‘Iba Declara tion of intoedepondeace, We tug. other state, our aitio and other aitlo 10 fol low this emuple, which Is a valushi, step in building a World Community et Peace Under ¡me Law: Den Ple.r. Member of Conpem 7 Charle. R. Slocum, Caafruaa, Lnd.pend. ent-Repab1Ioa Of Rina. Men D. u. ¡r., Phaioet, Mph Urban George O. Maite, Prildet, Minri. Slati Ra, A T. U. alh*œ. Prudent, World Pedeislista A-’ Robert I, Kumpbrey, U.S. Staitor. 7 Devid Rae, PnUdent. APL-CJO. Robert J. an., Uf ¡tulle., MOon. Bu. pew Jury Jenkine, Preddent, Legue of Wometa Vocee., b Roach. Arcbbtshcp at Minneapolis WaIte.’ P. Mandela, U.S. hai.tet, V Rick lacet, Chairman, Miaa. DPi Party. ,-‘ A. O. ‘.a, le, Me... Db’ect. Mina. Caunoul of Cheche., O. Peter bOogeath. Predd.t, University et John idle. PFe.Ment. UNA of Wan TWO flUNDR TEARS *00 TODAY HON. CHARLES E. WIGGINS or caz.uoawx. UI Titi uouag or RmESuITATWU Moodsg, Jeu. 2, 1971 Mr. WIQOUt8, Mr. Speaker. 200 yea.rz ago, ou .luly 1. 1776, U. Continental Congress began the formal debate Over declaring Independence tr Great Brit tin, me Maryland delegnUon declared theA their uijler instructions forbidding them to vote for Independence had been superseded. and they were now prepared to vote for Independence. Their new In’ structions reed In pert: ‘lbe Deputlee of this Colony. attendua1 ¿g Chorrees, e. a KaJcitty at them of ani three or mer. at them, (aie authorized ana empow.r.d lo concur With lb. Other United Colonie, or a MaJority cl them, in deciar. ing the United Colonie. tree arid independ ent $tt., . .,“ Duruig the same debato, tite New York delciistion liad a letter from Ita coloaiy June 28, 1976 21077Community Rejection of Fluoridation, since 1990. White Salmon, Washington 8/15/01 Woods Cross. Utah 817/01 Bishopville, South Carolina 6/30/01 quit Eureka Springs. Arkansas 6101 Harper. Kansas . 5/30101 Brewster, Massachusetts... 5/15/01 McPherson, Kansas 4/3/01 Norndgewock. Maine 3/5/01 Blue River, Wisconsin 2/01 Willamina, Oregon 1/01 Ithaca, New York 1117100 Spokane, Washington 11/7100 Brattleboro, Vermont 1117/00 Wenatchee, Washington 1117/00 Shawano, Wisconsin 11/7/00 Nibly City, Utah 11/7/00 Hyrum City, Utah 1117/00 Providence City, Utah 1117/00 Smithfield City, Utah 11/7/00 Logan City, Utah 1117/00 River Heights, Utah 11/7/00 Pequannock, New Jrey 11/7/00 Ozark, Missouri 1117/00 Wooster, Ohio 1117100 (4th rejection) Squamish. British Columbia 10/16i00 Woodside, California 9i00 Ste. Genevieve, Missouri 8/8100 Winfield, Kansas 3/6/00 Wilmington, Massachusetts 2115/00 Santa Barbara, California 11/23/99 Johnstown, New York 11/19/99 Tooele, Utah 11/2199 Wichita, Kansas 10/26/99 El Cajon, California 4/27/99 Helix Water District, California 417/99 Lakeside Water District, California 4/6199 Hutchinson, Kansas 3/30/99 Riverview Water District, California 3124/99 Wenatchee, Washington 3/8/99 La Mesa, California 3/9/99 Santa Cruz, California 314/99 . .banned Bremerton, Washington 212/99 Olympia, Washington 12115/99 Seward, Nebraska 11/3/98 Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada 7/28/98.. .qult after 30 years Ste. Genevieve, Missouri 711198...quit after 13 years Grand Island, Nebraska 5/1 3/98...quit (over) . .sz•Norfolk, Nebraska .5113/98 North Platte, Nebraska 5/13198 Washington, Missouri 4/7/98 Kitirnat, British Columbia, Canada 3198...quit Hot Springs, Arkansas 2198 Ridgefield, Oregon 12122/97 Methuen. Massachusetts 11/04/97 Brisbane, Australia 10/01/97 Spokane, Washington 8/25/97 Largo, Florida 7/15/97 Clearwater, Florida 7/15/97 North Redington Beach, Florida 7/15/97 Amsterdam, New York 5/21/97 Suisun City, California 5/1/97 Yardly, Pennsylvannia 4/16/97 Erie, Pen nsylvannia 3/21/97 Village of Orfordville, Wisconsin 12i9196 Western Nassau County, New York 11/21/96.. quit after 23 years Ketowna, British Columbia, Canada 1 1116/96...quit after 42 years Gothenberg, Nebraska 11/96 Worcestor, Massachusetts 11/6/96 Bloomer, Wisconsin 11/6196 Kodiak, AJaska 7112196 Carie Place, New York 211196...quit Wnter Springs, Florida 1/10/96 Pasco, Florida 12114/95 York, Pennsylvania 7/29/95 Thurmont, Maryland 213/94 Albany, New York 1218/94 Middletown, Maryland I 1193...quit Samia, Ontario, Canada 1130193 Barnstable, (Cape Cod) Massachusetts 11/4/93 Wagoner, Oklahoma 6/17193 Redwood Valley, California 2/6193 Los Altos Hills (Purissima) California /93 Campbell River, British Columbia, Canada 4/93..quit after 33 years Port Hardy, British Columbia, Canada I 1193...quit after 19 years Squamish, British Columbia, Canada 11/93.. quit after 20 years Fort Smith, Arkansas 1113/92 Militown, Wisconsin 10117/92 Bellingham, Washington 5/19/92 Washoe County, Nevada 7/1 5192 ComoxlCourtenay, British Columbia, Canada 2/92 Palm Beach County, Florida 10/22/91 Ketchikan, Alaska 1012191 Suffolk County, New York 8/1 5/91 Davis, CaJifomnia 12I14190...5th rejection Morgan Hill, California 3/7/90.. .quit Compiled by Maureen Jones. (408) 297-8487 (maureerijpacbeIl.net)Journal et Dental Research CONTENT5 .I SL. 5, )C. WMnc:. j id f’WSaa i r7’t Effect ol Co-administration of fluoñde and Methylxanthlne-contalning Beverages on Plasma Fluo ‘) ride Leve1 In Rats. J.T. CHAN, C. QIU, G.M. WHITFORD, and LE. WYBORNY (University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston, VAMC-Houston, and Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA). We have previously reponed that concomitant intaç of fluoride and co(Tce resulted jLLgrestcr pIa.3mLfl)QfjC level than intake of the same amount of fluoride in water (J Dent Res 67:188. 1988). This study was designed to4mine whether tea and CocaÇlj exhibited the same influence. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (250 10 g) were maintained on tap water and Rodent Blox ad libirwn. Under general anesthesia, a silastic cannula was inserted into the jugular vein to facilitate blood collections. After 24 hours, the rats were weighed and randomly assigned to groups of six rats each: a. 0.5 mg F/mi. teaIZSO g b.w.; b. 0.5 mg F/mi. decaffeinated teaI2SO g b.w.; C. 0.5 mg F/mi. Classic Coca-Cola/250 g b.w.; d. 0.5 mg F1mL decaffeinated CocaCoW25O g b.w. Blood samples (0.2 mL) were collected at frequent intervals after ig dosing. Plasma was analyzed with a fluoride electrode after HMDS-facihtated diffuson. Time(min) 0 20 40 60 90 120 180 240 F:tea 2.1 ± 0.2 36.2 ± 2.1 35.0 ± 3.8 31.6 ± 3.8 24.8 ± 3.0 21.9 4.1 15.8 ± 1.6 9.8 ± 0.8 F:d-tca 2.2±0.132.4±2.527.8±l.920.42..5l3.9±1.7ll.O±1.3 9.1±0.86.8±0.9 F:Coke 2.1±0.234.8±3.938.5±5.433.4±4.324.6±3.117.2±2.8 9.3±1.25.6±0.6 F:d-Coke 1.8±0.123.7±2.315.9±2.112.4±2.0 7.9±1.4 6.6±0.9 4.0±0.64.5±0.7 —1 Coatlministrauon of Thoride and tea or Cpca-Cola r)ted in a siificantly higbr nl fluoride levr.1 than intake of the same amount of fluoride in dccaffeinat beverages. Approximately a two-fold difference in bio- availability was demonstrated by comparison of the total areas under the curies. Supported by NIDR Grant DE08993. Plasma F Ltvels Following Intake of NaF In Combination with Sodium Laurvl Sulphate. P. BARK \ / VOLL (University of Oslo, Norway). Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) is one of the most widely uçd ðeter2ents in toothoastes. and it is known that it increases tbe pemieaility of rat oral mucosa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma F concentrations in humans after intake of NaF with and without addition of SIS. In the first experiment, five subjects received an aqueous solution of 3 mg F- as t4aF in a 30-mL solution immediately followed by intake of 30 mL of distilled water. ¡n the second experiment, the subjects received an aqueous solution of 3 mg F- as described above, followed by an aqueous solution of 30 mg SIS dissolved in 30 mL of distilled water. All the solutions were freshly prepared. Capillary blood samples were collected and the relative fluoride concentration in plasma determined. Sampling was performed before and 0.25, 0.5. 0.75, 1, 1.5. 2, 3, 5, and 6.5 hours after the administration. All the subjects had a higher relative fluoride concentration in blood plasma after intake of fluoride tu combination with SLS than of fluoride alone (p o,__ C.) uJ!0CE& ti- c5X >. C.0 .C ve .0. €. C .= .0C .- - ® w I CC 2 ø .:c Ii ØC Cc C— 00 C— q) C CC Qe —— Ò E. .c 10 C i—E! >- LU z O> LU >-C) D -‚ N . .ccc D ø S wv art . V > Q C IOC ! .2 .2 0 C 0=0 _CQ • Q C c Q c c V) 10 .0 .— —>“ DC Q. .0 Cl) . an Q V) CV - .0 ‘. Co s — u 10 C Q 0_ D COC - .0> D V C >‘.- 10 C i->. DC 00 0.C >- C 10— V > w b..Z EIZ.C 4) cCO o SO-) >. (04) CO— . u C — C .— - O’-c b 0’• C , csa —2! !L1Ø E E E • L, •i 2 - = E C 1 >- wC4)u OCt Li >..0 ,>. h 3:0 10 10(0 .0 I-)Q. Q z C - ‘-O o E (0— Can . C ÕC E V) o P- — .- e,— C... >‘ CP...y V - a e 0. --w C ! .C Q C — . C .>‘. h- CC O ID C - C E .2 -J = C C Cv z o 0.3: 0.- — u>. C - co 04 -— .- h 3:0--z— aV : 0 V.0 41) . : .2 ! .C >. C e e — — e e a z 2 o z oc co & een-. .Gc z e ‘ — e 3 e ‘.< 5’ .!. * 9 c e z ocie... 0 0.O o -____Ib. o o ‘z’Ze ¿F® 0e Z ....0e z’0’ = e z.. z e. .5... e z —‘10 c__ -‘ —. 2Z1 en 0 o oz. r e cx o z R C.Z0. e fl.. ‘: .œ 0’-. z < g0. e.’< e . 0 — e ... z z e -.e c z’z’ e = . e 0— — - z,.. 0.’ ‘ “C 40 0 >40 --‘D eo io e X- — —O e-- ‘13 -I z’ce z’ o .. Z e; ‘2 . e .0. X — , . 0o. . 0. 08 e 5’ø e 00 ‘n 0e -(.4 0’O.0 •flZ-I ce — _Cm e o Z1_ —0.T1 ‘ — z’ o o C o . ‘D-l Qe O o e n o ‘< z. 40 z’ 0. o ! z 0. e o. , o. o e 3 C z >-l o> 2o z-l D G) o < m z -< o C 0 m .- < m C’, z o -I o rvi o ‘1 > 0’ mC >0 -4 o > f f o Cz.n of oZm< >Qm ‘- o (•)&‘ c ‘C— 0. ‘< O z’ j 100 0• flOe ox— - 40 - z w w o ! I . ! o Donc- š’w .-l Om zoz,m z ç ‘ m C .1*00 — mtm r(n w > -J W > g D uJ oõ ; < 0 O. WW QV)Z ;z 0> o >WZO U) ..> . C Oo¡ r j. 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I’j,di’ • / -‘ IItIIÎ pII 1I i 1h1 hi „ ‘II III , , Id :1 hr’ I BÍIIY !Iiì ‘t ..— r JINI!ri”I’I IJIN ‚I ‘J ii 1p R 11iI’f’i’ i ‘r 11111 ‘: bIi’Ifl11IfluI J ill r tìIi 4 h ¡fILIL . z ihuli IL •fl1I 1 ! .‘ r t” I ‘I ¡abI .;! u i1I ii!IIi—j :![j t •I ,I1i!iaIÍ I’, :I If 1’IliII k I I — V ‚liai ..cl F I r ,. r , . r 4L Lr I I L t , , — — , — I — - r— - -. -. — — ‘— , -r p p. 4 (iii r Ir’ bijsI I. !LI I ‘‘ a t. L I 1 ,1 LI’ Ir L’ Lij” L![ Bh L r I r3 ;1L ti i1 Lf [Ii. LJi III l’—F iL;i i[ 4r’L 1I.l iL’I ¡rl et r. ,t r Lilt [‘F’ ‘I ‘ 1iL L P (( IL i e r t 1 [, Z 1• ‘•• 1t t iI !!. ...‘ j I I 11 ii I ‚‚ . C ¡t Ii j. !! . I ¡ ¡ 3. L IUNiTED NATIONS HERITAGE AND BIOSPHERE PROGRAMS 1H!.., • I. L L I I I ,. cma e macma cma I a — e 1t2!ph. R.wv.. a ) — — a R R a Rw. a R • $ I P.ab a $. R l R 1. — c_ ma R. C s a A Wodð Har % L R a, L R t I 1 R L R I. — L I * u. -. - u. a —:- 5_S It pmaaI IL IR it it ILR a R I.iI • 1h. , ILId — a e. t ia. o ib a m mm Limad h. .mad a, U ribas Tb W$d Ih.e. Sib as a. cs C...——, p, a. Wgt CaAa md PWd H. Pasa Fad.. ha, ) 71. IJ — im __ t $ . ib Limad Pibas Lò.IIc ad CiibiU .4 P,,as As s asI d L5 ii I 7t11 i mi• ( R t Asw .Lj.._..d .4 b f pi’ ! h. I I r” I I: Iii ¡ iiÍ’ g 4 1111 1 ! a QQ I j II t j I z WORLD HERITAGE SITES and BiOSPHERE RESERVES IN THE UNITED STATES •\ •5-.•%4: 17Z2 It IL asa Is * e I, l a aA w L a — ______ L a L t ,. ._ t t ,t iw . — 1I•II, * w a a . a a • npp ZOA 28 . , I j!’ I I I I j I I I I I UNITED NATIONS HERITAGE AND BIOSPHERE PROGRAMS WORLD HERITAGE SITES and BIOSPHERE RESERVES IN ThE UNITED STATES —-P’ ., a L a I, L t ,_ c_ i cc . c_(_ a .— u u c a * ai. w .‘ 1 . II mj * LWb n a • b * — aPw.c I D. La I.I *. n • -a- e a . Th.. i 1e1 end ii i. LMiInd S* le’ ..I LWd Nen The W1 H Si u lIed• 1jft11 r I ‘111111 F 11, I 111 II[I[1 2 •1 “ ill ‘ il H ‚ ‘ [J ‘‘ p j j I r 1i1 4. $3 I î I . ,. r — z & z , . I Ig . j , 3 a ) a 7 . [111 Eff tih I LII: Ii I’ I 1 I. i I I I L L 5unfl,. nia ,y. iguW 17. 1955 Pwbhijwd Fridq Aigaus 27. 1999. th thc Muimi Kerdd Social Security requirement irks homeowners Law mandates numbers be provided to preserve homestead exemptions Dy DON FIIEFROCK Herald Staff itoiter A statewIde al?ofl lo fIght lax fraud at peovoldng e strong reaction troni sorne property owners who worry about privacy st the age of the Vlleiriet Homeowners across the state mot provide a SocIa Security raxnber to their local property eppraiser by next year.. or risk baing the homestead exemptIon that chavea hundreds ai dolare off th* propedy tax bile The requirement angered Judy 0letro cl North Miami-Dade, one of about 387,000 homeowners who were notified In recent days by ‘he Miami-Dade County property appraiser. • ire another anetnpt lo mvade my pflrcy. the s.aatay fumed this week. -mars my private nuirthar. They have no right to Many homeowners worry about the loss of privacy -• and the potential for fraud W their Social Security nuraber aft into the wrong hinds. But the elate of Florida has left OlPietro and others 111e choice. The law, ener*ed In 1994 to make sure homeowners don’t doebl.-dp on the tax break, reqicres IiOITleOWnUrS with exemptions lo w*,niit the Information. effective next aping. 0v else, WlthorA the $25.000 tas break, the tax bu on DiPlairos home on Northeast 206th Terrace would naily do.tke. ibaIs not rI “I don’t tire ‚he fad that there lia lireaL ste saId. “Il I don’t gh’e it to them, I won’t have my homestead exemption. That’s not right David Bruns of the Florida Depaitmnt of Revenue defended the I.e. a.ywig Social Security numbers represent an eðtedìve loot for f ighiteg fraud — belier then names because they em reuque. lire flngerprWfls. By matching numbers, elate Olboieli can make sure that ‘hcbvldual homeowners don’t clam moro than one exemption. Former stale Sen. Oil Turner doittie-cipped for Ives years. until a Herald reporter decovered his two exemptions. When asked to explain. Turner said he dIdol realiza he had Claimed separate exemptIons on his UlamI Shores home and a townhouse Il Taleheesee. As many as 40.000 exemptions statewide may be improper. accorchig to one estimate, Bruns said eernpn redoco the taxle vaiue of euIble properties by $25,000, thereby lowering tax bille. Those dpplloales cost locel governments muIons Ii lost taxes. Bruns said. The Idea that this is en mvaslon 01 privacy 4 faIrly longstandiig, We sues dl. bottled by thai, Bruns said. Hardry anyone considers li an invumn of privacy to provIde your SocIal Security nusnber toi a dflvera atwe. Sure enough, Florida drivers are asked for Social SecurIty numbers -- a rule that prompts an occaeional ccrnpkenl, soid keiot Dennis st ‚ho Department 01 Highway Safely and Matai VehiCles. A 29-year history We have been colocling Social Security numbers on drivers Icensa appilcaitons inca 1970, she said An offorl to repeal the reporting recp,arcment lot homestead exeuvlore was vetoed tasI year by lormer 0ev. Laetoer Chiles. am senslive to the privacy rigiits ut our citizens,’ Cielos wrote .‘ his veto message. &4. he adaed. There are saleguards ‘h the law ti psoh,it the property appraleers, tax collectors end the DePartment of Revenue from meleeatrrg Soaal Security nvibe,s,” Chiles ãao noted Ii his message the! federal law was changed ‘h 1978 lo allow tie at Social fl_ a.a., 0n...Se.,a..w.flS I BROWAPU024 257 .bh Socurll, nwnbers for tax pwpoaos Herbert Partalo, assistant property appraiser for Miamioade. said his offlœ had rerived some coniØaiils about Ihe nw rule but nol et ovensholming amount Uore people have calad to Inquire about their taxes or the new homestead exemption loi seniors, h. said. ‘it now, we ea us1 corrØ)*tg with a dlirective from the Department of Revenue to get Social Sece.rity ntw,ibers. Partato said. “But we are not dropping anyone. Not unit w get final dh-oclh’e from the department. The Browerd County property spprslsWs cilice has wf to notify Groward homeowners of th rule, said Vedurta McBride. sopoMsor el homestead erœmplions. Notices wil hkoly go ou later this yoar or oerty next, she said. e-mal: [email protected] f4± . sP!hoursaday! CoDmU 1999 Ñ H.ra“The Right of the People... „ Every Individual has certain natural and absolute rights - the foremost among them being the rights to Life, Liberty and Pro perty. Those sacred rights proceed to us from the Creator by virtue of our nature. As intelligent beings with hopes, aspirations and human dignity, we have the right to live - to live free - to possess personal and real property. It follows, therefore, that if we have those rights, we also have the duty and responsibility to guard them and hold them secure. Consequently, we have the clear and undeniable right to defend our lives and the lives of our loved ones, the right to defend our freedom, and the right to defend our homes and property. Only the naive fail to recognize that self-preservation means self- defense, and that for hundreds of years in the stable societies of Western Civilization, this has often meant the judicious and effective use of firearms. The great men who set the course of this nation were wise and dedicated men of principle who pledged their lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor that the United States might come into being. Those framers of the Constitution knew that the rights of men stand above the authority of the governments they create and that the greatest threat to those rights comes from govern ment itself. Therefore, we the people, were given a Bill of Rights, a supple ment to the Constitution, which clearly enumerated the rights of the people, while clearly restrict ing the power of the government Most Americans are not aware that after the Constitution Con vention, when that great document was finished and approved, many of those founding fathers who had played such an important rote In creating the Constitution, would not sign it. They recognized that it was the ultimate expression of the hopes and aspirations of man kind, that it created and set in motion a 9reat new nation con ceived In liberty, and that it was unique in the history of human Institutions. But, It did not guar antee the natural rights and freedoms of the people, nor did it adequately and clearly delineate the necessary limitations on the government. Consequently, before the Con stitution was endorsed on Sept ember 17, 1787, the convention fully agreed to add a statement of rights. Therefore, the Bill of Rights was added on December 15, 1791. It consisted of ten “amendments,” but they were not amendments in the sense that they changed the Constitution. The Bill of Rights was, more accurately, a supplement which added the provisions which were clearly understood and a9reed to in advance by those patriots who conceived our Constitution and established the United States of America as “One Nation Under God”. The First Amendment names certain basic, inalienable rights: Freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right of the people to assemble without interference from govern - ment, and the right to petition the government for a redress of grie vances. The Second Amendment states how we shall keep those rights: by the strength and force ol an armed cItizenry - “...the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be Infringed.” Il is essential to note that every one of the ten articles of the Bill of Rights is of vital Importance. However, the right, and duty, of the people to be armed Is placed second In the bill of Rights, im mediately following the listing of the basic rights of the people. It is also worthy of note that Article Il reads, “..the right of the PEOPLE, to keep and bear arms shall not be Infringed” -- it doesn’t say some of the people. or certain kinds of people, or the government, or the governments military forces or law enforcement personnel, but rather the people — all the people! Our Founding Fathers recogniz ed two types of militIa: (1) The “well regulated militia” which were those men n the government militia, namely the armed forces or the standing army. (2) The “non-regulated militia” or the “militia” per se, which Included every able bodied man between the ages of 17 and 45. In other words, “the militia” was (and Is) “the people”. Our Founding fathers knew that some type of armed forces or standing army (“a well regulated militia”) was necessary to the security of the nation. However, they feared a standing army and recognized its potential for tyran ny. Therefore, they wanted the power of all the citizens, when armed, to be greater than that of the regulated militia. Consequent ly, they stated “A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be Infringed.” Hunting, gun collecting, com petitive shooting... these and other gun sports can be useful and pleasurable. But, the principle and ultimate purpose of individual gun ownership Is the strong de terent it serves against the usur pation of power by would-be rulers, and the protection It pro vides against the tyranny of a dictatorial government, whether foreign or domestic. Next to life itself, freedom is man’s most precious possession. Moreover, freedom and gun ownership are inseparable. If Americans ever give up their guns, the loss of their freedom will Qn follow. Therefore, Americans should remember that anyone who would take away our guns Is our enemy. It matters not the justification he gives, his lack of reason, his failure to understand the true meaning and interpretation of the Constitution, his sincere naivety or gullibility, his misapplied sym pathies and emotions, or his un willingness to face the reality of a cruel and hostile world in which survival Is a constant struggle and freedom is never free. Our culture, our heritage, our country, our civilization, our in alienable rights, our liberties and life itself — must be cherished, guarded, and defended at all costs. Stick to your guns! And, stick with the American Pistol & Rifle Association. APRA does not com promise on your rights, or on those principles and traditions which we hold dear! AMERICAN PISTOL AND RIFLE ASSOCIATION BOX USA BENTON, TN 37307KEEP YOUR GUNS . . . JOIN APRA Many of your elected politiians and an army of unelected bureawrats are working right now to conf i8öate your valuable fireaims. There are over 10*’) bille in Con gresa, and hundred8 more before our state, county and city governments, which will restrict or entirely eliminate your right to own and use firearm8. These bilis will not only require registration of your guns — some would go 80 far as to eliminate ail private gun ownership and even stop the manufacture of guns in the United States. You will only be able lo keep your firearms and your free4wn by ¿he coordi,w Led action of individual gun own- Sf8 effectively working together in a nationwide “grass-roots” organization. The Amcrican Pistol & Rifle As800iation is that organization. Joist us today. APRA does not compromise on your rights. John Grady, M. D., President APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP NAME________________________ _________________ ________________________ ADDRESS_ ________________ ______PHONE ______________________ CITY___________ _____________STATE_______ _______________ZIP____________ COUNTY AGE OCCUPATION _______________________ MEMBERSHIP DIJES $15 MILITARY SERVICE.._________________________________________ INITIATION FEE $10 ______ _____ ___________________ TOTAL $25 PAYMENT ATTACHED $ BILL ME $______________ CHARGE MASTER CHARGE fl VISA fl ACCOUNT NO, EXPAT1ON Please enroll me as e(an) ______________ Member of the American Piitol and Rifle Association. I declare that I am a law abiding citizen of sound mind, and I subscribe to the Principles. Platform and Objectives of the American Pistol and Rifle Association end to the Constitution of the United States of America. WHAT IS APRA? AMERICAN PISTOL & RIFLE ASSOCIATION APRA is a nationwid. association of concerned citizens united in the de fense of freedom, especially the mal- enable right to keep end bear arms. WHAT DOES APRA DO? APRA is a highly organized, grass-roots movement of effective, influential local units with national coordination arid direction. Fights to preserve your right to keep and beer arms. APRA is the fastest growing, totally dedicotod, p r og u n organization in America. Provides instruction in practical shoot ing and self-defense for both men end women. Builds ranges for rifle, pistol, skeet, trap, black powder shooting and arch ery, staffed by qualified instructors. Involves the entire family in whole some and educational shooting recrea tion and physical fitness programs. APRA APRA members are en elite group — men and women who possess a pi oneering spirit and those character traits of our Founding Fathers — in dependence, individuality, self-confi ¿ence, and the courage so stand firm in defense of our rights. BOX USA BENTON, TENNESSEE 37)07 APRA=Alert - Proud - Ready - American Keeps close watch on Federal, Stat., County and City Governments to detect end prevent attempts t o pass laws restrictive of the individuel right to own end use personal firearms. Instills in its members e sense of per. sonal confidence, h i g h ideals, pa triotism and dedication to the Con stitution.Rep. R.ê Pwtmau, R4Jhio, and Sen. Bob kerTey, DNeb., are æ. chairmen of the Natono1 ConimLs stan on Restructuring the IRS. They taihed th USA. TODAY reporter Anne Wilktte a&,ut what’s ong with the IRS and how it can be Rxed. Q: Why Is there a commission? Kerrey’ It’s customer dlislac lion, meired in a number of ways — taxpayers themselves saying they’re dat)sIed with the service. Q: Doesn’t some of that come tram having to pay taxes? Pot1rnan No one likes lo pay tax es, but ... there’s the concern that taxpayers’ dollars are not being used wisely. La this computer snafu, the number may be $4 bLLllon, it may be $3 billion, but rngardi. It’s a huge number, and when we’re trying to balance the budgets and make hard decisiom in tenus of helping those mc In need, lo have a woste of tax. payer funds like that truly discour aging Q: The commission’s goal Is to essre the American public’s faith hi lis government t. collect reve ne hi a fair and courteots man ner.” Why does being fair and cour teom matie-r? — Kerrey It’s a voluntary system. If people dcsi’t perceive il to be lair, people will not voluntarily comply. We are struggling to maIntain ground on voluntary comphance. prjil,an One of the challenges ion hasts tobena pro c. .otchang,ngtheCLtltUreOfthe IRS. And by that I mean a culture that encours ,.. doing thingo in house vs k,oking outside for exper tise, an iusular culture, a secretive culture, bol also a culture where, at least with regard ro some IRS em- ployem, there is not that focus on the taxpayers as Customer. Q: What’s the root cause of the IRS’ problems? Kerrey We’ve got a good LntenJ Revenue Service compared to other nations. . . . The root cause for me is the way we orpnize the efort. You’re talking abeut an agency that Is so dIfferent than any other agency in government It Is a seasonal busi ness. It touches every single Ameri can household And Ws an annual evenL It’s a coactan — you know these taxes are going to come due, and it funds everything else we do. ... This country can’t get along with out the tax-collection agency. Ii is vi tal to every other agency. Thus, it’s calling out for. partic ularly Øven the citi zen attitude toward it a fundamental reos. sesame-nt of bow it’s Q: If the computer system were state of the art, would all problems be solved? Kerrey. The tax system moderniza boo failure Is a symp tom not a cause. Portinan. The mod enúzatlon will help us with regard to taxpay er service. The phones will work bet ter, and when you ac tually get through. you’ll have someone oc the other end who will be able to help you in regard to your account It the corn puterimtion is succemtul, ¡t will be like calling up Visa and iying I just go a notice, where is my account as of riiI nowr ... But even the best computer system doesn’t solve all of the problenm. ... We’re uncovering so many other problems — pointing the lager at Congress — In terim of simplilcatlon and constant char of the tax code. Q:If the IRS bu so many prob lems, why d. taxpayers fear It? Kerrey. If I’m an auditor and rye got the power to either initiate the audit or make the outcome the tax payer’s worst nightmare-i the ques tion Is can Ido that on the basis of not liking somebody? And the secondary question Is, es there a review procem thai enables the citizen to appeal? This is an issue that’s been mise-d so many times by lndividuais, shall busInes and (tax-exempt orgoni rations) that It’s deserving of the commission’s anenuon. Dissatisfaction spurs look into tax agency R.p.im.n: Sen. Bob Kerrey. left, ad Rep Flob Poriman ædieí ‘ie IRS res’uco.iflng correnisnion.PRESIOENT BILL CLINTON “President Clinton said he views passage of the Brady Bill as only the beginning of a much broader effort by his Administration to seek sweeping gun control measures...” “L-le ordered the Justice Department to begin studying gun licensing. regis tration and collection proposals.” Los Angeles limes 12Æì93; Washton Times 12]1W93 U.S. REP. CHARLES SCHUMER “We’re here to tell the NRA their nihtmare is true!” “We re going to hammer guns on the anvil of relentless legislative strate’! We’re going w beat guns into submison!” NBC Nightly News 1 1,O/93: AAws Conference 1Z’&93 LOS ANGELES MAYOR RICHARD RIOHOAN “We should tty to keep handguns in the bands of police.” PJBCs Met The Press 11,28,93 , U.S. REP. MAJOR OWENS “My bifi ... establish es a 6-month grace period for the turning in of handguns.” U.S. Congressional Record 11/10,93 I U.S. SEN. JOSEPH OlDEN “[Banning guns] is an idea whose time has come.” Associated U.S. SURGEON GENERAL Press 11/1893 JOYCELYN ELDERS “Handguns are a public health issue.” USA Today 1 1/9.’93 A U.S. SEN. DIANNE FEINS TEIN “[Bannin,g guns] ad dresses a fündamental right of allAmericans to feel safe.” r ess 11/1893 V FBI OIBECTOR LOUIS F BEE H “The strongest gun legslation ... 1 will ehforce diligently and exhaustivel.” U.S. Senate Con Iïrrnahon Heanngs 1993 A U.S. SEN. BILL BRADLEY “[With 25% more taxes on guns and ammunition] $600 million could be raised from these purveyors of vklence.” Assoc,ated Press 1OÆi93 U.S. SEN. HOWARD M ETZEN BA U M “Until we can ban all of them, then we might as well ban none.” Senate Heairngs 1993

    Recall Davis Campaign • 1-800-600-8642 • www.RecallDavis.org CALIFORNIANS REACT IN SHOCK AND HORROR “What am I missing here? Assembly Speaker Antoaio Vtllaraigosa thanks Mexico’s rrindei Ernesto Zedillo for helping kill Proposition l87. which denied benefits to Mexicans who broke our laws to live In California illegally... We know who Zedillo works fo But who does Villaraigosa work for?...” DOREEN HIRSCHFELI) Los Angeles ,.. ‘When I opened the paper Wednesday morning, I could not beheve what I saw and rend. The world must have turned upside doii. How can an elected speaker of the California Assembly applaud the jwesicknt of a foreign country for meddling In our politics and thwarting the will of the people of Califonûs? We need lo ask him where his loyalty lies—with the Mexican people or the people of California7’ ROGELIO DE LEON PENA Montebdlo “la Reconguista” exposed by ‘incredible’ ‘ideo KIEV radio, June Lt of white A.serka “Reme,rabeç 187 Is tise lust gasp gwkiIe America in California” Art Torres. Chaumait of the Califonsia Democratic Party. MEXICANS CELEBRATE VICTORY OVER FIVE MILLION CALIFORNIA VOTERS Àuclc3 imei eàe., ....,, !GOPR Accord SPEAKER OF CALIFORNIA ASSEMBLY ADMITS INTERFERENCE BY MEXICO “Zedillo had £reat ImDact”-- SDeaker ViIiaraloea “As leader of the state Assembly. I say President Zedillo had great impact in defeating Proposition 187.” Villaraigosa told a news confer ence after he and a state delegation met the Mexican chief execuùve. Zedillo’s visit to California in May ‘pushed the process’ that evet*ually invalidated most of the measure, the speakcr said. Loa Angeles Times, August 6 1999 to Lowe I bA Ifl*. ,..,—,.. -. — _____ ‘, a — . .a. _a — Ib. N I n4 e — — •PbbflIaSI If .*...a ‘n ,h, I,bbemb. Vt -. 4 __ b.— b — —‘ _If 1. a . ,If —I. l’_a-” — — —-— -n - a . _a. If ,. , .i.. .. sa e la.,., e.. High School Violence ZedUlo’i wiaft p “VIctory Parade” -- VoIce of C”i Tosetber ZedilIo Key to FiidalProp.I8Z “This is a victoty parade by the Mexican president through a con quered California,” said Glenn Spencer, president of Voice of Citizens Together... Los Angeles Times, May lI, 1999 LET1’ERS TO THE LI) I ‘I’O R, LOS ANGELES TIMES. SU N [)AY, AU(;LJST 8, 1999 N Hbipaiüc should kar California “California is going robe a Hispanic state and anyone who doesn’t like it should leave. Mario Obledo, co-founder of the Mexican American bgal Defense and Educanon Fund (MAI.DEF) and winner of 1998 Presidential Medal of Freedom, Pìvcceds donated w Recall Davis C1zitwoigri. Mexico woa’t tolerate LiS. law, “1w will no, solerait foreign forces dictating and enacting laws on Mexicans’ — Mexican Prexidern F.rnesto 7edillu reacting to new U.S. imnugmon laws, The News, Mexico City, April 4,1997 Uti River,4de. Jan. 15, 1995 “).Iur ii.tro. ‘II .ngrnSÉb.. - 1 II rtUtn,ug 1154’ ItUtIth “III i’uukj ý’ii’r ligare thai. iIN.I rccosrnaendath,,. ,, tI.i iap. I iic req,ured rlai by ail c,,.,c-rrned iuwrà.’aa,,” l’ii l-Linthln. ‘ l’h libL .\ ureT mjIi,wi*l LIII. ra,li’. Nlir.h III ¡ Bill Kimi. kwns.’r (‘lad LIS. lle.o,k’, Pit.ol Av’i,I. lj,vh Lt. l’I’$i, __ _______ ___ [I:., “? .. Kil I,, 4., 2 ¿ — ‘EU b n .. t, .— “ . _ ‘-— em rij ‘.. ,-. t, ‘ . 1,8 i, x ï” — .,o a. •‘._ v._4 .f j f rZ - -41.;-•$ a;I• •J.fl . XSi E :ij :r! Ot..q — . 0—0 4 h 1 • — 0f,C .. v ‘I ; - ¿ij . :, a ,4;. . .0 8 cL’ .4 oJ s . , X .; .išz . - r N . 2 . “(- J N. ri Wb; % q taj ‘4 e-. u ij “a I 14 .‘ 44% N z o Q z 4 z :u, ou.. — A. W ,-. ‘. ç).- ‘I •4? h. o o —. — I.— ‘—... I. Dower 42—Hvsband and wit. 3O. ¡Iusbaszd and wife, by pootnuptial contract, based on valuable cone crntioa, may reicaic their right, in each olbrr’i, property ini thero by extinguish •ajl rights, iraelusjjnr right et dower. 2. Husband and wit. 27ß(l)—Wb.r apeas. es aro IIvl,.ç apart, or can n. longer live te. 9efhor wilh COaifidino in •eeh othee, or sop. aratl.n s •ee.ssaey for health or happincis. property Settlement. fairly and unders(andln5- ly mad., li valid. Agrrrenriuia brtwer,i liuinbnnd miul wile (‘ir Nepnrn(jun sire not per se iuev:1l4I. nuit. wh.’cc thee ar living n7Inrl, nr C,ll lin lønier rn,l. gnla1lt Iivi’ tne(ber with c’mflui,’i,rp niiI faith 50 each attier, o Isarmiu,Iri i arrr*ary (or Iii’silih nr hnppmii of nnr crei’enrlI, t*irl asid ilIKIi’r$tnlnhiiigiy halle, rl j liji I lirij’ ¡jIil a in each tlic,, Property, b ‘slid. 5. Husband and wit, 4. Oblupalion insrnsrd by nuaIrri.1e ennlrwI to support wife cauioL be abrogated withool cois aent of ntale. 6. Husband and wile 27o(2). Agreemesit between huth..ud arid wife, na ferial previnlnn el which ii (lint wife relenne nil right. to ‘uppurt. is sold a, against public pol icy. 7. Husbaid aid wife 279(2). Vjf, seehing to reneind aeporation nree ment settling tirolirrty rughus, (or Iriisuil, ii,unt return or tender muncy received under il. B. Husband and wit. 279(2)—Wlfr. bound to return or tender inon.y received under siparation contract as conditioa of its rescis. sò for fraua, made a sumeical tondo, whoa she iPi.jed readiness and willingness Lo ro. pay the sum. ‘I(e. sound to teinta money received tun dir separatiun contract ai condition at recia sims for (nun, alleging that she was ready asid willing to repay IL. made a iut!kicut (entier. ae the court mibt rcJer it paid into court whr defendant’s rghl, req’tircd It, as coasditiuu pre cedeut to graisting ruile!. 146 (1 H iri NOIt’l’ll lAsTI-;H’ç at:z’onr1lL q3 III. 1) ( Hilt hV Ida Van iolii nn,uiiist (iItorsI 1.. VAN ICOTEN y. VAN I(OTEN. (No. I743.) Vast Ksitp and otiwrs. l)uerc dlsuibsiug (ho lull, iusiil i’lalntlŒ brisui. error. 1t.evcried (Supreme Court of lhlinoin. Ot’i.. 4 103(5. and ren’andu,cJ. Rehearing Denied Dec. 10. 31125..) & f CIIitisiuijn, for plaiiitlfl’ in error. & ilerrIck of Farmer City, for j (icfenclnnt in error. ¡ITÅTìD, J. Noviuber 28. 1921, Cliifiuril . Von 1(nto Onu Tut t’j,s Ki,icri. reshlesits of ¡ rhxi r’tpnliu, la’i sig lu Ilsbn nui n ni! w ¡fe u suet (hO usri-’da of n IsIhI ¿iCuni ‘ years. 4iler,’l lutin ii vpjj(efl :Ir,s.ssi,’n5 rhaehi, 0(1*—r tu-sl(iiu ¡1 lu:u I f lii’ ¡ u r-t r s t la- ri’I rs lin it reo %i’iI Iii li ii. , 5h! ciii itt hi! I n,—g Iii-r LS h 1)511:1 sol si t, il wu ls. astil (lmt It u-us he ib—sup ii! tiLe ¡nr! ¡es it, I sirrrt,is. thu-i, tlr,ulw’sI lssleresi,u sus that iniuiif relà,piiulslu tutu u’ilFrpIu.r auuy tissu tilt rihi a unsI ig,ler.’sL “bidi lip or hu’ :tiiliL hsii- or i’lnini in liii- hPF’.im’rly u,f 5hs. ‘s! Iii-r :siiii liii’ wits- in u»llii.iusi-.h nOV u-Ilufs %tiuirls shin ins h L lia t-e to tissu rs’ sis Ij «‘rL :11111 111:11 flJ p. j n:i sseu• (min t hi’ is ii...I.ti n t. i srs iv lih -ci s h1_ tom 3. Husband and wit, 27u (2). j nuusl lit (‘i’iI’leJl-rnl hin of I hi- ¡si’tnLssr’-.. atasl sit Pmoelnion in yahisi separa (lisa ngres’ms—nt t hiss t flu- ulu ol s:,oto in lu:unuut io iii uy (‘lifl’tsrul I-;. ¡sunhatud vuIl 07 tvi(e cer%ain nuns rust’h fll(’fllh Isla t’iilL lCs,(i’, flOu nf t b, u)c’hi ver:u to for Leer support is not coal a ftgaisesct nuislie I lier uit all I lui’ luousu’h,nlul ,ssw1a ¡mcl fui-tut lire c5 licy. _ u’nêiiiuIiieii iii the uios’lliisg hinutse forsicea-ly iii’— 4. Marriage i. rUl)ê(II by t lient, tirol t be ¡niymu’nir of sill bills “Marriame” iv a dril contract fo whir-h fur (simuly cXpen.’ thus, out-st:tsidhisg, 51iv there nrc three patties—the Iuusuhianrl. ihe wili, hereisy r.’feusus) to him sill citulnis, rights,, arid tite sliat—a status baed on )ub1ic i tills’. is, iniu’rosg (ruins tiual.l,sg sissy chistan fist 51(7. , sis g “ri sur luit, is si u’ss;i rwi iii :tn’ in tu ‘si ser (ri sa o ( Ed. Noie—For oiIsr ilefinil In,s ncc Vor,l hI If Wills (iii-l 1g-r ti rrr-esl t hat Vtt n Tinterc and ¡‘branes, First stsd Second Scrh’n, Mar- sIgsqulq pay to lits ttlfe tut’ slim of $2I on t lie nage. l -q ,, 5’V(’r (sir t hu c’. re and anpr fail flic u’IiIIal. svlio-h T1:IvTfle,t I were t r) su s lusti as I lie child should he in her cusIuscly. ¡It tsa fian lier sigrpecl bet way-es t tse ¡inri lu’u liai. iii eoai.Iult’rta huis ‘st t h. alivlSaA,fl n uni al Juts! meut of t he pruiperi lea. cant nroc.’(1 to ml uhiI Ihc’i1ey rsulinthnishs tiny uni) all future j niglils whii-lu hr or slur utsiht flcIElIirt ¡n tiny I prIa(’rl y of I he o! hi—r lay rçslSsaas ( I hr iss:srrl:uœ rclntion. and (lost, I CISC flu1 aurh right or inlereat arose (hereafter, eat-la ait (1w inriit’narcvsl to expeisic, suns) d1it’,’r, sis roiiIst’tit. 055V tasi Oil Irisi i-SI leiclil S lit u’OhS%ey. S rphiisaiiiisui surit right. A tier the j 5IlIIli nf lisis ,uarrusIsecsct Vita Kiulu—si hm:uI’l lis isla l(c’ tIre susto of’ TUOt) tissu alc.tut.-rs-,l lo lie r lise h u,uis’Iso)ul misil s ajuI fit u’si I r ii ri- nsu’u u— tasiacul h n t he t’aSti rai-t asad paul Lo tuer ent’tI uuuuuLh t he suits ut *20 fur the Supilsirt of I Ito bill in vhanry lxi the clriit iurt of Ghaiis chIld. i1urcntter tule Vo ICotca filed her 1a1s:n ciuhlaty agaInst ( lifrord l_ Van Kuti’n, .\. lu Sehlllilig, suuiut f Mille SrLihIhlsa, prtiyhu this t euiai’t deedu s1i’ncd by her sac] Vuu l(otc-ri to the Sdu1hlIrn should be canceled ami net ipalde, nud that the arecluetxt of !oeuisbt’r .S, 11121, between het- ami Van , e Frror to Circutt Court. Cbami’nlu county; FranklIn 11. Uogs. Judpe. Koicu shrntld be set nstc and canceled, :unal litai be shr,uLld be required lus pay to ber n Just§ 10—Il INFANTS Courtp-of equity have jurisdiction to order adc quate support and maintenance for (he welfare , of minors within the state and wherc a sti ute so provides, a juvenile court may have the power to make an order for appliances or ap paratus or deives for a child In need. A stat ute making it an offense for a person charged with the care. support, maintenance, or educa. Lion of a child to fall to do so is not invalid; ‘ and statutory provisions requiring a parent to support a mnor placed, detained, or committed ¡ pursuant to a court order have bcen held conS ;titutiona.’ Education of handicapped children. Under :onsiltutiona! provisions relating to the main- (enance end support of free schools. it may be the obbgation of the state to provide for the cd. II. General Considerations The aille y amine Ibeedan, c..lsoi. and CwslOd’ 01 iba perat 01 ån )01asl. n4 may öeIe.ie stick a.lher ny . h.m is m.y ... (ft. Orsearek ‘isle AdJwdIcl0n 01 cuIIody or duiiq,eni. depindeni. i., nejiecled children Is considered min I 3) ci srq rn lIttemeni of paie,,is le cueiod •nd pccctP4in4s .lfrciIn* their eight, .rc discussed in C.J.S. PirenI bnd ChIld ) $ el seq. s;. Mbcqs.—Ptelsymai, . Preityis.., *2 N W 3d 475. 344 Midi. 206 N.Y—In re Harks,. 50 NY.S 3d 15 152 MIsc. 5. U, Orlbopod)C ShoeS PlY —In ‘e tewli. IS N.Y.S N ¡72 MISc. 734. W Ohio—State y. biscey. 246 N.C.ZiI 233. 23 O)i1 App.2d 50. 0. C.&—Alaened• Cmy ti. Kaptmozs, 52 Cal per. 410. 243 CAN $24. i&V..-.Jesmer.. Owedon. 27) N.(Jd SOS. 15 04.V.74 5. 333 N.Y.I.2d 4)7. 95 AL. 0.24 421. Ial. N.Y—ia re Annymotia. 337 N.Y. 5.24 055. 73 MisC.2d 453. Coolr,et loi iiteUClIO* A .tptc •*fflC3 S5 be .wlhoilatd I. COn(rll (or eke lisilruCI$O0 vi a livid). • cspped minar, and lo chus. Iba iou thereof igalasi lie suie and c10nty of resIdence. ‘ N.Y —j,, re LeIt’iet. W i.Y.S34 267. 40 AÐ14 36. ei.I•. N.Y.—.In re AnonynIoale. 357 7Y. ! lid PSI. :$ Much 433. ø.i$. N.Y—Iai(er of WagMr, 353 N.Y. 5.74 00. 9 ‘lIe(.2d ¡023. Ii i• t4Y i,I,er .t Suzanne E.. 36) .. •4 t’_i The primary control and custody of infants is wiiWihe gã!r!ï a’lðt1state ¡n ts5 pact tr of ¡mtTcöThstly of Ñs may sec fit.1 —-—..—--. —.. - Ki.rcm. III NW. 04.0.—Cot-pus Je.,Is Secundiun cllCd le Stale ‘, (lnnhla. .9 N,W.2d Sil. 34. 73 ¡db. 633. Wash.—), te hudson, ¡J P.2d 763. 13 Wesh 24 473. 3) C.). p. 110 noIr I). Power Wheel Icglsaiure enacts Il.uucs legu’ Ia3la mvi,., In which cuMody of chit. dren shall b. deltrntlned. legIpIaiwte .cii piUui.nf t. power which ciii. po.,eSaei. N.Y—lUll ti. Hill. 104 N.V.S.N 753. SS Misc. ¡035. C ondUlonS The state. In ill CapPehy 0f patena pi. lrI.C. m.y dltcci Ilit c,ndlI)ons •r tsIgcn. Lles by whIch h CIII .iumc control of Ill. Ian’s ria..—f. S. ti. Slate. App . ¡10 So.2d 603. 43 C.J.S. ucIlioa1 of handicappvd ciiiliircia.’°-’ uni courts of appropniIc jurisdiction IiaV havc pc,ti’cr to “Iflhl’ ‘ - .:.... - - .ally handicap 1 and to dircct that uitabIc education be provided,h* 13 or that a child with spccial needs be placed in an out.of.statc instiLutiOn.6” Mothers’ pensions. It has been held that thc icgásJaturc may provide for penodical payments to indigent widows or abandoned mothcrs for support of thcir children in thcir own homes.” lo be paid out of the funds of designated loca! subdivisions of the govcrnmcnl, according to thc provisions of (be particular statutc.’- Govern mCntal programs For aid to families with dcpcnd cnt children arc considered in C.J.S. Social Sc curity and Public Vclfare š 114—122. B. CUSTODY GENERALLY Ubrary Meferences miami. i9. IS.). , rrtsH. A. I. Il P.. Si. MIr,n.—Siatc • 914, ia MIrn. 352 ra—In re Uoiht 01St. 245. Il C.J. p. 543 nose 4; Mothers’ pensions gener.lly icc C.J.S. So cial Secyrlip .md Public Wdtve t 123. $2. N.b—herce County Y. Mughy. III P&W. 114. 47 04.0. 3*1. Utah,—%l.tIup ti. lInt-mon. 753 P. IL)7. 31 Utilt 321. il C.). p. 554 lute 47 (e). U. Ala..—TiIlmni y, UobCrlS. His Sn. $2, 214 Ail. il. I. se Iteberts. 15 So. 17), 17 AIa.App. $34. Tea—Nichols y. Pldsoiz. Clv.App., 247 S.W.N 143. errar refused no reversible erect. •Cwpt.dy’ and “gu.dIinshlp’ disihi’ PIminary CviSI4C,IIIQS riaae in detcrwilninj wbcthgr CvidIIlOn or en. r “C.ibody” Inwolt-ca bnmcdiaic care .4 vronment .1 child itiCh is io warrant cvnir0i. while “gvard4lnshIp inrilcaiCs Stale. lit InICCCPIS .1 chIld. In assumlrt riOt Dol)’ lho*c respo.sll,êillICl but thoiC hiS zu.rdis,itsr. PSIWIVY COft$14t14110n et p patent, loca palenhls. s, titii should bi welfare ut chIId. 0e) —in re Twn bl,nnr C’ht1drrn (1i,. *3 Ohio,. -in re boucla,. 164 4.L2d 4.. AN $59 SS. Icy .—Mid*euav V. Waitit. 113 s,W24 44. Ky.—Rldac’a s, WaIter, 33 S.W.2d 745. 2*1 Ky. 14O—.$helIvti 4.’, lIf’ImSJty. 744. lii Kv. iit%—ShtiIoil t’. HeHsk’5’. SW. ?s. :i i, icio. ‘“t%’ •I’t -‘.. .iw .t’ I ,,\ ,.- — LGRACE CQ4ISSION) j PRESIDENT’S PRIVATE SECTOR SURVEY ON .COST CONTROL I, A REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT [Ezcerpt) SUBM1TED TO THE EXECUTiVE C0MMITrEE FOR CONSIDERATION AT ITS MEETING ON JANUARY 15, 1984 3rA 9ô û 2 &42e ApED ..i/Š7Š. Reproduced by the Library of Coo.gress, Congressjena.1 Research Service. w. OVE,€ oqs—-4 Importantly, any meaningful increases in taxes from personal income would have to cone from lower and middle income families, as 90 percent of all personal taxable income is generated below the taxable income level of $35,000. —i Further, there isn’t much more that can be extracted from high income brackets. If the Government took loa . percent of all taxable income beyond the $75,000 tax bracket not already taxed, it would get only $17 billion, and this confiscation, which would destroy productive enterprise, would only be sufficient to run the Government for seven days. ,—iiistance to additional income taxes would be even widespread if people were aware that: o One-third of all their taxes is consumed _b by waste and inefficiency in the Federal Government as ve identified in our survey. . o Another one—third of all their taxes escapes collection, from others as the underground economy blossoms in direct proportion to tax increases and places even more pressure on law abiding tax payers, promoting still more underground economy —— a vicious circle that must be broken. . O With two—thirds of everyone’s personal . income taxes wasted ‘or not collected. > 100 percent of what is collected is absorbed solely by interest on the Federal debt and by Federi. Government contributions to transfer payments. In / other words, all individual income tax f revenues are gone before one nickel is ( spent on the services which taxpayers ‘ expect from their Government. ¿) /7)Ó)g Our survey studied the small as well as the major items of cost savings, items of broad national impact as well as those of a more localized nature. I believe you will be interested in a few random examoi.es of what we found: O In the Northwest, the Federal Power Marketing dm:njstration is selling subsidized power at one—third df market rates. ¡f the Federal power were priced at market, there would be a. three—year . 770 T/ðê.” fðQ I T61çf ÓW,V&J F6D, F/a #y \ eOF’s b7Z’. ¿te a’ö ‘ ,‘A,i ,,, V, ;b/ /LtZÇ/’ 12 thc&4A? c4From: RLH [email protected] To: gfaltonriji .com [email protected]> Date: Thursday, AprIl 01, 1999 1:20 PM Subject: History Repeats! NEWS RELEASE For Immediate Release- 1 April 1999 Contact: Robin L. Higgins, Lt.CoI. LJSMC (Ret) 850-906-0117 MURDERED MARINE’S WiFE SPEAKS OUT ABOUT CAPTURE OF U.S. SERViCEMEN IN YUGOSLAViA Tallahassee, FIa. - With the news of the capture today of three U.S. eMcemen ¡n Yugoslavia, I recall the capture ¡ri 1988 of my husband, Col. William R. (Rich) Higgins who was serving with a U.N. peacekeeping operation in Lebanon. He was held by Iranian-backed Hezbollah terrorists and later murdered, a picture of his body hanging from a noose released to the news media in July 1989. His remains continued to be held until they were released In December 1991. I have heard from more than one President, U.N. Secretary General, Defense Secretary and Joint Chiefs Chairman what I am hearing today, that “we have long memories,” that ‘we will hold these captors accountable,” that we wilt go after them.” Sadly. ¡ havent found this to be true. When I tried to find a voice fo my story, no major publisher would publish my book, saying that the story is ‘too old” and “not relevant.’ Sädly they are being proved wrong today. I fear for and I pray for the safety of these brave men, and my heart goes out to their families. Colonel Higgins was never declared a Prisoner of War by his country, and it seems that is the case with the men being held today. It is my contention that when servicemen or women are captured, they are “prisoners of war,’ not ‘hostages’ or ‘detainees.’ A “hostage” Is a civilian caught in the line of fire, and held for some sick political or financial reason. Servicemen are held because they represent to those who would harm us, all the perceived weaknesses of democracy. When a man o woman in the uniform of our country are captured, they behave as prisoners of war. They live day by day by the code of conduct that says: “I am an American, fighting In the Armed Forces that guard my country and our way of ¡if.. I am preparad to giv, my life in tharI’agc.’ . )f 3 defense.... I will never forget that I am an American, fighting for freedom, responsible for my actions, and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. I will trust in my God and In the United States of America N Because Rich was always a hostage and never a ‘prisoner, there were never any demands of international rules of treatment, no Red Cross visits, no insistence on medical care or humane treatment. Because neither the U.S. nor the UN. wanted to give elegtimacy to the terrorists, insisting that neither the state of Lebanon nor Syria had anything to do with It, they put no special pressures or demands, placed no sanctions on them or anyone else. The State Department, not the Defense Department, had tha lead. That meant diplomacy. not military might. There was no retribution, no retaliation, r rescue. . Servicemen and women wear the uniform of this country and leave their families behind to fight for this country because they belíeve this country will come after them when they fall. I believe we broke this pledge to Rich - and I hope we don’t break this pledge to the three brave men who are now being held My points are: 1. We must acknowledge whenever we commit American servicernembers outside our shores, they will be subject to those who would harm them, Whether fl combat or terrorist acts. They are Americans, and whether they are armed with multiple rocket launchers, rubber bullets, or blue berets, nothing will disguise the fact they are Americans. When taken, they are prisoners of war. . 2. We must not attach American troops to U.N. command and control. The U.N. was never designed to be a military force. Our military men and women Join our armed Forces to fight and cfnd our country, our people, our flag, not the United Nations. 3. Only by publicly pursuing, relentlessly Lacking down, and punishing those who commit terrorist acts will we begin to deter them. My book, Patriot Dreame, details my quest to get information and supportI’Jl - Jf 3 defense ... 1 Will never forget that I am an American. fighting for freedom, responsible for my actions, and dedicated to the principles wtich made my country free. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America. Because Rich was always a Thostage and never a Mprisoner, there were never any demands of international rules of treatment, no Red Cross ‘disits, no insistence on medics? care or humana treatment. Because neither the U.S. nor the UN. wanted to give ‘lcgtimacy to the terrorists, Insisting that neither the state of Lebanon nor Syda had anything to do with it, they put no special pressures or dcniands, placed no sanctions on them or anyone else. The State Department, not the Defense Department, had the lead. That meant diplomacy, not miiiry might. There was no retribution, no retaliation, t rescue. . Servicemen and women wear the uniform of this country and leave their families behind to fight for this country because they believe this country will come after them when they fail ¡ believe we broke this pledge to Rich and I hope we don’t break this pledge to the three brave men who are now being held My points are: 1. We must acknowledge whenever we commit American servicernembers outside our shores, they will be subject to those who would harm them, whether n combat or terrorist acts. They are Americans, and whether they are armed with multiple rocket launchers, rubber bullets, or blue berets, nothing Will disguise the fact they are Americans. When taken, they are prisoners of war. . 2. We must not attach American troops to U.N. command and control. The U.N. was never designed t be a mUitary force. Our military men and women join our armed forces t fight ar.d ufend our country, our people, our flag, not the Llriiwd Nations. 3. Only by publicly pursuing. relentlessly tacking down, arid punishing those who commit terrorist acts will we begin to deter them. My book, Patriot Dreams, dotaiI my quest to get information end oupport/ from the United States government and the United Nations. It portrays a woman In crisis. It explores the schizophrenic conflict I faced - how to maintain my patriotism in the shadow of disappointment and seeming betrayal by our own government and the U.N. The bòok has been published by the Marine Corps Association and is immediately available by calling them at 1-888-BE-PROUD. [email protected] . htp:Itwwhigginspaecorn ON THE ThRESHOLD OF ThE NEW WORLD ORDER: THE WILSONIAN ViSION AND AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY IN ThE 199OS AND BEYOND U.S. SENATOR JOSEPH R. BIDEN, JR. Addresses in the United States Senate Washington, D.C. June 29, June 30 and July 1, 1992 J. On the Threshold of the New World Order Il. An American Agenda for the New World Order A. Cementing the Democratic Foundation B. Forging a New Strategy of Containment C. Organizing for Collective Security D. Launching an Economic-Environmental Revolution Ill. Fulfilling the Wilsonian Vision: America’s Opportunity and Permanent Task Two years ago, an act of aggression by an Arab despot against a tiny Arab sheikdom led the President of the United States to invoke a magisterial phrase. He spoke, In rare visionary terms, of a New World Order in which wrongs would be put right through collective action. My purpose today is to examine that portentous phrase and to elaborate on the immense potential — and, still more, the imperative — I believe it holds for American foreign policy In the 1990’s and beyond. G A T7 /Al F) u 15 FEDERAL TAX DEPOSIT REQUIREMENTS FOR SEMIWEEKLY DEPOSITORS THIS IS AN INFORMATION NOTICE - YOU DON’T 4EEU TO REsPOND. EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1. I93. PMPLOYERS AR! lI!QUZRED TO MAKE THEIR FEDERAL EMPLOYMENT TAX DEPOSI1S FOLLOWING EITHER A MONTHLY OR SEMIblEE1Y fl!PCSIT SCHEDULE. EACH YEAR W! WILL NOTIFY YOU WHICH DEPQSIT SCHEDULE OUR RECORDS INDICATE YOU SHOULD USE FOR THE CONING YEAR. HOWEVER, YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR DETERMINING THE DEPOSIT SCHEDULE THAT ,4PPLIES TO YOU. IN OCTOBER 1q94. WE REVIEWED THE RETURNS YOU FILED FOR THE FOUR QUARTERS ENDING SEPTEMSER I3, DECEMBER MARCH ¿99. AND JUNE 1q94 (REFERREO TO AS TN! LOOKBAcK PERIOD). A- THAT TINE, YOUR TOTAL EMPLOYMENT TAX lIABILITY POR THE POUR QUARTERS WAS MORE THAN $50.000. THEREFORE, FOR WAGES PAID AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1994, YOU SHOULD MAKE YOUR DEPOSITS FOLLOWING THE SEMIWEEKLY SCHEDULE. THE DAY YOUR SEPIILJEEQY DEPOSIT IS DUE DEPENDS ON TOUR PAYDAY. IF YOU PAY WAGES ON A WEDNESDAY, THURSDAY, OR FRIDAY. THE DEPOSIT IS DUE BY THE FOLLOWING WEDNESDAY. ¡F YOU PAY WAGES ON A SATURDAY, SUNDAY, MONDAY, OR TUESDAY, THE DEPOSIT ¡S DUE BY THE FOLLOWING FRIDAY. ¡P AT ANY TIME WITHIN YOUR DEPOSIT PERIOD. YOUR ACCUMULATED EMPLOYMENT TAXES REACH $100,000 OR MORE, YOU MUST DEPOSIT o THE NEXT BANKING DAY. AFTFII MAKIh’I THIS CHE DAY DEPOSIT, YOU WILL MAKE SUISCRUENT DEPOSITS USING THE SEMIIIsLKLY SCHEDULE UI4TIL THE NEXT TIPlE YOUR ..ACCUNULATED ENPL0YHEHr TAXIS REACH $102.000 OR MO. PLEASE BEAR IN HIND THAI YOU ARE REQUIRED TO FILE YOUR RETURNS QUARTERLY EVEN THOUGH YOU MAKE SEMiWEEKLY DEPOSITS. - --- — - . ‘ PROVISIONS UP YH NQRTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (NAFTA) LEGISLATION REQUIRE D!POSIJ f10 BE NADE BY ELECTRPÇ FUHU5RÑrPtN ttPIf. Tt mAL’,.uKr ut ur T TSl WILL BEr GRADUALLY PHASED IN OVER A PERIOD OF YEARS FOR ALL DEPOSiT ORS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYMENT TAX. I j:EPFECTI JANUARY 1. 1995, EMPLOYERS WITH EMPLOYMENT TAX DEPOSITS OF $78 MILLION 01 MOREl DURING CALNOAR YEAR 1993 ARE REQUIRED TO MAKE THEiR DEPOSITS USING EFT. — - ----4 - - - - - - - --. - —----.- -. - THE ENCLOSED NOTICE 931 EXPLAINS BOTH THE MONTHLY ANO SEMIWLKLY DEPOSIT R!QUIRFMFHT IN MORE DETAIL. YOU CAN ALSO FIND USEFUL INFORMATION IN CIRCULAR E. EMPLOYER’S TAX GUIDE. FO1 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON ENROLLMENT ¡N AN ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER SYSTEM REFER TO *(VENU! PROCEDURE 94—48. $ ‘ ENCLOSURE’ NOTiCE 931 WUAT DÖES NAPT4 11,’IV 1’O’D W,,14 LIS emploltW$ WÌThMOLPÍ’15 1A?A/9.d 1 4*friday. November 18, 1994’Cflioo Enterp4-Ise-R.cord E 9 % Voting shows how close local D ay Mlcho& Gardn.r E-R Sacramento Bureau SACRAMENTO — Tidbits from local election results: • Butte County Democrats arc really closet Republicans. . Vie Faño won just two of the eight counties in his 2nd Congressional District, yet was returned to the House. • Most of Soiano County went for Democrat challenger Mike McGowan. but voters there actually helped send Republican Maurice Johannessen bock to the Senate. • Voters were willing to “Give the JCidd a ( chance.” American Independent candidate Devvy I Kidd was che largest vote-getter of any third party LCongressional candidate in the state. In Butte County. Republicans have been slowly gaining on the Democrats in terms of voter registration to a point now where the GOP lags behind by a microscopic .48 percent: 42.63 to 43.11. But Republican candidates this election year made it seem like Butte was just this side of Orange County. Moat of Butte County, except for the Gridley area, is in the 3rd Assembly District and 2nd Congressional District. In those voting results: ‘Incumbent Assemblyman Bernie Richter took 65.3 percent of the Butte vote to just 34.7 percent for Democrat Jim Chapman. Yei registered Democrats outnumber Republicans 46,925 to 44,489 in that Assembly district. . Incumbent Rep. Wally Merger of Maryaville dropped Democrat Mary Jacobs thanks to a 61.9 percent to 27.8 percent margin of victory in Butte. Yet, in that Congressional district there are 45,226 registered Democrats to 44,489 Republicans. j’— In the Herger race, Redding’s Devvy Kidd, J whose slogan was ‘Give the Kidd a chance,” has (earned statewide bragging rights. That’s because her 7.2 percent of the vote was the largest percentage of any Third Patty candidate running for Congress. Her 15,005 votes were also the most garnered by a Third Party in the state. Runnerup was American Independent Donald Cochran with 10,043 in the Riverside area. She even won 10.8 percent in Modoc, and 9.0 percent in Nevada. In Butte County she got 6.9 percent. Kidd’a total of 15,005 votes district-wide was even nearly double the total number of registered American Independent candidates in the district £696). Rep. Vic Faim of West Sacramento is admittedly feeling lucky to have avoided the GOP sweep last Tuesday. He defeated Republican Tim LeFever of Dixon 49.8 to 46.1 percent. Faño won only Sacramento and Yolo counties, but those are by far the largest voting blocs in the 3rd Congressional District. The other six counties went for LeFever. “The way he looks at it is he was extremely lucky to even win the race in light of it being a very conservative district and in light of the anti incumbent Republican tidal wave that hit the nation. He feels very honored and feeLs very happy to have survived that,” said Linda Reiff, a spokeswoman for Faño. What especially hurt, said ReitT, was a drop in voter turnout in Yolo County. About 11,000 fewer Yolo voten went to the polls than in 1992, she said. There was only a minor surprise in the Richter campaign. Richter swept every county in his district, but Chapman was strong in Lassen County. While generally losing 2-I elsewhere, Chapman trailed Richter by just 50.1 to 49.9 percent in his home county where he serves as a supervisor. McGowan, a Yolo County supervisor, needed to win big along the I-80 condor and stay close in Shasta County to offset Johannessen’s advantages in the rural northern reach of the district. The key was Solano County, where McGowan hoped to do well. He won it, but by a small 51.9 percent to 48.1 percent margin. Sacramento County went to Johannessen as well, but little of it is in that district. Only about 2,100 voters from Sacramento County went lo the po11s in that district) so it didn’t make the difference. McGowan had also hoped to slay close to Johannessen in Shasta County. Johannessen had canted the county by only a few percentage points in the special election last year against Democrat Montana Podva. But, Johannessen polled much stronger in his home county this time around, beating McGowan there by a 61.6 to 38.4 percent margin. Thanks to that margin, plus his strong showing in Solano, Johannessen is back in the Senate. 4th Senate District County Johannessen McGowan Butte 66.8% 33.2% Colusa 64.6% 35.4% Glenn 69.7% 30.3% Sacramento 55.3% 44.7% Shasta 61.6% 38.4% Siskiyou 59.1% 40.9% Solano .. 48.1% 51.9% Sutter 68.1% 31.9% Tehama 38.3% Trim 58.4% 416% Yolo 39.5% 60.5% TnÌI 45,4d PU •,.‚ GIOCia J $d*(. ,øl; ‘.oio ‘.ìsi A’ rSb.4 .rn..flOr* .‘ ‘UC ---- --‚-..-.— i I*ae...j. CS’O’.’4 DObC s 4* Q’*b.I S 01• ‘Ca 1*IL..C aêG.C ‘—r’iu.. Thank y i c.t; rca;d t sSfcy of Unire. S.rez for nce Lited Nacons command. The implica:oris of agreeing co at!ow Americax trcops co serve under United Nations a-3so’es are mass:ve. l..nder the terms of L... Charter Article 43. the Secretary General of the L’iced Nacior1s could depior American troops without the advice and consent of the PiTdent of che United Sces or ct’ the U.S. Congress. Until row, the Uhited Nacons “B Trnecs have been used as a peacekeeping force. The changes proposed could at low the deveioprneit of a U.N. szading arny. That is not a function chat the United Nations is ecuped to assume. it wouk be foo!Sardy for American troops co be used contrary to the politice; wi!l o the American people. When a recruit enters the A-rr.ed Force,s, the American peop!e ee:tively ask if he or she ¡s will!nç ro di for rhk rn,r1tr—ì W ini.II n,t to ¿u for the poLi objcctives of a supraratiora body. Een when Arnericar troops sde.by-sde with forces flying che U.N. fia; -- such as in Korea -- we did Sc under ou own ag and with our own commanders. It was only incidental that our objectives cc n::e with rtiose of the United Nations. Cnncicu;orlly, ir is the perocve nf the President to asl. for a declaratior cf war Inc Lt rig: Congress to give assent if the Members beiieve chat such actior. is justiried. sway a cne Lonstirut:cn oy aIiowng U.S. forces cc g to war wien calied to do so by che Setretary General of the United Nations. ... rty oath of office, .s ¡ ‘ H abide by oath. . r L sore to upholu ne Constcucion. In cftis matter, as in all S:ncerely. LL 1?o.J Wl. r*l Dea Ms. ‘jj.j Stat5 nate • L OE’G. RaLANS ‘i%.4 .NG1’d, OC 20510-6225 September 27, 1995 . -. koQlth Congres’ 2d 8uion COXITTEE PRINT THE RIGHT TO KEEP AND BEAR ARMS . 41IO REPORT OF TKZ SUBCOMII’ITEE ON THE CONSTITUTION OP T COMMITTEE ON THE J UDICIARY UNITED STATES SENATE NINETY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 8EOOND 8S8810N Pr1ted for the use of the Committee ou the Judiciary U.B. OOVERNZNT PZLNTD4O orrivz WAZUH4OTON: 1S2 For ial. by tb. 8upqr1itedeut cf Docuweta. ILS. G.ver..Dt PrteUDg Osee WLalLgtoD. D.C. 20402 FEBRUARY 12MM1TTEE ON THE JUDICIARY STROM THURMOND. South CaroUna. Ctiairmo CHARLFS McC. MATHIAS. Ji.. Mary’and JOSEPH R. BIDEN. Ji., D,Iaware PAUL LAJCALT. Nevada EDWARD M KENNEDY. I(aachu..tta ORRIN G. HATCH. Utah ROBERT C. BYRD. Wt Virgnia ROBERT DOLE. Kaoaaa HOWARD M, ME’IZENBAUM. Ohio ALAN K. SIMPSON. Wyonug DENNIS NCLNL Aruon. JOHN P. EAST. North Cervhna PATRICK J. LEAHY. V.rmcmt CHARLF. E. GRASSL.EY. Iowa MAX BAUCUS. Montani JEREMIAN DENTON. Alabama HOWELL HEF123. Alabama ARLEN SPWTER. P.asiayhiiua Viwiw DiV*iaz ùa. Ourf CDu. Qu’mx ouitwa. Jr.. Siaff Du.rðer SuaœMirrru OH mz CoNrrrnmoN ORRIN G. HATCH. Utah. Ca4rwon STROM THURMOND, South CaroIiaa DENNIS DX)NC1NI. Ariaona. (ŠARLES E. GRALIY. Iowa PATRiCK J. LEAKY. V.mot 5.ici J. MAJIU*Jð, CkÉtf Cm.aai& maid Staff Duectot R.uii*u. RAa. f3eai.rol Loua.eI Prrti E. Oiies.v. ouai.rl ko.t Ftu. Muwity Caaa.el (u, .PREFACE “To preserve liberty, it is essential that the whole body of the people always possess arms, and be taught alike, espe cially when young, how to use them.” (Richard Henry Lee, Virginia delegate Lo the Continental Congress, initiator of the Declaration of Independence, and member of the first Senate, which passed the Bill of Rights.) “The great object is that every man be armed.. . Every one who is able may have a gun.” (Patrick Henry, in the Virginia Convention on the ratification of the Constitu tion.) “The advantage of being armed. . . the Americans pos sess over the people of all other nations. . . Notwithstand ing the military establishments in the several Kingdoms of Europe, which are carried as far as the public resources will bear, the governments are afraid to trust the people with arms.” (James Madison, author of the Bill of Rights, in his Federalist Paper No. 26.) “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.” (Second Amendment to the Constitution.) In my studies as an attorney and as a United States Senator, I have constantly been amazed by the indifference or even hostility shown the Second Amendment by courts, legislatures, and com mentators. James Madison would be startled to hear that his recog nition of a right to keep and bear arms, which passed the House by a voice vote without objection and hardly a debate, has since been construed in but a single, and most ambiguous, Supreme Court decision, whereas his proposals for freedom of religion, which he made reluctantly out of fear that they would be rejected or nar rowed beyond use, and those for freedom of assembly, which passed only after a lengthy and bitter debate, are the subject of scores of detailed and favorable decisions. Thomas Jefferson, who kept a veritable armory of pistols, rifles and shotguns at Monticello, and advised his nephew to forsake other sports in favor of hunting, would be astounded to hear supposed civil libertarians claim fire arm ownerhsip should be restricted. Samuel Adams, a handgun owner who pressed for an amendment stating that the “Constitu Lion shall never be construed . . . to prevent the people of the United States who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms,” would be shocked to hear that his native state today im poses a year’s sentence, without probation or parole, for carrying a firearm without a police permit. (V)VI This is not to imply that courts have totally ignored the impact of the Second Amendment in the Bill of Rights. No fewer than twenty-one decisions by the courts of our states have recognized sri individual right to keep and bear arms, and a majority of these have not only recognized the right but invalidated laws or regula tions which abridged it. Yet in all too many instances, courts or commentators have sought, for reasons only tangentially related to constitutional history, to construe this right out of existence. They argue that the Second Amendment’s words “right of the people” mean “a right of the state—apparently overlooking the impact of those same words when used in the First and Fourth Amendments. The “right of the people” to assemble or to be free from unreason able searches and seizures is not contested as an individual guaran tee. Still they ignore consistency and claim that the right to “bear arms” relates only to military uses. This not only violates a consist ent constitutional reading of “right of the people” but also ignores that the second amendment protects a right to “keep” arms. These commentators contend instead that the amendment s preamble re garding the necessity of a “well regulated militia . . . to a free state” means that the right to keep and bear arms applies only to a National Guard. Such a reading fails to note that the Framers used the term “militia” to relate to every citizen capable of bearing arms, and that Congress has established the present National Guard under its power to raise armies, expressly stating that it was not doing so under its power to organize and arm the militia. When the fIrst Congress convened for the purpose of drafting a Bill of Rights, it delegated the task to James Madison. Madison did not write upon a blank tablet. Instead, he obtained a pamphlet listing the State proposals for a bill of rights and sought to produce a briefer version incorporating all the vital proposals of these. His purpose was to incorporate, not distinguish by technical changes, proposals such as that of the Pennsylvania minority, Sam Adams, or the New Hampshire delegates. Madison proposed among other rights that ‘That right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; a well armed and well regulated militia being the best security of a free country; but no person religiously scrupulous of bearing arms shall be compelled to render military service in person.” ¡n the House, this was initially modified so that the militia clause came before the proposal recognizing the right. The proposals for the Bill of Rights were then trimmed in the interests of brevity. The conscientious objector clause was removed following objections by Elbridge Gerry, who complained that future Congress es might abuse the exemption to excuse everyone from military service. The proposal finally passed the House in its present form: “A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.:” In this form it was submitted Into the Senate, which passed it the following day. The Senate in the process indicated its intent that the right be an individual one, for private purposes, by rejecting an amendment which would have limited the keeping and bearing of arms to bearing “For the common defense”. The earliest American constitutional commentators concurred in giving this broad reading to the amendment. When St. GeorgeVII Tucker, later Chief Justice of the Virginia Supreme Court, in 1803 published an edition of Blackstone annotated to American law, he followed Blackatone’s citation of the right of the subject “of having arms suitable to their condition and degree, and such as are al lowed by law” with a citation to the Second Amendment, “And this without any quaiiíication as to their condition or degree, as is the case in the British government.” William Rawle’s “View of the Constitution” published in Philadelphia in 1825 noted that under the Second Amendment: “The prohibition is general. No clause in the Constitution could by a rule of construction be conceived to give to Congress a power to disarm the people. Such a flagitious attempt could only be made under some general pretense by a state legislature. But if in blind pursuit of inordinate power, either should attempt it, this amendment may be appealed to as a re straint on both.” The Jefferson papers in the Library of Congress show that both Thcker and Rawle were friends of, and corre sponded with, Thomas Jefferson. Their views are those of contern poraries of Jefferson, Madison and others, and are entitled to spe cial weight. A few ,ears later, Joseph Story In his “Commentaries on the Constitution ‘ considered the right to keep and bear arms as “the palladium of the liberties of the republic”, which deterred tyranny and enabled the citizenry at large to overthrow it should it corne to pass. Subsequent legislation in the second Congress likewise supports the interpretation of the Second Amendment that creates an indi vidual right. In the Militia Act of 1792, the second Congress de fined “militia of the United States” to include almost every free adult male in the United States. These persons were obligated by law to possess a firearm and a minimum supply of ammunition and military equipment. This statute, incidentally, remained in effect into the early years of the present century as a legal require ment of gun ownership for most of the population of the United States. There can be little doubt from this that when the Congress and the people spoke of a “militia”, they had reference to the traditional concept of the entire populace capable of bearing arms, and not to any formal group such as what is today called the Nations] Guard. The purpose was to create an armed citizenry, which the political theorists at the time considered essential to ward off tyranny. From this militia, appropriate measures might create a ‘well regulated militia” of individuals trained in their duties and responsibilities as citizens and owners of fIrearms. If gun laws in fact worked, the sponsors of this type of legislation should have no difficulty drawing upon long Lists of examples of crime rates reduced by such legislation. That they cannot do so after a century and a half of trying—that they must sweep under the rug the southern attempts at un control in the 1870-1910 period, the northeastern attempts in the 1920-1939 period, the attempts at both Federal and State levels in 1965-1976---establishes the repeated, complete and inevitable failure of gun laws to control serious crime. Immediately upon assuming chairmanship of the Subcommittee on the Constitution, I sponsored the report which follows as an effort to study, rather than ignore, the history of the controversy over the right to keep and bear arms. Utiliiiriig the research capa-VE” bi]ities of the Subcommittee on the Constitution, the resources of the Library of Congress, and the assistance of constitutional schol ars such as Mary Kaaren Jolly, Steven Haibrook, and David T. Hardy, the subcommittee has managed to uncover information on the right to keep and bear arms which documents quite clearly its status as a major individual right of American citizens. We did not guess at the purpose of the British 1689 Declaration of Rights; we located the Journals of the House of Commons and private notes of the Declaration’s sponsors, now dead for two centuries. We did not make suppositions as to colonial interpretations of that Declara tion’s right to keep arms; we examined colonial newspapers which discussed it. We did not speculate as to the intent of the framers of the second amendment; we examined James Madison’s drafts for it, his handwritten outlines of speeches upon the Bill of Rights, and discussions of the second amendment by early scholars who were personal friends of Madison, Jefferson, and Washington and wrote while these still lived. What the Subcommittee on the Constitution uncovered was clear—and long-lost—proof that the second amend ment to our Constitution was intended as an individual right of the American citizen to keep and carry arms in a peaceful manner, for protection of himself, his family, and his freedoms. The summary of our research and findings forms the first portion of this report. In the interest of fairness and the presentation of a complete picture, we also invited groups which were likely to oppose this recognition of freedoms to submit their views. The statements of two associations who replied are reproduced here following the report of the Subcommittee. The Subcommittee also invited state ments by Messrs. Haibrook and Hardy, and by the National Rifle Association, whose statements likewise follow our report. When I became chairman of the Subcommittee on the Constitu tion, I hoped that I would be able to assist in the protection of the constitutional rights of American citizens, rights which have too often been eroded in the belief that government could be retied upon for quick solutions to difficult problems. Both as an American citizen and as a United States Senator I repudiate this view. I likewise repudiate the approach of those who believe to solve American problems you simply become something other than American. To my mind, the uniqueness of our free institutions, the fact that an American citizen can boast freedoms unknown in any other land, is all the more reason to resist any erosion of our individual rights. When our ancestors forged a land ‘conceived in liberty”, they did so with musket and rifle. When they reacted to attempts to dissolve their free institutions, and established their identity as a free nation, they did so as a nation of armed freemen. When they sought to record forever a guarantee of their rights, they devoted one full amendment out of ten to nothing but the protection of their right to keep and bear arms against government interference. Under my chairmanf hip the Sub committee on the Constitution will concern itself with a proper recognition of, and respect for, this right most valued by free men. Oww G. HATCH, Chairman, Subcommittee on the Constitution. JANuARY 20, 1982.O p0 •OrbN •.,‘4’O LOO. U.-or. . • .—p.. ..._.rJQg ge — .— 4.)- II OIl- (*0 W - VIA W ri aIJ - II% 4r. .- C U Cr’J I L— 0— PI — — — o IA 4. IA 41 O * -J I-I- .. .w 4-0 Z O — LI . L L. — — .. ‘q” R . ILl. Ce ;> — —o — D LI.4- 41 C D— 41 000L 00 —0 41.41-. L Quo. • U IlL .— u 1111 h •b- 4 0. 0.W — — II O u .‘— o r’,I r D in .. C L PILL —UQ. —.. ——-—- 0.C_ QO ai. - . •OC ‘- 4. . 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CO C 0 omm £.. > C C —; a C0 .0 — - e-e c C—C— ... e .uxb1>e.5 CO C —a—.—reå IU 0 0 .. .- a00000 g’tZ o l_! > laWodd Trade Caitcr - north tower tenarns yiiwyJI1 17/httpi/w w.usoüy,com/ne/niorLf2OO1fO9ði 1/north-lower him The Company Store Retdere 45 ar” ASTÐC. Inc. Organczaôorts 46 to e6 Bk,e Sky Technoiogtes, Inc. Computer Services 46 Buss1îs - Consolidated Steelex Cop. Manutactunng 46 Da ISA õorp ____ ‘‘ ç__j >4J J&X Tana lntemetonal Unknown 46 News E-MAIL r’i TH STORY 30’eacdAP1r, I*mtrotiuciioriv chclc here! tee Iu Trwsbrs .. .... .. s ! r.. -. --- Nation ‘ .‘ . . ii . WI H ‘ orne Main Categoties . Washington States Wotid Hcaltfl & Serice ionaLIOpI!Uc?rj News Briefs Top News . Nation . Vas ‘ More Now. . . -. . . .. . . - T ‘k T d a Monoyl imcci - i World Trade Center - north tower tenants Tenant name Induy su Pa, MIS Sannce Co. Únknäwn. Rachel & Assocaêes Manufacturing sIjit time.. .1 L - Moe Pope. Law Offices of Atlorney : : ‘nsunqenc. Commodity Futures Trading Conriisson Invesiments °V” Regional Alliance Small Contractors Consructlon 38 a Visior Jump strai wi Y S .. on at t&rn Brothers Unknown 38-40 WØ ILW; 4’w’’ . .. The Culural Instil jtions Retire’nenl Systems Trusts 39 nfl00r Unknown 41-43 Socty oiT nyn$s Amencan Lola International Unknown 45 IraConst,cjooo1A1ierca.no. Constn1icn 45f Dunavani Commodity Corp lnves*meflts : . • sre -. A fit s’rca r OVi [ [ Life] r T ji I OC il Fertitta Enterprises Unknown 45 . bt IriessItings . CIt1 .Q’O”.- SMAR1CZ1 -ir” Sassoons. Inc. Unknown 45 SPA Unknown 45 Slearnkne Cjpita.LLC Uflh’ 45 ‘ • áathër I of4 09113/2001 12:07 PMWorld Tm4c Ccnet- north towu rwIts v.7siwygiðII I 74p:I/w.usatoday.co.n/ncw/nationt200 IO9/I I)north-4ov.mm w.J. Am.rlcan TCC lnrnahon.l Group, lnc Dachanyo Trui AT&T Corpoation Inveslments 53 _____________ _____ UriknoM Paalrn Tradlig & Shippôig. Inc. Urnan 53,78 ______ Pecm Univerady Government/Schools 55 _______rr S5 BanksðFancial Instltuhons 60 NFAOG, Inc. Unknown j Ve5alej QuInt Aniasis. LLC Business Sennces 47 47.90 ___ —-, 45O Investments Tpjsts Tetecommuncation ROI. Gaflaghen PC RichdAZ1rnrnerrnan Esq The W1Iiis CapItal Group AIG Aviation Brokeraoe, Inc. Accountants AttorneysL Unknown WhbtešalOrs Insurance Aoencies 52 52,84 53 LOcUIIO & Funk, Inc. Asahi Bank. Ud. MartIn ProgressÑe. I.C.C t ICorp Wodd Trade Centers Association Computer Serutces 77 OrganizatIons 77 2of4 09/1312001 1207PMWorld Trade Caner - north Lower tenants wysiwygi/l I 7/btl i/lw w.uoday.com/newslnatioat200 1109/I I/north-iowcr.him 4WesEs ‘Ni!Ý.:: Lava Trading, LIC 4apVe»!uresJê) ______ Phirt Path Emplownent Agencies 78 Ä&53 9jfr Deynerd 8 Vm Thunen Co, Insurances AgencIes 79 Firs! ‘hpstmen Group) ttr hitemebonal Otite. Centers Corporation Business Services 79 Nikko SocartIe-7 ¿‘ Banks/Financial lnsutu]J” Oliste Shojl Consny, Ud Computer Services 79 $&irntTthnotW% é Agñcor Commoddies Coip. Investments 80 InhustlnvestmeptRea!ty It Ekt4 rC uWC”ä& Noga Comrnodðes Overseas, Inc. Invesnenles 80 Network Plus Telecommunications 81 NÖa Conunental tnterpnses ÆrE4 NY Metro Trenspoitalion Council Govemnment/Schoo4s 82 eMeJi’Ccrnniunioation? iiuntcati9fr 83 General TelecommunIcations Unknown 83 ____ rrçIervtj Unknown 83 KI’TC Investments 84 LS Securities mena Inc t lpvestmcn[ - San-In Godo Bank, Ltd Banks/Fmancial InstItuons 84 SMW ¿t 4 riiW%iewtents u Thenno Electron Unknown 85 Daeha’i International Investments 89 4ori4. p Metropolitan Life Insurance Co Insurance AgencIes 89 ___ 1 Stralecic Communications, Inc. Telecommuncations 89 American Bissa of Shping EngIneers 91 L ____ Marsh USA. Inc. Insurance Agencels 93-100 _________ ____ jttLrr Cardon Fìtzgereld Securities Investments 101-105 of 4 09/13/2001 12:07PMWorld Trade Cena - north tower taiart vysiwygi/l Ilibttpri/www.usaoday.coniðnews/naÜoittZOO 1/09/I I/north-tower. bun .. :6W Channel 4 (NBC) Greeteit Bar on Eatifi ‘Wrdmicieciuti : . Channel 11 (WPIX) ChanÑI2 Channel 31 (WUIS) LI W!S Cablelretevìsion 104 Unknown 107 ‘ai - Cableítebviaion 110 Front Page News Money Sports Lite Tedi Weather Shop Terms of sennce Privacy Poky Flow to advertise About us C Copyright 2001 USA TODAY, a dÑikn of Gannett Co. Fric. . : 1r.1e Cab4e1Telension 110 Source: CoStar Group 40(4 09/1312001 12:07PMwashingtoopostcom . 132 bupJ/al8tg..coailwp-sví,iionJnc)cs/ower1 hunl I Portfolio Technology I Company IReseard Mutual Funds Personal FInance Industries Columnlcts Ban ks/l-inancial Inslitutioris woshingtonpostl tk’me _j’ •— I .9.32 my £ TWzchgt ci ness Following are the businesses that had offices in the two towers of the World Trade Center. Roughly 50,000 workers were employed in the twin 110-story towers. Emergency contact information is hsted where available. 1f you have additional contact WformatÌon or corrections, please E-mai I Market News tammy.kennonOwash4nçtonpost.com. Tower 1 (A-K) I Tower 1 (L-Z) I Tower 2 Tower 1 (NORTH) Companies A - K : _______ A 1 G Avabon In5urance Agencie5 53 NA Special Reports Uve Online Real stiate Airport Auess Proqram -Œ American Bureau of Engineers 91 i—. ww egle.org 507-210-8555, www.biz.com/eng.htnil l7: l;•:7L:.ftIl1i;:: ::• sramx t4anufactuflng (USA) Ch[napPl, inveritf” 84 NA lof 4 09/1312001 12:14 PMw—on— yswygJ/AnswcrFramc. I32lhttp:”aI 8S.g..œm/wp-srvinthŒ/!rtdcs/tower1 html Cheng cheng Enterprises Holding Ir 2 of 4 09/1312001 12:14 PM

    washingwnpo6tcont wysiwyg//Answuframe. I 32/hnp:/!a18 .,,œnwp-srv/natio&ucLesltowcrl html Kanebo Information Computer Services 46 NA Systems C . U . Karpn tal r!n$tmts .. .,. . Keenari i’uwers .-. •m neys Andrews Kemper.Itircine ¡nirin-e Açlec’es . KIddEr Peabody & 101 NA Co. - Gçe,nnwnt.’SchooIs 78 NA Korea Local Authorities Foundation for 3o14 09/13i2001 12:14PMwstinjtoi’poacom bi © 2001 The Washington Post Company Tower 1 (A-K) I Tower 1 (L-Z) I Tower 2 4 of 4 O9/I3t2OO 12:14PM. JOKN M. OilMAN, ESQ. . . COZ OH)4AN & BR.ANDSTETTER, CEARTERED 510 “D’ STREET P.O. BOX 51600 S — 2?3 IDARO PALLE, ID 83405—1600 (208) 522—8606 ATTORNEYS FOR: Plaintiff IN THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE SEVENTH JUDICIAL DISTRICT OF THE STATE OF IDAi0, IN AND FOR THE COUNTY OF BONNEVILLE MAGISTRATES COURT DIVERSIFIED METAL PRODUCTS, INC. Ir)4 iI ) Case No. __________ Plaintiff, ] ‘ ] COMPLAINT FOR IMPLEADER VS. ] T-80W COMPANY TRUST, ) INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, and ) STEVE MORGAN ) Defendants. Ç _____________________________________________________________________________ ) 1. Plaintiff is a steel and metal fabricator, doing business in Idaho Falls, Idaho, with an Independent Contractor Agreement, dated May 3, 1993, with Defendant T-80w Company Trust. 2. Defendant T—Boy Company Trust is an independent contractor which acts on behalf of Defendant Steve Morgan, as his principal. 3. Defendant Steve Morgan is an agent of Defendant T-Bow Trust, and has performed services to Plaintiff. 4. Defendant Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is an agency of the United States government which has presented to Plaintiff a lien against monies to which Defendant Steve Morgan, or perswnably Defendant T-Bow Company Trust for him, may be entitled. 5. Defendant IRS & T-Bow Company Trust, for Defendant Steve Morgan, have made demand of Plaintiff for payment. 6. Attached hereto as Exhibits “A” and “B” are, respectively, the demands for payment by T-Bow Company Trust, by COMPLAINT FOR IMPLEADER 1- teriiej L b. ¿.t ..,.: .. * c1 i.rigi(.I flIed I• r.,. .‘ 4tL ìbv/òo Oejt . . .its trustee, threatening suit against Plaintiff; and Notice of Levy f ucd by Defendant IRS. 7. Plaintiff has always been ready, willing and able to pay the amounts owing by it, but cannot, and should not, be required, by reason of the multiple demands, to pay amounts in excess of those owing . 8. Attached hereto as Exhibit “C” are copies of two checks, no. 7299 and no. 7364, in the respective sums of $504.00 and $345.60, representing the amounts involved. 9. The originals of said checks have been deposited contemporaneously herewith with the Clerk of the within Court. 10. Plaintiff requests that the named Detendants be required to present their claims to the within Court and that a judicial determination then be made as to the party entitled to the proceeds. 11. Plaintiff requests that the Defendants, or any of them, be required to pay its attorney’s fees and costs incurred herein, in a sum not less than $350. WHEREFORE, Plaintiff requests the Court’s determination as to which of the within Defendants is entitled the subject proceeds; for an immediate order releasing Plaintiff from the within action, without further costs or expense; and awarding to Plaintiff against these Defendants its attorney’s fees and costs incurred herein in a sum not less than $350. DATED This September j , 1993. y, JOHN M. OHMAN, ESQ. Attorney for Plaintiff COXPLAIN’r FOR tMPL.DER - 2 -BETTY H. RICHARDSON United States Attorney United States Attorney’s Office Box 32 Boise, Idaho 83707 Telephone: (208) 334—1211 RI CHARD R • WARD Trial Attorney, Tax Division U.S. Department of Justice P.O. Box 683 Ben Franklin Station Washington, D.C. 20044—0683 Telephone: (202) 307—5867 Attorneys for the Uniteð States of America IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF IDAHO DIVERSIFIED METAL PRODUCTS, ) INC., ) Plaintiff, ) y. ) Civil No. 93-405-E-EJL ) T-BOW COMPANY TRUST, INTERNAL ) UNITED STATES’ ANSWER AND CLAIM REVENUE SERVICE, and STEVE ) MORGAN, ) ) Defendants. ) ) ______________________________________________________________________________ ) The United States of America, through undersigned counsel hereby responds to the numbered paragraphs of plaintiff’s complaint as follows: 3.. The United States is without information or knowledge sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of the allegations contained in paragraph 1 and, on that basis, denies the allegations. UNITED STATES ANSWER AND CLAIM - 2.9393990P.ANS 2. The United States is without information or knowledge sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of the allegations contained in paragraph 2 and, on that basis, denies the allegations. 3. The United States is without information or knowledge sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of the allegations contained in paragraph 3 and, on that basis, denies the allegations. 4. Denies that the Internal Revenue Service is an agency of the United States Government but admits that the United States of America would be a proper party to this action. Admits that the IRS has served a Notice of Levy on plaintiff for funds owed to defendant Steve Morgan. 5. Admits that the IRS has made a demand on plaintiff for payment of funds oued to Steve Morgan. The United States is without information or knowledge sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of the remaining allegations, and, on that basis, denies the remaining allegations. 6. Admits that Exhibits A and B are attached and are respectively, a copy of a letter from Lonnie Crockett and a copy of a Notice of Levy served by the IRS. 7. The United States is without information or knowledge : sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of the allegations contained in paragraph 7 and, on that basis, denies the allegations. UNITED STATES ANSWER AND CLAIM - 2 ‘.. p.939399 OP • ANS 8. Admits that copies of two checks in the amounts of $504.00 and $345.60 are attached to the complaint as Exhibit C. 9. The United States is without information or knowledge sufficient to form a belief as to the truth of the allegations contained in paragraph 9 and, on that basis, denies the allegations. 10. respànse 11. response FIRST DEFENSE Plaintiff is not entitled to an award of attorney fees or costs that would diminish the recovery of the United States. SECOND DEFENSE The Internal Revenue Service is not a proper defendant and the United States should be substituted in its place. THIRD DEFENSE The United States has not waived its sovereign immunity to suit. FOURTH DEFENSE Plaintiff s complaint should be dismissed for insufficient service of process on the United States. FIFTh DEFENSE Plaintiff’s complaint fails to state a jurisdictional basis for suit. Paragraph 10 contains allegations of law to which no is required. Paragraph 11 contains allegations of law to which no is required. UNITED STATES ANSWER AND CLAIM - 3‚V 939399 OP. ANS CLMM CF THE UNITED STATES 1. This claim is made pursuant to 26 U.S.C. Sections 7401 and 7403, at the direction of the Attorney General of the United States, with the authorization and at the request of the chief Counsel of the Internal Revenue Service, a delegate of the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States. 2. On May 29, 1989, a delegate of the Secretary of the Treašury made an assessment of unpaid personal income taxes against Steven and Koreen Morgan in the amount of $516.50, including penalties and interest, for the taxable period ending December 31, 1988. 3. Notice of and demand for payment of the taxes described in paragraph 1 above was given to and made on Steven and Koreen Morgan in accordance with 26 U.S.C. § 6303. 4. Notice of Federal Tax Lien with respect to the assessment described in paragraph 1 above was filed with the Madison County Recorder, Rexburg, Idaho on August 30, 1993. 5. On May 31, 1993, a delegate of the Secretary of the Treasury made an assessment of unpaid personal income taxes against Steven Morgan in the amount of $2,565.21, including penalties and interest, for the taxable period ending December 31, 1989. 6. Notice of and demand for payment of the taxes described in paragraph 4 above was given to and made on Steven Morgan in accordance with 26 U.S.C. 6303. UNITED STATES ANSWER AND CLAIM - 4y, 9393990P.ANS — 7. Notice of Federal Tax Lien with respect to the assessment described in paragraph 4 above was filed with the Madison County Recorder, Rexburg, Idaho on August 30, 1993. 8. On May 31, 1993, a delegate of the Secretary of the Treasury made an assessment of unpaid personal income taxes against Steven Morgan in the amount of $2,393.28, including penalties and interest, for the taxable period ending December 31, 1990. 9. Notice of and demand for payment of the taxes described in paragraph 7 above was given to and made on Steven Morgan in accordance with 26 U.S.C. § 6303. 10. Notice of Federal Tax Lien with respect to the assessment described in paragraph 7 above was filed with the Madison County Recorder, Rexburg, Idaho on August 30, 1993. 11. Despite notice and demand, Steve Morgan has failed to pay the taxes assessed and there remains due and owing to the United States the sum of $5,474.99, plus accrued interest, penalties, and other statutory additions. 12. On or about August 3, 1993, the Internal Revenue Service served a Notice of Levy on Steve Morgan’s employer, Diversified Metal Products, Inc., requesting payment of all monies owed to Steve Morgan by Diversified Metal Products. 13. The interpleaded fund contains money that is owed to Steve Morgan by Diversified Metal Products, tnc. to which the federal tax Lien attaches. UNITED STATES ANSWER AND CLAIM - 5i 939399 OP. ANS 14. The United States claims priority to the interpleaded fund in such amount remaining after satisfaction of the claims of competing claimants to the fund who are entitled to priority over the United States. WHEREFORE, the United States of America prays the Court: 1. Adjudge and decree that the defendant the United States of America has valid and subsiEting liens in the amount of $5,474.99, plus accrued interest, penalties, and other statutory additions. 2. Determine the rights, titles, and interest of the parties to the fund; and 3. Grant the United States its costs and such other further relier that is just and proper. Respectfully submitted this _____ day of November1 1993. BETTY H. RICHARDSON United States Attorney æhJ g. AI RICHARD R. WARD Triel Attorney, Tax Division U.S. Department of Justice P.O. Box 683 Ben Franklin Station Washington, D.C. 20044—0683 Telephone: (202) 307—5867 UNITED STATES ANSWER AND CLPIM - 6TREATIES: A SOURCE FOR FEDERAL MUNICIPAL POWER Within the last several years, many people have been utterly astonished at the phenomenal growth and Influence of the so-called environmental movement. From its “salad days” of the early seventies, this movement has blossomed so quickly that it now has the visible support of giant corporations and powerful political figures, including the alleged environmental President, George Bush, as well as that shining star upon the Democratic slate, Al Gore. This last spring, the controlled media deluged us with coverage of the importance of the Rio Summit, and when it happened, It became the third most discussed media event of this year, just behind the elections and the Olympics. There appears to be a hidden agenda behind the environmental movement with Its promotion of an environmental treaty. Quite obviously, environmental legislation is Inherently the proper subject of legislation by the state, and many states currently have such acts in effect within their jurisdictions. At the federal level, the jurisdiction of the United States is constrained by the operation of ArticLe 1, section 8, clause 17 of the U. S. Constitution, and the multitude of decided cases regarding this part of the Constitution declares that the United States has territorial jurisdiction solely within Washington, D.C., the federal enclaves Inside the States, and the territories and insular possessions of the United States. The possession of territorial jurisdiction is essential under this constitutional provision for federal municipal law, such as environmental legislation, to apply. Within the territories and possessions of the United States, the federal government possesses power similar to that of a state legislature; see E3errnan y, Parker, 348 U.S. 26, 31, 75 S.Ct. 98, 102 (1954); and Cincinnati Soao Co. y. United States, 301 U.S. 308, 317, 57 S.Ct. 764, 768 (1937). Therefore, municipal environmental legislation enacted by Congress could readily apply in these areas within the jurisdiction of the United States. And logically, a consideration of solely this part of the Constitution would dictate a conclusion that federal municipal law could apply only within those areas subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. A ready example of a case so holding is United States v Shauver, 214 F. 154, 160 (E.D.Ark., 1914), which concerned the issue of where the Migratory Bird Act of March 1913 could apply. Via this act, Congress sought to extend protection to migratory birds by limiting the hunting season and otherwise placing constraints upon hunting of these birds. As is only natural, upon adoption of this act federal law enforcement officials started strenuously enforcing it and here they had arrested Shauver in Arkansas for shooting and killing migratory birds. Shauver moved to dismiss the Indictment filed against him on the grounds that the act contravened the 10th Amendment by invading the jurisdiction of the states upon a matter historically reserved for legislation by the states. In deciding that this act was unconstitutional, Judge Trieber noted that the common law provided that the states essentially owned the birds within their borders and state legislation was the sole source by which control of hunting could be accomplished. In so concluding, he held: “Et is the people who alone can amend the Constitution to grant Congress thepower to enact such legislation as they deem necessary. AH the courts are authorized to do when the constitutionality of a legislative act is questioned is to determine whether Congress, under the Constitution as it is, possesses the power to enact the legislation In controversy; their power does not extend to the matter of expediency. If Congress has not the power, the duty of the court is to declare the act void. The court Is unable to find any provision in the Constitution authorizing Congress, either expressly or by necessary implication, to protect or regulate the shooting of migratory wild game In a state, and Is therefore forced to the conclusion that the act Is unconstitutional.” Notwithstanding Judge Trieber’s decision, enforcement of the act did not stop, and It was thereafter enforced within Kansas, where a fellow named McCullagh was arrested for killing migratory birds. In UnitedStates y. McCullah, 221 F. 288, 293 (D.Kan., 1915), the issue of the constitutionality of the Migratory Bird Act of 1913 was agaIn before a different court, and that court, relying upon its own research of the law as well as the decision in Shauver, likewise concluded that this act was not constitutional: “ITihe exclusive title and power to control the taking and ultimate disposition of the wild game of this country resides in the state, to be parted with and exercised by the state for the common good of all the people of the state, as In its wisdom may seem best.” Consideration of the above cases, which appear to be the only ones of that period, leads to the conclusion that some powerful federal officials desired to seek the enactment of this law to expand the scope of federal authority, and the laboratory experiment for determining whether the judiciary would declare that Congress possessed power to control hunting was started within the heartland of America, Arkansas and Kansas. But here, those seeking greater federal power met their defeat, at least temporarily. To secure such power, these parties went back to the drawing board, and what they developed did give to them the power they sought. In 1916, the United States and Great Britain, on behalf of Canada, adopted the Migratory Bird Treaty, and thereafter Congress In 1918 passed another Migratory Bird Act to implement the provisions of the treaty, this act being slightly improved over the previous version as experience would thus dictate. As this occurred, federal law enforcement officials again started to enforce the new act In another experiment to determine whether this time, because of the treaty, they had achieved the municipal power they so dearly loved. Again, they started enforcement activities within Arkansas, and the case they developed appeared again before Judge Trieber. Within Arkansas in 1919, a man named Thompson was arrested for shooting these protected migratory birds, and this case was assigned to the very same judge who had rendered the decision in Shauver, supra; see United States y. Thomtson, 258 F.257 2(E.D.Ark., 1919). Here, thinking he had a very favorable judge, Thompson raised the very same argument as Shauver which had previously proved successful in front of Judge Trieber. But this time around, things were different and the federales were acting upon the authority of a treaty, and this one change within the law dictated an entirely different result. In upholding the act, and thus Its application within the jurisdiction of Arkansas, Judge Trieber carefully analyzed the prior decisions rendered by the Supreme Court which Illustrated the operation of treaties and how the same could abrogate state laws: “Law can only prescribe the conduct for the people within the jurisdiction of the lawmaker, while treaties are to affect rights and privileges of subjects of foreign countries and of our citizens In such countries. Treaties are reciprocal, and in all instances the same rights and privileges are granted to the citizens and subjects of each of the contracting parties in the respective countries,” Id., at 258. “To subject the treaty power to ail the limitations of Congress in enacting the laws for the regulations of internal affairs would in effect prevent the exercise of many of the most Important governmental functions of this nation, In Its intercourse and relations with foreign nations, and for the protection of our citizens in foreign countries. The states of the Union may enact ail laws necessary for their Local affairs, not prohibited by the national or their own Constitution; but they are expressly prohibited from entering into treaties, alliances, or confederations with other nations. If, therefore, the national government is also prohibited from exercising the treaty power, affecting matters which for Internal purposes belong exclusively to the states, how can a citizen be protected in matters of that nature when they arise in foreign countries,” Íd., at 263. ‘Even in matters of a purely local nature, Congress, If the Constitution grants it plenary powers over the subject, may exercise what Is akin to the police power, a power ordinarily reserved to the states,” Id., at 264. Judge Trieber concluded that this treaty thus provided Congress with a power of municipal legislation and that treaty and Its implementing act plainly operated within the state of Arkansas. A different case originating within Missouri, United States y. Samples, 258 F. 479 (W.D.Mo., 1919), ultimately found its way to the U.S. Supreme Court where an identical conclusion was reached; see Missouri y. Holland, 252 U.S. 416, 434, 40 S.Ct. 382, 384 (1920), whIch stated, “No doubt the great body of private relations usually fall within the control of the State, but a treaty may override Its power.” See also United States y. Selkirk, 258 F. 775 (S.D. Tex., 1919); United States y. Rockefeller, 260 F. 346 (D. Mon., 1919); and United States y. Lumpkin, 276 F. 580 (N.D. Cal., 1921). After its was determined that the Migratory Bird Treaty thus provided a municipal power to the United States to control hunting even within the jurisdiction of a state, the 3next issues which arose were whether regulations under both the act and treaty were valid, the arguments made against the regulations being that the treaty was limited in scope and thus could not support very detailed regulations concerning hunting activities, which simply had to be unconstitutional as a consequence. In 1936, another similar treaty was made with Mexico, and apparently regulations were adopted which more strenuously controlled hunting of migratory birds, these regulations covering such details as whether birds could be baited with grain. In Cochrane y. United States, 92 F.2d 623 (7th Cir., 1937), the defendants were members of a duck club, and employees of the club placed duck decoys upon and sprinkled corn within the waters around the club located on an inland lake in Illinois. Unfortunately, the defendants sprang up and shot ducks from a blind on the edge of the lake at a time when the federales were looking, and they were arrested for killing ducks. In defense, these parties contended that the regulations invaded the reserved rights of the states protected via the 10th Amendment and that the regulations were beyond the scope of the treaties. But., the Seventh Circuit summarily rejected these arguments finding that the regulations were valid both under the treaties as well under the interstate commerce powers of Congress. In Cerritos Gun Club y. Hall, 96 F.2d 620 (9th CIr., 1938), the operators of a hunting club were informed that if they performed activities regularly conducted within the past of baiting birds with grain before the start of the federally approved hunting season, they would be prosecuted for violating new regulations. The club sued to enjoin enforcement, but the Ninth Circuit concluded similarly as in Cochrane. And in United States y. Reese, 27 F.Supp. 833 (W.D.Tenn., 1939), the federal act and regulations which protected “these feathered friends of mankind” were held valid and enforceable within that state. In Bailey y. Holland, 126 F.2d 317 (4th Cir., 1942), the United States had established a bird refuge off the coast of Virginia, that refuge consisting of waters within a bay as well as a small plot of land that the U.S. had purchased. But, a regulation was promulgated which closed adjoining lands to hunting, and a duck club adversely affected sued to enjoin implementation of that regulation. In rejecting the club’s argument, It was concluded that the bird treaties empowered the feds to enact these regulations even though they had operation upon private lands within state jurisdiction. In 1912, the Senate adopted the International Opium Convention and Congress might have enacted about the same time legislation to implement it. 1f It did, the Implementing act failed to mention that its authority was derived from the treaty. In any event, an act controlling distribution of opium became the basis for the indictment of a man who was merely possessing opium, and a dismissal of his Indictment went before the Supreme Court. In United States y. lin Fuey Mov, 241 U.S. 394, 36 S.Ct. 658 (1916), the Court had before it the validity of this act which operated within the Jurisdiction of the state, and it held that dismissal of the indictment was mandated because the act invaded the jurisdiction of the state. In an attempt to save the act and the indictment against this defendant, the government surprisingly argued that the act, although silent on the point, was really one 4which implemented the Opium Convention. Nonetheless, the Court concluded that the failure of the act to state its premise within the Convention precluded its application on the grounds asserted by the government.’ See also United States y. Ah Hunt, 243 F. 762, 764 (E.D.N.Y., 191 7)(”Mere possession of an article injurious to health would not render a person liable to a United States statute unless some constitutional basis for the statute gives the United States the right to regulate upon the subject”). Some years later, the 1912 International Opium Convention was supplemented by a similar convention of 1931, which was thereafter implemented by appropriate legislation designed to control the production of poppy within this country. In Stutz V. Bureau of Narcotics, 56 F.Supp. 810, 813 (N.D.Cal., 1944), some poppy growers sought an injunction to the enforcement against them of the provisions of the act implementing the convention, the argument which they made being that the act invaded the reserved powers of the states in contravention of the 10th Amendment. In rejecting such argument and holding that the act applied within the jurisdiction of California, the court declared: “The competency of the United States to enter into treaty stipulations with foreign powers designed to establish, through appropriate legislation, an internationally effective system of control over the production and distribution of habit forming drugs Is not questioned. The obligations of the United States incurred as a party to the two Conventions heretofore mentioned were lawfully undertaken in the proper exercise of Its treaty making power. And Congress Is constitutionally empowered to enact whatever legislation is necessary and proper for carrying Into execution the treaty making power of the United States.” The above discussion is not an attempt to fully explain the treaty powers of Congress, but does offer a ready example of the operation of them. Here, municipal legislation designed for application within the states concerning migratory birds as well as drugs has been shown to be typically beyond the power of Congress. But, give Congress a treaty and allow it enact laws for its enforcement and it does acquire the municipal power to control Intrastate activities. The United States has a tremendous external power; see States y. Curtiss Wright Export Corp., 299 U.S. 304, 57 S.Ct. 216 (1936); and United States y. Peace This case would appear to hold that any act implementing a treaty must of necessity statutorily identify the treaty as the basis for the act. As an example, the Genocide Treaty was adopted In the spring of 1987; ft was Implemented by the Genocide Convention Implementation Act of 1987, P.L. 100-606, 102 Stat. 3045, which created 18 U.S.C., section 1091. However, the fact that In this case the Government asserted a treaty basis for the act notwithstanding the lack of statutory language at least indicates that other acts which really implement a treaty may likewise be silent as to the source for such legislation. 5Information Center, 97 F.Supp. 255 (D.D.C., 1951). Even the United Nations Charter is a treaty; see Balfour, Guthrle & Co. y. United States, 90 F.Supp. 831 (N.D.Cal., 1950); and Sel Funi V. State, 242 P.2d 617 (Cal., 1952). There are decisions holding that this power does not permit what the constitution forbids; see Amayp y. Stanolind Oil & Gas Coi, 158 F.2d 554 (5th dr., 1946); Farmer y. Rounr.ree, 149 F.Supp. 327 (M.D.Tenn., 1956); and Pierre y. Eastern Air Lines. Inc., 152 F.Supp. 486 (D.N.J., 1957). Yet, it is likewise clear that no definitive limits have been decided regarding this extensive power. The current U.S. Attorney General, William Barr, acquired his position by realizing the extent of this external power of the United States. It was his advice which authorized the invasion of Panama to secure the capture of General Noriega, and this precisely catapulted him into that high office. His office secured that decision of the Supreme Court holding that the Fourth Amendment does not apply to searches of homes by federal officials within Mexico; see United States y, Verdugo-Urpuldez, U.S. , 110 S.Ct. 770 (1990). And within the last few months, this external power of the United States was declared to be the basis for lawfully kidnapping parties in other countries; see United States V. Alvarez-Machlan, U.S. , 112 S.Ct. 2188 (1992). All of this is a harbinger of things to come. As shown above, the Seventh Circuit held In Cochrane that the Migratory Bird Treaty and its implementing act and regulations were enforceable within the states. And the very recent decision in Hoffman Homes Inc. y. Administrator. E.P.A., 961 F.2d 1310 (7th Cir., 1992), plainly informs federal agencies that 1f they want municipal power, they should secure legislation which Is treaty based. Here, Hoffman Homes was engaged in the building of residential homes in Illinois, and it constructed two very small ponds less than an acre in size within its subdivision. When these ponds were built, Hoffman Homes failed to comply with federal wetlands laws, and the EPA fined the company $50,000 for each pond. The company appealed the imposition of these fines within the agency, but the agency concluded that the wetlands laws were premised upon the interstate commerce powers of Congress and that power was sufficient to regulate and control these purely intrastate ponds. Hut on appeal to the Seventh Circuit, this contention was flatly rejected, the Seventh Circuit concluding that Congressional interstate commerce powers simply did not extend to these ponds. In anticipation of such potential decision, the EPA on appeal asserted that power to control construction of these ponds via interstate commerce powers arose from the fact that migratory birds just might use these ponds, thus the flight of these birds could provide an Interstate nexus for both this legislation and the fines against the company. As to this argument, the Seventh Circuit responded that the federal wetlands laws were not treaty based. The decision in Hoffman Homes has been celebrated within certain circles as a victory for stopping abuse by federal agencies, and for the moment this does appear to be the case. But, so what if that court concluded that the interstate commerce powers of Congress did not extend to ponds within a subdivision development. And so what if the tree in your front yard, and the asbestos within schools are not within interstate commerce or affect such commerce. These things may ultimately still be controlled via the treaty power of Congress and there can be no doubt that the message sent by the Hoffman Court to 6federal agencies Is that they should secure a treaty which will give them the municipal power they want. If there had been a treaty to support the actions of the EPA In Hf finan Homes, the precedence within the very Circuit which rendered that decision would require that the actions of the EPA be upheld. Is It not easy to contemplate what must be currently In the minds of people such as Bill Barr and the heads of a multitude of federal agencies? As always, these agencies seek aggrandizement with power and authority, yet based upon the delegated powers of the U.S. Constitution, they cannot directly achieve total power. But what is shown above demonstrates that the federales could potentially feign a treaty with Guam and thus secure municipal power. But why should they stoop so low with such a trick? What they inherently desire awaits them at their footsteps with the more facially legitimate environmental treaties which surely will flow from the Rio Summit. 7ADDITIONAL CASES See 4 ALR 1377: Relation of treaty to state and fed law; also 134 ALR 882. Portier y. LeRoy, ¡ Yeates 371 (Pa., 1794): French subject, who became a US citizen, was not within the terms of the US-France treaty. Frederickson y. Louisiana, 23 How. (64 U.S.) 445, 447, 448 (1860): “ITihe treaty does not regulate the testamentary dispositions of citizens or subjects of the contracting powers, in reference to property within the country of their origin or citizenship... “The case of a citizen or subject of the respective countries residing at home, and disposing of property there in favor of a citizen or subject of the other, was not in the contemplation of the contracting powers, and Is not embraced in this article of the treaty.” The Head Money Cases, 112 U.S. 580, 598-99, 5 S.Ct. 247, 254 (1884): “A treaty is primarily a compact between independent nations. k depends for the enforcement of Its provisions on the interest and the honor of the governments which are parties to It... But a treaty may also contain provisions which confer certain rights upon the citizens or subjects of one of the nations residing in the territorial limits of the other, which partake of the nature of municipal law, and which are capable of enforcement as between private parties In the courts of the country... A treaty, then, Is a law of the land as an act of Congress Is, whenever its provisions prescribe a rule by which the rights of the private citizen or subject may be determined.” DeGeofrov y. RIEZ5, 133 U.S. 258, 267, 10 S.Ct. 294 (1890): Question of whether French citizens could inherit lands in DC; held they could. “It would not be contended that it extends so far as to authorize what the constitution forbids, or a change in the character of the government, or in that of one of the states, or a cession of any portion of the territory of the latter, without its consent.” Ross y. McIntyre, 140 U.S. 453, 463, 11 S.Ct. 897 (1891): Trial foc murder via consul established by treaty: “The treaty-making power vested In our government extends to all proper subjects of negotiations with foreign governments.” 8Fong Yue Ting y. United States, 149 U.S. 698, 13 S.Ct. 1016 (1893): Chinese exclusion cases: certificate of residence. Bahaud y. Bize, 105 F. 485 (D. Neb., 1901): By treaty, US may remove disabilities of alien to inherit. Bondi y. Mackay, 89 A. 228 (Ver., 1913): has a good definition of “resident” via statute: US citizen residing in state for less than 6 months. Held, treaty did not confer hunting rights. Patsone y, Pennsylvania, 232 U.S. 138, 34 S.Ct. 281 (1914): Alien attacked gun and hunting law. Treaty providing for security did not extend to this point. Heim y. McCall, 239 U.S. 175, 36 S.Ct. 78 (1915): New York City enacted ordinance which prevented aliens from being employed on the construction of subways. Held, treaty did not apply so as to protect Italians because there was no provision thereof which addressed this problem. In re Servas’ Estate, 169 Cal. 240, 146 P. 651 (1915): Administration of alien’s estate by consul involved. Held, that treaty provided no right to consul to administer as federal policy was not to interfere with admin. of estates; see also Austro-Hunarian Consul y. WestDhal, 120 Minn. 122, 139 N.W. 300. Oetjen y. Central Leather Co,, 246 U.S. 297, 301, 38 S.Ct. 309 (1918): Civil war in Mexico resulted in seizure of leather goods, and owner and buyer engaged in litigation, with owner asserting rights under Hague convention of war. Held In favor of buyer: “It would, perhaps, be sufficient answer to this contention to say that the Hague Conventions are international in character, designed and adapted to regulate International warfare, and that they do not... apply to a civil war.” See also Terrazas y. Donohue, 227 S.W. 206 (Tex., App., 1921): same holding as Oetjen. Four Packages of Cut Diamonds y. United States, 256 F. 305, 306 (2nd Cir., 1919): “Such conventions are not treaties, because not made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and they are not laws, because not enacted by Congress.” Ex parte Heikich Terui, 200 P. 954 (Cal., 1921): A po11 tax levied upon residents, and Jap failed to pay; the defense under the treaty held good. Seems to indicate what a “person” is under Cal. law. ¡n re Tetsubumi Yano’s Estate, 188 Cal. 645, 206 P. 995, 999 (1922): 9“The child, being a native citizen of the United States, cannot as such Invoke the protection of the treaty to secure to the father, a citizen of Japan, equal privileges with other residents who are not citizens of Japan. The question whether the child is deprived of the privilege of having its own father serve as its guardian does not arise under the treaty. It must look to the provisions of the laws of this country for the protection of its privileges as a citizen thereof.” Asakurp y. City of Seattle, 265 U.S. 332, 44 S.Ct. 515 (1924): Jap conducting business in city held protected by treaty. Weedin y. Mon Hin, 4 F.2d 533, 534 (9th Cir., 1925): “The provisions of the treaties between the United States and China and the statutes enacted in pursuance thereof confer no rights or privileges on an American citizen, whether he be of Chinese descent or otherwise.” United States y. Chemical Fpudgtlpn. Inc., 5 F.2d 191, 211 (3rd Cir., 1925): This was a case instituted under the Trading With the Enemy Act Involving the seizure of important patents. Held, that a treaty does not apply between a signatory and its nationals within its own country. Hennings y. United States, 13 F.2d 74, 75 (5th CIr., 1926): Booze ship 20 miles from shore searched and master arrested; treaty in effect re booze: There is nothing in the treaty from which it could be reasonably inferred that it was the intention of the high contracting parties to extend the criminal laws of the United States beyond the three mile limit.” Tashiro y. jordan, 256 P. 545 (1927): general rules. Santovlncenzo y, Egan, 284 U.S. 30, 40, 52 S.Ct. 81(1931): “The treaty-making power is broad enough to cover all subjects that properly pertain to our foreign relations, and agreement with respect to the rights and privileges of citizens of the United States in foreign countries, and of the nationals of such countries within the United States, and the disposition of the property of aliens dying within the territory of the respective parties, is within the scope of that power.” In re ReId, 6 F.Supp. 800, 803 (0. Ore., 1934): “For, although the treaty making power extends to all subjects which are proper for negotiation between nations, ‘It would not be contended that it 10extends so far as to authorize what the Constitution forbids.” Rev, on other grounds, 73 F.2d 153 (9th CIr., 1934). In re Hansen’s Estate, 281 N.Y.S. 617, 620 (1935): Treaty power covers only interstate and foreign commerce. Mnpni y. Harnetc, 14 N.Y.S.2d 107 (1939): Alien entitled to chaffeur license. limes y. Davidowitz, 312 U.S. 52, 61 S.Ct. 399 (1941): power of state over alien. Skirlotes y. State of Florida, 313 U.S. 69, 72, 73, 61 S.Ct. 924, 927 (1941): “International law is a part of our law and as such is the law of all States of the Union..., but it is a part of our law for application of its own principies, and these are concerned with international rights and duties and not with domestic rights and duties.” Ex parte Ouirin, 317 U.S. 1, 63 S.Ct. 2 (1942): Presidential war powers. State y. BarLow, 153 P.2d 647, 654 (Utah, 1944): Prosecution for polygamy, and defense under treaty of Guadelupe-Hidalgo asserted, but court held that treaty protected Mexicans and not Mormons: “And clearly the treaty did not purport to deal with the relation between the United States and peoples who might thereafter come into territory then being ceded to this country.” Spies V. McGhee, 316 Mich. 614, 25 N.W.2d 638, 644 (1947): Race restrictions on property. “We do not understand it to be a principle of law that a treaty between sovereign nations is applicable to the contractual rights between citizens of the United States when a determination of these rights is sought In State courts.” Antosz V, State ComD. Comm., 43 S.E.2d 397 (W.Va.App., 1947): Workmen’s comp case with NRAs claiming benefits: “But such construction should not be extended so as to Infringe upon the Constitution of the United States, or to invade the province of the states of the Union in matters inherently local, or to restrict the various states in the exercise of their sovereign powers,” Id., at 399, 400. Reversed on other grounds, Shelley y Kramer, 334 U.S. 1, 68 S.Ct. 836 (1948). 11Clark y. Allen, 331 U.s. 503, 516, 67 S.Ct. 1431 (1947): DomestIc American willed property to Germans, other heirs challenged bequest. Allen Property Custodian took property under TWEA. “We accordingly hold that Article IV of the treaty does not cover personalty located in this country and which an American citizen undertakes to leave to German nationals.” KemD y. Rubin, 69 N.Y.S.2d 680, 686 (1947): Race restrictions on real property. “Defendant’s remaining contention that enforcement of the covenant is forbidden by existing treaties to which the United States Is a signatory is without force. These treaties have nothing to do with domestic matters nor with agreements between citizens of the United States. In fact, Article 2, Section 7, of the United Nations Charter ... expressly so provides.” Affirmed at 75 N.Y.S.2d 768 (1947). Cervantes y. United States, 163 F.2d 294 (9th Cii-., 1947): Mexican lived in California long time, but fled to Mex. to avoid draft. Held, he was a “resident” subject to draft. Curran y. City of New York, 77 N.Y.S.2d 206 (1947): Suit filed against city over funds spent to get U.N. established. Opinion notes that Rockefeller provided the land. Amaya y. Stanolind Oil & Gas Co., 158 F.2d 554 (5th Cii-., 1947): treaties can’t authorize what constitution forbids. l3alfour. Guthrie & Co. y. United States, 90 F. Supp. 831, 832 (N.D. Cal., 1950): UN sued US for damaging goods being shipped. “As a treaty ratified by the United States, the Charter is part of the supreme law of the land.” Sei FuIii y. State, 38 Cal.2d 718, 242 P.2d 617, 619 (1952): UN Charter Is a treaty, but not self executing. Rice y. Sioux City Memorial Park Cemetarv, 60 N.W.2d 110 (1953): Indian died and wife wanted him buried in cemetary with covenant not to inter non-Caucasians. She sued, and asserted a treaty, UN Charter, as one grounds: “It will suffice to say that that treaty has no application to the private conduct of individual citizens of the United States,” Id., at 116. “IDJesirable as these principles announced in the Charter may be, they do not 12have the force or effect of superse.díng our state laws relating to contracts, and must therefore hold that the provisions of the United Nations Charter have no bearing on the case before the court,” Id., at 117. Affirmed at 348 U.S. 880, 75 S.Ct. 122 (1955). United States y. Guy W. CaDDS. Inc., 204 F.2d 655 (4th Ch., 1953): Executive agreement re potatoes from Canada held void; opinion concerned inherent presidential powers. Ivancevic y, Artukovlc, 211 F.2d 565 (9th Ch-., 1954): ExtradItion to another country can be accomplished only via treaty. Keeney y. United States, 218 F.2d 843 (D.C.Cir., 1954): IJN matters, documents and files are privileged from disclosure in court. Seery y. United States, 127 F.Supp. 601, 606 (Ct. Cl., 1955): “lAin executive agreement, not being a transaction which is even mentioned in the Constitution, cannot impair Constitutional rights.” Farmer y. Rountree, 149 F.Supp. 327, 330 (M.D.Tenn., 1956): treaties cannot authorize what the constitution forbids. Pierre y. Eastern Air Lines. Inc., 152 F.Supp. 486 (D.N.J., 1957): Baggage lost on international flight. “The Warsaw Convention regulates and applies to all international transportation of persons, baggage, or goods performed by aircraft for hire,” Id., at 487. “It is well settled that no article or term of a treaty may nullify any guarantee of a right preserved by constitutional provision to our citizens. No treaty may authorize what the Constitution forbids,” Id., at 488. United States y. R.P. Oldham Co., 152 F.Supp. 818, 823 (N.D. Cal., 1957): AntI-Trust prosecution of American company In Japan. “[Tibe defendant importers would have no standing to invoke this Article. All are American corporations. Certainly the Treaty was not Intended to exempt nationals from the sanctions of their own country’s laws.” Star-Kist Foods. Inc. y. United States, 169 F.Supp. 268, 278 (Cust. Ct., 1958): “However, all international undertakings are not such treaties.” 13Lazarpu y. Moraron, 143 A.2d 669, 670 (N.H., 1958): Preambles of treaties are used only to construe intent. Pauling y. McElroy, 164 F.Supp. 390, 393 (D.D.C., 1958): UN Charter not self executing. Camacho y. Rogers, 199 F.Supp. 155 (S.D.N.Y., 1961): UN Charter not self executing. Banco Dg &sIl S.A. V. A.C. Israel Commodity Co., 215 N.Y.S.2d 3 (1961): Bretton Woods agreement not self executing. Sarnunn y. C.l.R., 313 F.2d 461, 463(4th CIr., 1963): Tax convention case. “Treasury cannot contract or expand an International compact.” Hital y. 1.N.S., 343 F.2d 466, 468 (2nd CIr., 1965): UN Charter not self executing. Powell y. Zuckert, 366 F.2d 634, 640 (D.C.Cir., 1966): Discharge of Airman in Japan, government asserted treaty as authority. “[Nb agreement with a foreign nation can confer power on the Congress, or on any other branch of Government, which is free from the restraints of the Constitution. Reid y. Covert, 354 U.S. 1, 16, 77 S.Ct. 1222, 12430...” Orlando y. Laird, 317 F.Supp. 1013, 1020 (E.D.N.Y., 1970): Soldier sued to enjoin his transfer to Viet Nam for combat. “As between citizen and nation the citizen is bound by the national decision and must acknowledge Its effect as an internally valid governmental act whether or not the nation is embarked on a breach of treaty obligation.” Affirmed at 443 F.2d 1039 (2nd Cir., 1971). United States y. Rodrjpuez-Campchp, 468 F.2d 1220 (9th Cir., 1972): l)rug case under 21 USC 801, et cet; Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs provided jurisdiction. NORML y. lnersoll, 497 F.2d 654 (D.C.Cir., 1974): suit involving enactment of drug regs under Single Convention: whether Mi was within scope of treaty; same case, 559 F.2d 735 (D.C.Cir., 1977): drugs placed on list only if required by treaty. Hielie y, Brooks, 377 F.Supp. 430, 438 (D. Alaska, 1974): Crab fishermen sued state to enjoin fish regulations. “As to the treaties, plaintiffs lack standing to invoke them on their behalf, for plaintiffs are ‘not in a position to invoke the rights of other governments or of the nationals of other countries.” 14l)revfus y. Von Fink, 534 F.2d 24 (2nd Cir., 1976): Swiss, formerly a German, sued other Germans for damages suffered In 1938: “Executive Orders issued without statutory authority providing for presidential implementation are generally held not to be ‘laws’ of the United States,” Id., at 29. “[Vilolations of International law do not occur when the aggrieved parties are nationals of the acting state,” Id., at 31. United States y. Vargas, 370 F.Supp. 908, 915 (D.P.R., 1977): UN Charter not self executing. Sneaker Circus. Inc. y. Carter, 457 F.Supp. 771, 795 (E.D.N.Y., 1978): “First, the treaties do not confer a private right of action for violation of their terms on nationals of one party within their own country.” Huynh Thi Anh y. Levi, 586 F.2d 625 (6th Cir., 1978): Treaty did not create a private cause of action. United States y. Steinberg, 478 F.Supp. 29, 33 (N.D.lll., 1979): The UN Charter Is a treaty; a treaty cannot conflict with constitution. Soucheray y. Coros of Engineers of U.S. Army, 483 F.Supp. 352, 357 (W.D. Wis., 1979): Landowners sued for damages for water level of Lake Superior rising. “The Court is In full agreement with plaintiffs that a treaty may not violate the constitutional rights of AmerIcan citizens.” In re Alien Children Education [itjgtjn, 501 F.Supp. 544 (S.D. Tex., 1980): Suit to have aliens educated. “A treaty Is an international agreement of a contractual nature between two or more Independent nations. Treaties made under the authority of the United States are the supreme law of the land. Nonetheless, a treaty becomes the internal law of the United States and has the effect of domestic law only when that treaty is given effect by congressional legislation or Is, by Its nature, self-executing,” Id., at 589. “The court concludes that the pursuit by the United States of rights and justice in the international community does not displace domestic law,” Id., at 591. 15“International law traditionally comprehends a nation’s treatment of aliens. Every act which adversely affects an alien, however, does not contravene customary international law,” Id., at 596. Weinberger y. Rossi, 456 U.S. 25, 31, 102 S.Ct. 1510 (1982): Hase in Philippines required to hire locals, and U.S. citizens objected. “A ‘treaty’ which requires only the consent of the President is not an Art. II treaty.” Sumitomo Shoil America. Inc. y, Ava2lianp, 457 U.S. 176, 182-83, 102 S.Ct. 2374 (1982): Japanese subsidiary, an American corporation, was sued for sex discrimination and it asserted the Japanese treaty in defense. “As a company of the United States operating in the United States, under the literal language of Article XXII (3) of the Treaty, Sumitomo cannot Invoke the rights provided in Article VIII (1), which are available only to companies of Japan operating in the United States and to companies of the United States operating in Japan.” trans World Airlines. ¡nc. y. Franklin Mint ÇQrp, 466 U.S. 243, 104 S.Ct. 1776 (1984): lost gold. United Nations Charter, Art. 2, para. 7: “Nothing contained in the present charter shall authorize the United Nations to interfere in matters which are essentially within the domestic jurisdiction of any state...” 16i aTREATIES AS A METHOD TO ACQUIRE FEDERAL DOMESTIC JURISDICTION Currently, many Americans are being attacked criminally by the feds and this is a major problem. Soon we will have the “New World Oder” (“NWO”) coming at us like a freight train. Many federal criminal laws are predicated upon Art. 1, §8, cl. 10 of the U.S. Constitution which permits Congress to make offenses against the laws of nations; however, very few realize that the NWO will be traveling this saine constitutional route, which Is explained below. By statute, all federal agencies must confine their activities to the jurisdiction delegated to them; see 5 U.S.C., §558. While this Is a simple statutory command, there is an evident problem In that most federal agencies fail to publish any statements, either in the C.F.R. or some other source, which define their jurisdiction. The C.I.A. Is one agency where it Is easy to determine its jurisdiction because a statute has deprived it of any domestic jurisdiction; see Welssman y. C.I.A., 565 F.2d 692, 696 (D.C. Cir. 1977).1 However, to determine the jurisdiction of other agencies requires some study. Perhaps the best way to determine the jurisdiction of any given federal agency is to examine various cases regarding the subject matter of that agency. For example, the United States Constitution does not provide that Congress has any authority concerning the fish and wildlife within this country and this has been noted in several cases. In McCready y. VirgInia, 94 U.S. 391, 394, 395 (1877), the Supreme Court held regarding the fish within the oceans: “ITihe States own the tidewaters themselves and the fish in them, so far as they are capable of ownership while running.” “The title thus held is subject to the paramount right of navigation, the regulation of which, in respect to foreign and Interstate commerce, has been granted to the United States. There bas been, however no such grant of power over the fisheries. These remain under the exclusive control of the State...” Like fish, the Constitution simply grants no authority to the federal government to control the wildlife within the states of this nation and this Is noted in several cases. A ready example of such a case Is United States y. Shauver, 214 F. 154, 160 (E.D.Ark. 1914), which concerned the issue of where the Migratory Bird Act of March, 1913, could apply Through this act, Congress sought to extend protection ta migratory birds by limiting the hunting season and otherwise placing restrictions upon hunting of these birds. As Is onLy natural, upon adoption of this act federal officials started strenuously enforcing it and here they had arrested Shauver In Arkansas for shooting and killing migratory birds. Shauver moved to dismiss the Indictment flied against him on the grounds that the act contravened the Tenth Amendment by invading the Jurisdiction of the states upon a matter historically reserved for legislation by the states. In deciding that this act was unconstitutional, Judge Trieber noted that the common law provided that the states See Jabara y. KeIley, 476 F.Supp. 561, 582 n. 17 (E.D. MIch. 1979): “(TIbe Court Is of the opinion that the FBI’s Investigative authority extends to authorized national security investigations Involving foreign influences.” 1: :...essentially owned the birds within their borders and state legislation was the sole source by which control of hunting could be accomplished. In so concluding, he held: “k Is the people who alone can amend the Constitution to grant Congress the power to enact such legislation as they deem necessary. All the courts are authorized to do when the constitutionality of a legislative act is questioned Is to determine whether Congress, under the Constitution as it Is, possesses the power to enact the legislation In controversy; their power does not extend to the matter of expediency. If Congress has not the power, the duty of the court Is to declare the act void. The court Is unable to find any provision In the Constitution authorizing Congress, either expressly or by necessary implication, to protect or regulate the shooting of migratory wild game in a state, and is therefore forced to the conclusion that the act Is unconstitutional.” Notwithstanding Judge Trieber’s decision, enforcement of the act did not stop and it was thereafter enforced within Kansas, where another man was arrested for killing migratory birds. In United States y. McCullagh, 221 F. 288, 293 (D.Kan. 1915), the Issue of the constitutionality of the Migratory Bird Act of 1913 was again before a different court and it, relying upon its own research of the law as well as the decision In Shauver, likewise concluded that this act was unconstitutional: “ITibe exclusive title and power to control the taking and ultimate disposition of the wild game of this country resides in the state, to be parted with and exercised by the state for the common good of all the people of the state, as In its wisdom may seem best.” The above decisions have never been overruled and they stand today as valid authority for the proposition that Congress under the U.S. Constitution does not have any direct grant of power to regulate and control fish and wildlife within our country. If this Is the case, what is the constitutional basis upon which the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service has been created and currently operates? The answer is treaties. As noted above In McCre.ady, the Supreme Court held that Congress has no authority over fish within the states. The U.S. Fisheries Commission was created as the result of the ratification of a treaty or convention concerning this subject matter; sec Manchester y. Massachusetts, 139 U.S. 240, 265, 11 S.Ct. 559, 565 (1891). Our country has ratified fishing treaties with other countries and native American Indian tribes for a long time; see these two old ones, the treaty with Great Britain regarding fisheries, adopted In 1818 (Revised Stat. 297), and the treaty with Russia regarding navigation and fishing In the Pacific Ocean, adopted in 1824 (Revised Stat. 664). Of course, there are many newer ones. A similar route was taken to acquire Congressional control over migratory birds and wildlife. In 1916, the United States and Great <ain, on behalf of Canada, adopted the Migratory Bird Treaty (39 Stat. 1702) and thereafter Congress in 1918 passed another Migratory Bird Act to implement the provisions of the treaty. As this occurred, federal law enforcement officials again started to enforce the new act. 2• . : . — -•- - .. . .,, tI .. - .‘. . : •_ , - :. . (t. - - . j,,, •,. -„—.... - — ,:•$ ,:.. . .‘ .Within Arkansas in 1919, a man named Thompson was arrested for shooting these protected migratory birds and this case was assigned to the very same judge who had rendered the decision in Shauver see United States y. Thompson, 258 F.257 (E.D.Ark. 1919). Here, Thompson raised the identical argument as Shauver which had previously proved successful in front of Judge Trieber. But, the federal prosecutor responded to this argument by noting the authority of this new treaty and this single change within the law dictated an entirely different result. In upholding the act and thus its application within the jurisdiction of Arkansas, Judge Trieber carefully analyzed the prior decisions rendered by the Supreme Court which illustrated the operation of treaties and how the same could abrogate state laws: “To subject the treaty power to all the limitations of Congress in enacting the laws for the regulations of Internal affairs would in effect prevent the exercise of many of the most important governmental functions of this nation, in its intercourse and relations with foreign nations, and for the protection of our citizens in foreign countries. The states of the Union may enact all laws necessary for their local affairs, not prohibited by the nati,nal or their own Constitution; but they are expressly prohibited from entering into treaties, alliances, or confederations with other nations. 1f, therefore, the national government Is also prohibited from exercising the treaty power, affecting matters which for Internal purposes belong exclusively to the states, how can a citizen be protected in matters of that nature when they arise In foreign countries,” Id., at 263. “Even in matters of a purely local nature, Congress, If the Constitution grants It plenary powers over the subject, may exercise what Is akin to the police power, a power ordinarily reserved to the states,” Id., at 264. Judge Trieber concluded that this treaty thus provided Congress with a power of municipal Legislation and that treaty and its implementing act plainly operated within the state of Arkansas. A different case originating within Missouri, United States y. Samples, 258 F. 479 (W.D.Mo. 1919), uLtimately made it to the U.S. Supreme Court where an identicaL conclusion was reached; see Missouri y. Holland, 252 U.S. 416, 434, 40 S.Ct. 382, 384 (1920), which stated, “No doubt the great body of private relations usually fall within the control of the State, but a treaty may override its power.” See also United States y. Selkirk, 258 F. 775 (S.D. Tex. 1919); United States y. Rockefeller, 260 F. 346 (D. Mon. 1919); and United State-s y. Lumpkin, 276 F. 580 (N.D. Cal. 1921). Thus for the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, its constitutional authority arises from treaties.2 After the adoption of several fishing treaties and conventions, Congress created the U.S. Fisheries Commission; see 16 Stat. 594. When the migratory bird treaties were ratified, this agency apparently acquired authority over migratory birds. Later, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna & Flora was adopted by the U.S. Senate un August 3, 1973; see 27 U.S.T. 1087. As a result of this treaty, on December 28, 1973, Congress enacted the “Endangered Species Act,” 87 Stat. 884. Several cases have noted that the 2 The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Is as much a treaty based agency as the Pacific Salmon Commission; see 16 U.S.C., §3631. 3! , . , •. ‘-: . - ‘., . - .. - .. .— $ . . - . .—,. , .,..—.... —.authority to regulate and control endangered species arises from this treaty; see Pallia y. Hawaii Dept. of Land & Natural Resources, 471 F.Supp 985 (D. Hew. 1979); Utah y. Marsh, 740 F.2d 799 (10th Cir. 1984); and Leslie Salt Co. y. United States, 896 F.2d 354 (9t.hCir. 1990). The wetlands convention was ratified In 1986 and about 30 days later on November 10, 1986, Congress adopted the “Emergency Wetlands Resources Act of 1986,” 100 Stat. 3582. k Is clear that the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service’s authority arises from these treaties and this agency thus has an “International” jurisdiction. There are other examples of treaties being used to provide federal jurisdiction. Of course, Congress completely lacks delegated authority to control prostitution within the states. However, the Agreement for Repression of Trade in White Women was ratified by the Senate on March 1, 1905; see 35 Stat. 1979. The Implementing legislation for this treaty was the White Slave Traffic Act, 36 Stat. 825. The Supreme Court has noted that this treaty provides jurisdiction to enact laws on this subject; see United States y. Portale, 235 U.S. 27, 35 S.Ct. 1 (1914). But, even with jurisdiction being founded upon this treaty, there are limits to prosecutions for violations thereof and everything relating to prostitution cannot be controlled; see Kelier y. UnIted States, 213 U.S. 138, 29 S.Ct. 470 (1909). Like prostitution, congressional control over obscene publications arises from treaties; see Agreement on Obscene Publications, ratified on January 13, 1911 (37 Stat. 1511), and the implementing laws at 35 Stat. 1129 (March 4, 1909), and 36 Stat. 1339 (March 4, 1911), which are currently codified at 18 U.S.C. §1461. Treaty based federal criminal laws have their origin in the congressional authority to punish crimes against the laws of nations; see Art. I, § 8 of the U.S. Constitution.3 The federal police power is therefore, for a large part, based on treaties. The U.S. Constitution does not grant power to Congress to control air traffic or telecommunications. After the Wright brothers starting flying at Kitty Hawk, air traffic achieved a phenomenal growth, resulting in the adoption of several treaties on this subject. The Commercial Aviation Convention was adopted by the U.S. Senate on February 20, 1928; see 47 Stat. 1901. Later, the International Civil Aviation Treaty was adopted on December 7, 1944; see 61 Stat. 1180. Both of these treaties substantially covered all aspects of aviation, setting up precisely what is seen today in American airports, many of which are controlled by the federal government. To implement the first treaty, one of the first acts adopted by Congress was The Civil Aeronautics Act of 1938, 52 Stat. 973, which created the F.A.A. When the federal government started funding Hart.sfleld Airport in Atlanta, its name was changed to Hartsfleld International. Yet, there are sorne airports which have never been controlled by the federal government such as Houston’s Hobby Airport which Is governed by the city of Houston; for this reason, its name has not been changed to Hobby International. For telecommunications, the International Radio Convention, 45 Stat. 2760, was adopted by the U.S. Senate on March 21, 1928, and a second International Radio Convention, 49 Stat. 2392, followed thereafter on December 9, 1932. On June 19, 1934, Congress adopted the Communications Act of 1934, 48 Stat. 1064, which created the Federal Communications Commission. Thus, both the F.A.A. and F.C.C. are treaty based, federal agencies which implement treaties our nation has ratified with There are only a few crimes mentioned in the U.S. Constitution which Congress can make penal: treason, via Art. 1, §6, cl. 1; counterfeitIng, via Art. 1, §8, cl. 6; and piracy, felonies on the high seas and offenses against the laws of nations, via Art. 1, §8, cl. 10. 4— J , , , 1 ‘ 1other countries and therefore they have an international jurisdiction. The U.S. Constitution does not grant authority to Congress to control trademarks within the states and the Supreme Court has so held. in United States y. Ste fferzs (The Trade-Mark Cases), loo U.S. 82 (1879), the Court dismissed some indictments which charged crimes of infringement of certain registered trademarks. As a result of this decision, a variety of treaties covering this subject were adopted thereafter, and some of the more noteworthy were adopted early In this century; see Pan American Trademark Convention, 44 Stat. 2494, ratifIed on January 12, 1927, and Pan American Convention for Uniformity of Nomenclature for Classification of Merchandise, 44 Stat. 2559, ratIfied on January 12, 1927. It is these treaties which provide jurisdiction for the federal government over this subject matter. 1f Congress lacks power over trademarks except via treaties, it logically follows that Congress does not have any control over the similar and constitutionally indistinguishable activity of labeling of products except through treaties; yet labeling is an activity of great interest for the F.D.A. Control over the possession and sale of any item within the states is not a power possessed by Congress. This was so held in United States y. DeWitt, 76 U.S. (9 Wall.) 41, 45 (1870), which tested the constitutionality of a federal revenue act making it illegal to sell illuminating oil of a certain flammability. Here, the Court held that Congress did not have such power: “As a police regulation, relating exclusively to the internal trade of the States, it can only have effect where the legislative authority of Congress excludes, territorially, all state legislation, as, for example, in the District of Columbia. Within state limits, it can have no constitutional operation.” Based upon the decision in DeWitt, the Supreme Court held in United States y. Jin Fuey Moy, 241 U.S. 394, 36 S.Ct. 658 (1916), that Congress did not have the power to make penal mere possession of drugs within the states. In 1912, the Senate adopted the International Opium Convention; see 38 Stat. 1912. Some years later, this convention was supplemented by a similar convention of 1931, the Multilateral Narcotics Drugs Convention, ratified on March 31, 1932, 48 Stat. 1543, which was thereafter implemented by appropriate federal legislation designed to control the production of poppy within this country. In Stucz y. Bureau of Narcotics, 56 F.Supp. 810, 813 (N.D.Cal. 1944), some poppy growers sought an injunction to the enforcement against them of the provisions of the act implementing the convention, their argument being that the act Invaded the reserved powers of the states In contravention of the Tenth Amendment. In rejecting such argument and holding that the act applied within the jurisdiction of California, the court declared: “The competency of the United States to enter into treaty stipulations with foreign powers designed to establish, through appropriate Legislation, an internationally effective system of control over the production and distribution of habit forming drugs is not questioned. The obligations of the United States incurred as a party to the two Conventions heretofore mentioned were lawfully undertaken in the proper exercise of its treaty making power. And Congress is constitutionally empowered to enact whatever legislation is necessary and proper for carrying into execution the treaty making power of the United States.” 51 : ,.. ., •.i. :..s . . . . . . ). .-.. .. ... . , ,. . ‘, t,’••j ,“.,. . ... ... .. .: ‘, ‘ ¿.., ‘ :; , , .:4J’. ;‘,:, •‘: ‘. ,. . ‘. ‘ ; ‘: ‘ • .,. ; . : ,.“ . :;.;.. : t’: :. ;..š ‘:;, ,‘.: — ,: ...:‘: r. r. ,. ... .‘.,. ..‘. ‘:‘‘c • :‘i •. J ‘ ‘‘..•‘t— .. -‘,Other cases have also noted that control over drugs by the federal government arises from these treaties; see United States y. Rodriquez-Carnacho, 468 F.2d 1220 (9th Cir. 1972); and NORML y. Ingersoll, 497 F.2d 654 (D.C.CIr. 1974), later opinion at 559 F.2d 735 (D.C.CIr. 1977). The jurisdiction of the D.E.A. is therefore based upon these drug treaties and It thus only has an International jurisdiction. The above analysis of various decisions relating to the powers of Congress shows that it does not have the inherent authority to regulate or control either drugs or labeling, and that the only way federal jurisdiction could be acquired over these activities within the jurisdiction of the states would be by means of treaties. 1f the jurisdiction of the F.D.A. was truly treaty based, one would expect that Its criminal enforcement powers would be exercised only at the borders of this country. In fact, this Is the case for the F.D.A. because the only description of the authority of the F.D.A. district director is found at 21 C.F.R., §1.83, whIch provides as follows: “The term ‘district director’ means the director of the district of the Food and Drug Administration having jurisdiction over the port of entry through which an article Is imported or offered for import...” This C.F.R. statement constitutes an admission; see United States y. Van Griffin, 874 F.2d 634, 638 (9th CIr. 1989)(government manuals admissible as party admissions under Fed.R.Evid. 801(d)(2)(D)). As to be expected, the authority of the F.D.A. arises from a 1906 internatIonal agreement, the Agreement for Unification of Pharmacopelal Formulas for Potent Drugs. Thus, it is very clear that federal agencies such as the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, the F.A.A., the F.C.C., the D.E.A. and the F.D.A. have jurisdictions premised upon treaties and they therefore have an “International jurisdiction.” Some of the above cases state that treaties do provide jurisdiction for the specified agency. Most of these agencies exercise the federal police power and enforce federal criminal laws; as mentioned previously, these crimes must fit within one of the constitutional categories of crimes which Congress may make penal, and that category could only be “offenses against the laws of nations.” The way a federal crime is made under the laws of nations is via treaties. What about the Social Security Administration? When the legal history regarding this claimed power of the United States In analyzed, Its treaty origins become apparent. In 1933, the United States became a member of the International Labor Organization. In the foLlowing year, Congress passed the first federal social security act which was tied to the federal power over interstate commerce; In essence, those subject to the act were those who engaged In interstate transportation. Immediately, the constitutionality of this act was challenged and In May, 1935, the U.S. Supreme Court held that act unconstitutional in Railroad Retirement Board y. Alton R. Co., 295 U.S. 330, 368, 55 S.Ct. 758, 771 (1935). The dispositive part of this decision not only found that the federales lacked the power to adopt a social security act, but It also indicated that a vast array of social programs were equally beyond the power of Congress: “The cataLogue of means and actions which might be Imposed upon an employer Ln any business, tending to the satisfaction and comfort of his employees, seems endless. Provision for free medical attendance and nursing, for clothing, for food, for housing, for the education of children, and a hundred other matters might with 6. . . I• . . .. . .. ., .. .. L ...... ., ,. ¿t... .. .2.... ... ..,.. :.- : . ., . . ,;_- .- . -..... ,. -,. . ,.- .,. ;. ,. ..:;.. t:. 4 , ¿, .t:’,.. .;, . ‘- .. .,.... , ... ,—;, . .,. .,.equal propriety be proposed as tending to relieve the employee of mental strain and worry. Can It fairly be said that the power of Congress to regulate Interstate commerce extends to the prescription of any or ail of these things? Is it not apparent that they are really and essentially related solely to the social welfare of the worker, and therefore remote from any regulation of commerce as such? We think the aiwer Is plain. These matters obviously lie outside the orbit of congressional power.” Are there not today federal laws that make “provisions for free medicine, food, housing,” et cet.? This case has never been reversed, although the socialists have criticized It. if it Is still a valid decision, then why are there today the very programs which the Court held were unconstitutional? is it just possible that these programs have a constitutional foundation of which most people are unaware? The second social security act was adopted in August, 1935, a mere 3 months after the decision In Alton Railway. Did Congress deliberately passed another and broader unconstitutional law just after the ink dried on the opinion in Atton? Since the knowing adoption of an unconstitutional law may be rejected, there must be some other explanation of the constitutional foundation for the second act. When the second law was adopted, It was also immediately challenged. The federal appellate courts were split on the validity of this law; some found this second social security attempt to likewise be unconstitutional on the basis of Alton Railway, but others upheld It. Because of this split in the cases, the Supreme Court decided to review those cases which questioned just the tax Itself. Finally In May, 1937, the Supreme Court issued its opinions in Chartes C. Steward Mach. Co. y. Davis, 301 U.S. 548, 57 S.Ct. 883 (1937), and Helvering y. Davis, 301 U.S. 619, 57 S.Ct. 904 (1937), which held the tax valid. The question to ask Is how are these cases reconciled with Alton Railway? To find the answer, an examination must be made concerning the second, later line of social security cases. In Steward Machine, the Court touched upon the constitutional basis for the tax in the following passage: “The proceeds of the excise when collected are paid into the Treasury at Washington, and thereafter are subject to appropriation like public moneys generally. Cincinnati Soap Co....” In Davis, the Court again touched lightly upon the constitutional basis for the tax with this passage: “When such a contention comes here we naturally require a showing that by no reasonable possibility can the challenged legislation fall within the wide range of discretion permitted to the Congress.’ United States y. Butler, supra, 297 U.S. 1, at page 67, 56 S.Ct. 312, 320, 80 L.Ed. 477, 102 A.L.R. 914. Cf. Cincinnati Soap Co. y. United States, 301 U.S. 308, 57 S.Ct. 764, 81 L.Ed. , May 3, 1937; United States y. Realty Co., 163 U.S. 427, 440, 16 S.Ct. 1120, 41 L.Ed. 215; Head Money Cases, 112 U.S. 580...” 7Since both of these cases mentioned Cincinnati Soap, is it not important to review that case decided just 3 weeks before Steward Machine and Helvering? Congress has adopted many acts for relief of the poor applicable within its jurisdiction such as Washington, D.C.; see 16 Stat. 65. The Cincinnati Soap case Is an Insular possessions case, specifically In regards to the Philippines, the Butler case found the agricultural features of the NIRA unconstitutional, arid the Head Money Cases concerned a tax upon aliens. Does it not look like the Supreme Court held that social security originally applied only within the jurisdiction of the United States, specifically Washington, D.C., the federal enclaves within the states, the territories and Insular possessions? But is this all? Article 22 of the United Nations’ Declaration of Human Rights declares that everyone Is entitled to social security: “Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.” If the federal social security act was originaLLy jurisdictional, ft became international with our entry into the UN. Clearly, treaties have an affect upon the social security Issue. In fact, the ILO first proposed such an idea on June 22, 1935, a mere 6 weeks after the decision In Alton Railway. Of course, there are many other examples of treaties being used to provide federal jurisdiction for crimes other than those noted above, but they are not discussed here. Nevertheless, It is clear that treaties are being used so that the feds can acquire a criminal power they would not otherwise have. But further, the NWO will be traveling this constitutional route to gain power in this country, and this simply must be stopped. 8[ .pìk.r, 12:23 PM 4/12/19, JTF-SWA This is th. .uppos.d r X-Sender: spikerainnix.com Date: Sun, 12 Apr 1998 12:23:34 —0600 To: PRN€airgunhq.com From: spiker Subject: JTF-SWA This is the supposed reason for the EO calling up the Reserves on 2/24/98 X—UIDL: 8Íb33e5t116b175dce85f41ac33d5510 Executive Orders ORDERING THE SELECTED RESERVE OF THE ARMED FORCES TO ACTIVE DUTY THE WHITE HOUSE Office of the Press Secretary For Immediate Release February 24, 1998 EXECUTIVE ORDER UÍLIJLRING THE SELECTED RESERVE O THE ARMED FORCES TO ACTIVE DUTY By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of Anerica, including sections 121 and 12304 ot title 10, United States Code, I hereby determine that it is necessary to augment the active armed forces of the United States for the effective conduct of operations in and around Southwest Asia. Further, underhe stated authority, I hereby authorize the Seã?tary A)frA( , ‘) of Defense, and the Secretary of Transportation with respect to the V / Coast Guard wnen it is not operating as a service in the Department of ‘ the Navy, to order to active duty any units, and any Individual members Vr not assigned to a unit organized to serve as a unit, of the Selected Reserve. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person. WILLIAM J. CLINTON THE WHITE HOUSE ________spik.r, 12:23 4 4/12/19, JF-S This is th. suppos.d r 2 http://www.eskan.swablack.af.mil/jtfswa/’tfswa.htrnt Joint Ta5k Force Southwest Asia Joint Task Force Southwest Asia performs the Operation Southern Watch mission of monitoring and controlling airspace south of the 33rd parallel in Southern rraq. The role of the coalition farces is to monitor compliance with United Nations Security Council resolut ions. ctfswahi .htm>History <../home2.htm>Return to the Eskan Front Pago « Printed for devvyejp..net (devvy) 2disfrutad. MtPv101011g is riot -w- that income is Later distnbuled T w eocx*e 01 a norvssident allen, the wouSs we dorriciled ri a cotvrnursty property stats is ‘.ed to act as a withho.ding agent for tie o’1resiOeI alertS interest in trie spouses CO’nrriutiet, come arising from imin the LJruted Abmony r separate maIntenance payments riaoe to a n resident aliea’l mpome or former seouse ase s.ect to wthho4ng Theretore. it you mase asmony payments io a nonresident ate Wouse. you w. a withholding agent For noie intoimetion on anony, see Pi.tllcabon 504. Tax InÝornarior toi Divorced or Scpa’ated fndAri ua’s Foreign riomines and Iduclartes. Under cer tain tas er.ates, a foreign noinsies 01 iCiely en a Ireaty country may nave to witrihOld additional U S tax trom LIS source dÑldend. interest, and orner income For esampee, a Swiss nonwie. e reaed under Swiss sw ro withhold 30% 01 the ou diendond erinus the 15% that NU bien etNd by trie rthholdeg agent in the United Stales Except for Canada. foreign norririees and fÕ.ic. rnu;t send the adcfooreel US. tax withheld to their own tax authonties. accomparsed by wqiatevor form may be preacnbed by th natíonal tax aqerioes. In turn, treaty tax authonbas send the additional tas to the Internal Revenue Service Center Philadelphia, PA 192S5. Canadien norrinees and fiduõanis sand trie additional U.S. lax w,lhhetd, in U.S. CL,rency, directly to the Internal Revenue Service Center si Phiadelptla, acoompaniod by en annual Form 1042, A.rrnijal r Molding Tp,r Rep.,,, for U.S. Source Income 0f Foreign PuionS The rules discussed Later under Deposits al Withheld Taxes do not apply to these foreign withholding agents. For specifIc datais on me procedures and iypes cl U.S. soe.,rce income on wf’licli additional with hOl&ig S regiared, loteign nominees and ñducia ries should contact me tasv’ig authonty of me. Country. Persons Subject to Withholding Nonresident aliens are seØct lo the ilhfloldirig provisions discussed si tie pitcation. A nonne- dent asen s an Individual who is not a U.S. calzan or residen? The term includes a norwealdent akin duciar Resident alert. Resident aliens are not siib,ect to trie witi’InCÍdfrlg provisions disCuUed li ewe putibcabori. A resident akin is an alien sitio meets either the gren card test or te subetaneal pres ence test for the calendar year. Green a test. M aloe is a U.S. resident if the ridvidual was a I&wf ii peiwienent resident of the (Jrsted States al any unte axing the calendar yev This is known as the “green d’ test because these aliens hold inTrigant Vues rweun vwdi”) Subekinbafpreaanœ teat An alien ¡e also conslder.d a U S resident il tite indhed meets the sutetandel Presence test for Irte catendar yea, Under this test, the siorendii& must be ptitei cUy present WI me United States on al least 1) 31 days during the ctsTent calendar yew. and 2) 153 days dulri9 me currant year and trie a precedIng years. counting all the days o physical presence n the current year, but oily h the rumbar of days cl presence in the list precedIng year. and ont1, V. the number 0f days in me second preceding year You generally do not Count days the aleen is il irte United States as a teacher, student, or tramai on a ‘ “ Or ‘M” visa Fr more information on resident and nonresi dent statiis. the tesis tOi residence, and the exceptions to thorn. see Putlication 51 , U.S Tax Quid, for AJ,pn Nonresident alien lndlvlduale married to either U.S. citIzens or resident aliene may choose to be treated as resident aliens tot income tax purposes liowevar. these widivlduais aie coned erad noivesderits for purposes of *itltholdvtg lazes on nonresident aliens. A foreign corporation or partnership is oree that does riot fit the definition of a domestic corpo ration or partnership. A domeatic cor pore tion of pertrtwVl is one triai was created ou organized r the united Stales t under the laws of the United Slates or of arty state Guanter Pdortliern Uarlana Islands corpora elena. 4i corporation created or orgwszed si. or under (tie laws 01. Guam or Irte Convwvlonwealih 01 ttie Northern Mariana Islands (CNM is not con sidered a Iore.gn corporation tr the purpoee 04 ssmtholdw’ig tax for the tax year i1 I) Al all tintes during the tax year less than 25% in value of the corporations stock is owned. directly or indirectly, by foreign persons. arid 2) At least 20% of the corporations gross Income is derived from sou-0es whiten Guam or the CNMI for Irte 3-yew period ending wnlfi trie close o me preceding tax year ð the cor poration (or the penod the corporation sas been in existence. it lea) Inde and 4nter Seine. corpora- bone. A corporation created or organized si, or under th laws of, the Vir9n Islands or Arencan Samoa is not cortedered a foreign corporation toi the pu-poses of withholding tax loe me tax year i 1) Al all tanes during the tax year lees than 25% en value of the corporation’s 5tOk is owned, directly or indirectly, by foreign parsons. 2) At heel 65% cIme corporations groes income is effectively connected with ttse conduct of a trade or business ini the Vrgwi Islands. American Samoa. Guam, Irte CNS.I, or me United Stales for the 3-year period ending with the close of the tax ye of tise corporabon (or the period tise corporation or any predecessor has been In existence, f heal. arid 3) No e.iostantial part of the rncome of the cor poratlon is used, directly or inds’ectty. lo sat isty obligations loa reos _I riot a bone Ide rsdent cl the Virgn Islands. Arencan Samos. Guam. the CNMI, or the United States Noter The provisions discussed above for ifw. pvt IsLands and American Samoa corppratrons are eidertded to Guam and CNUI corporations when WI mhernenh)rig agreement is n effect between the United Stales and each, o those possessions For further information write to trie Internal Reve nue Service. Assistant Commissioner (Intel-na tiorlaij, 50 L’Enf ant Plaza South, SW, Washington. DC 20024 Resident of Puerto Rico. Even it an alien is a boris lide resident of Puerto Rico for the entire year arid ii required lo pay taxes generally in the same way as a U.S citizen, tite alien is treated as a nonresident alen for me withholding rules explained here Tiws alien will be anilifled to a credit agenst U.S. income tax loi riy tricorne Las witN,ald ..s’ider these rules Trustai, administrator, or executor. Income paid to a nonresident alien trustee, administrator. or exeaor of a trust or a estatv is sut,,ct ‘o these withholding rules even tho4I all the bonete cianes of the trust or estate are cmzens or residents of Irte Llniler2 States Foreign Oftvate foundation. A Private tøunda. bon that was created ou organized under trie haw 01 a foreign nlry s s foreign private foundation. Gross irrvestmers income from sources w,ttlin trie United States paid to a qualified foreign private fo.wioation is iubect to wilrtiolding of a4% excise tax rather than the ordinary statutOry 30% wico’re tax. For more .nformatcn on foreign private foundations. see Pubecation 578, Tax informa tío r, loi Privare Fourvjanions and Fourtda son Mansger , Other foreign orgarwzatuons, associations, and charitable Institutions. An organczation is not precluded from being exempt Worn tricorne tax under section 501 (al of the internal Revenue Code merely bec*se it was formed under foreIgn law Generally, you do not have to withhOld tax on payments of income to such foreign tax-exempt organtzations if the ‘RS rias Oewrnwled litaI they are riot foreign private foundations Payments to these organaions r,owsver, irsist be reported on Form 1042S, Foreign P,nion U.S Source income Sttiec: ro Withhold ng. even thougri no tax s withheld. You must withhold tas on the cintrelated busi ness income (as descrtied si Publication 596. Tjs on U,velared S&mswwss Income of Exempt Di’garse. jabonsl of foreign lax.exerr’çt organizations in me sarna way thr you would withhold tax on similar sicOnie of nonexernpt orgar.zations Withholding Exemptions and Reductions You should withhold any required tax 4 facts i’d- cale trial the individual, or the fiduciary. to whom you are to pay the income s a nonresident alien. However, the alien mat De allowed ar •sen’ofion from withholding or a reduced rate al wilr-holdi-ig as explained here Evidence of residence. If an individual gives you a written Statemeiv staling that fie or she is a citizen or resident of the United Stales, and you do not know otherwise you nay accepr this elatemerit and are relieved irorn irte uty of with holding triO fax. An alien may oem U S rØsidenp by fÌinQwith you. Form 107e Certificate al Aker Cteinzrlg Residence in the LJi’WeC States keep trie statement or form whichever apes., roi you’ rrdS Do nOl 14e A with Ere PS Iioic.rs cf visas that do not permit D’ane ‘eenence si me United Slates should evite to intairsi Ri entje Service Awstanr Comrrssiiny’. riterra. tionall. Attention NC 105 9 ‘êanq Plaza South, SW, Wasfinqio’ 2o2s or advice about Cling a Form 1Ó78 end .lew’g Foin 1078, proper. about the reed ‘0 ‘. eSTW-’aied tax payments. A U.S barsi that s a paver 01 ‘wme subiect t’ wimnolding may decae .he4he’ ic ac’œt an md viduais proof of U.S c’twe’ie or ,nce given through a f oreçr. 3w IC ‘ic itfl5 is pad it trie U S bank accus ris oi’l it will no be table for payment’ oi ts 4 iwi ‘e w’n tr, the individual was in fac’ ‘Vi Vt ) 4 accepts trie picot. now.’.’. me S * file an information relur Y’ ‘- ‘ -‘.?S in0wir the name address. ide”Ý”a ‘.i’ ario its. particular securities o’ Erse ac.a’ wine indicating triat ir iS re%ig v- n’-v’ tIte oraÇ bank as Is .as.s ‘ - Partneiihigs arid corp,,’ ‘ -see raly on a written statemen- “ a . ‘wiwc or poration claming ti.a ‘ s -o es oroof ti trie partnership c coi’oc»als, e ar true not subec to witrii’ç u’ • siai oflta the taxpayer’s emploie’ ‘.isi” “ioe. ti address of tPie taxpatrer s . S -. ‘w of business and it rnuc “.—‘ • ‘wi of 2. .‚ - e. e I3tULUL)LLHL JUL ju a.j.4 iv.’..L . OKLAHOMA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY ENERGY CEmi BuxJ.-RooM N.131..100 EAST BOYD STREET • NOR1bi», O1c1AHov 73019 • (405). 325.3031 • FAX: (405)-325-7069 July 10, 1995 State Representative Charles Key Oldahoma Dear Representative Key: Attached you will find a schematic illustration of the seismograms recorded on the clay of the OKC explosion (4-19-95). Initially, the relationship between these signals was not clearly understood. Thanks to the excellent data recorded by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1 think that I can give a preliminary interpretation of the signals recorded on the clay 0f the blast. The attached figure 5h05 two high amplitude arrivals at the Omniplex Museum Th0 first signai to arrive is likely to be a type of wave called a p-wave traveled through the ground to the Omniplex. Since the amplitude of p-waves is usual]y.small compared to th later arriving S-waves and Rayleigh waves1 th high amplitude signal which saturated the Omniplex for 10 secdnds on the day f the blast can b interpreted to be the result of S. waves, Rayleigh waves and other waves traveling through the ground. After approximately 5-ô seconds, another high amplitude signal arrived at the Omniplex acting to saturate the seismoineter. Th5 signal appears to he an air blast. A air blast is a pressure wave travels through the air at the speed of sound. When the pressure from the air blast is large enough, tile air pressure pushes on the ground in 6h a way as to cause a seismometer to read a signal. Identification 0f the second signal as an air blast and the first signal as shear, Rayleigh and other waves is an important step in the interpretation of the signals. Based upon the signals recorded during the demolition, the duration of th ground wave” at the Omniplex is an approximate measure oí th length of time 0f the seismic activity at the Mu.rrah Building (10 seconds or less). The duration of the air blast is a measure of the length f time the air explosion was active. Th means that the last 5 seconds (or 1es) 0f ground motion did not iave an air blast associated it.,Ð%JII ¿L’ £ V • ..? L r . j— fr/’,\ç ..- — I s. p-’ 4.— ‚ V. 4’.s,. 7— t, , ‘ -;:\ “ k E T I :,. — . : ... -- ‘ /P.17 \-- .. —---\ : \% , .. —‚ L r) ;,‚ :: — I 1National Transportation Safety Board Washington. D.C. 20594 January 15, 1997 Mr. Devvy Kidd 14253 West Baltic Avenue Lakewood, CO 80228 Re: April 17, 1995 Alexander City, AL Dear Mr. Kidd: This responds to your November 11, 1996 letter under the Freedom of Information Act requesting a copy of the report of the above incident. A search in our accident/incident data files found no record of the above incident. It is possible that the accident/incident which you referred to in your inquiry was the subject of a FAA Possible Incident Report. Your request is being forwarded to the address below for response. Federal Aviation Administration Gladys Stewart, FOJA Officer Public Affairs Office APA— 220 800 Independence Ave., S.W. Washington, DC 20591 Sincerely, Susan Stevenson Public Inquiries Brancho U.S. Department 800 Independence Avenue, SW. of Transpottation Washington, DC 20591 Federal Aviation Administration January 30, 1997 Mr. Dewy KIðd 14253 West Baltic Avenue Lakewood,00 80228 Re: Freedom of Information Act (FO IA) Request 97-0082 Dear Mr. Kidd: This will acknowledge receipt of your FOIA request of November 11, 1996, concernIng Incident near Alexander City. Alabama on 4117195. Your request has been assigned for action to the office(s) listed below: Federal Aviation Administration Contact: Ms. Mary Bartock, FOIA Coordinator Headquarters, AAI Phone: (202) 267-7194 FOB IDA 800 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20591 Federal Aviation Mministration Contact: Ms Doris Little, FO1A Coordinator Southern Region, ASO-65D Ptone (404) 305-5904 P. 0. Box 20636 Atlanta, GA 30320 Should you wish to Inquire to the status of your request pisase call the FOIA coordinator. SincO1ty, yGladys Stewart ‘I FOIA Specialist FOIA Program Staff cc: Ml ASO-65DSTATE 0F KANSAS OFFICE OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL 2ND FLOOR, KANSA5 JUcflCIAL CENTER, ToKA 66612-1597 ROBERT T. STEPHAN ArTORNCV G(NERM. December 2, 1994 MAIN PHOr (9I3 2Q6-221S CONSLJMCn PROTtCTION: 29 375 I T.ccOPtEn: 29e62e Jerome Micek 5316 Switzer Street Shawnee, Kansas 6620 Dear Mr. Micek: Robt,1 J. Drown ¡2000 Pawnet L.a. LA. wood, KS a9 This is in acknowledgement of our telephone conversation of December 2, 1994, regarding recall of elected officials. Pursuant to Section 3 of Article 4 of the Kansas Constitution and K.S.A. 25-4301, all elected public officials in the state, except judicial officers, are subject to recall. The procedures for recall of state officers and local officers as defined in K.S.A. 25-4304 are set forth In K.S.A. 25-4301 It is the opinion of the Attorney General that the state’s recall provisions do not apply to members of the U.S. Congress. Attorney General Opinion No. 94-35. The opinion is based in part on provisions of the U.S. Constitution. The United States Supreme Court recently received oral arguments regarding whether the state of Arkansas has the authority to provide for recall of members of Congress. A decision of the Supreme Court is expected in June. If we may be of assistance to you in the future, please feel free to contact us. ‘..‘r z*c_.e Cil . .- K. C RSCA.1 — \iJi. ‘•.‘dt :r., ‘it Ob4l. f\ G’ ‘.t \.... JIi’._ •.s . - 3. &. WE Very truly yours, OFFICE OP ‘rifE ATTORNEY GENERAL ROBERT T. STEPHAN ‘-.. ‘ Richarj. Smith Assistant Attorney General &-. c:fso) t. .k 4L...i —p ‘t ev... Y’ L G. Lo L. 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LOA: liOFt Beam: 2lFt Draft: 7.5Ft Propulsi4n: 2 MPDE Max Speed: 3OKts Complement: 2 Officers 14-16 Enlisted I !USCGC WILLÕW WLB 202 LOA: 225 Ft Beam: 46Ft • Draft: l3Ft Proptiisithi: 2 MIDE Max Speed: 15 Kts Complemcnt: 6 Officers 34 Enlisted t .!NOAA Survey Ship RUDE LOA: 90 Ft Beam: 22Ft Draft: 7Ft Propilsion: 2 M?DE Max Speed: 11.5 Kts Complement: 3 Ofíicers S Civllins rNOAA Stryey Ship WHITING S329 LOA: 164Ft Beam: ! 33Ft Draft: lOFt Propu1sin: 2 MPÐE Max Sped: 12.5 Kts Complement 8 Officers 33 Civilians - 2 Scientists —. 1 IuŠs LOA: Beàm: Drâfi: Prâpulsion: Mx Speed: Complement: Diting: , S avage: GRASP (ARS-51) 255 Ft 55 Ft iS Ft 4MPDE l5Kts S Officers loo Enlisted SCUBA- 130 FSW MK-21 - 190 FSW (Std Air) - 300 FSW (Mixed Gas) 40 Ton boom Aft 7.5 Ton Boom Fwd Stem and Bow Rollers. Principle of Operation Self-contained, opri-cfrcuit demand system . MInimum Equlpmént Open-cwcuit.SCUBA Life preserver Weight belt Dive knife Face mask Swim fins j Submersible wrist watch Submersible depth gage . PrincIpal Appilcailons Shallow water seach Inspection ¡ Light repair and te1overy . Advantages Rapid deployment: Portability Minimum support requirements Excellent horizont) and vertical mobil ity Minimum bottom disturbances Disadvantages Limited endurance (depth1and dura- bon) Relatively high breathing resistance Limited physical protection Influenced by currçnt. . . . .. . Lack of voice cominunication (unless equipped with a Ürough-water commu nications system) . F t I I ! Operations Planning • Restrictions Work limits: Normal 130 fsw Maximum 190 lsw, with Command ing Officer’s Permission loo fsw wit” single SCUBA bottle, twin botiles required below 100 fsw Within no-decompression limits Current - 1 knot maximum Diving team - minimum 4 persons . Operational Considerations Standby diver required. Small craft mandatory for diver recov ery during open ocean diving. Moderate to good visility prelerred. Ability to free ascend to surface re quired (see paragraph 5-4.7.2). SCUBA General Cnaracteristics . Figure 4-22. SCUBA G,neralcharact.rlstIcs. Op.n.Crcu)1 SCUBA Divem aWorlc. I. Principle of Operation Surface-supplied, open-circt weight system . . MInimum Equipment MX 21 MOD O Helmet Harness . Weight belt . Dive knife Swim ns or shoes Surface umbilical . PrincIple Applications Shallow water search Inspection and light salvage Major ship repair . Disadvantages Limited physical protection Umited vertical mobility Large support craft required . Restrictions Wor1llmits: 190 fsw Current -2.5 knots maximum with ex tra weights . Operational ConsIderations Adequate air supply system required Standby diver required MK 21 MOD 1 General Characteristics ut light— . I . Advantages Unlimited by air supply Good horizontal mobility Voice and/or line pu cornnunIcations cbIlities Fast deployment MK21 MCDI H.Irnet. flgui 4-23. MK 21 MCD 1 Gn.rI Ch 4-54 cs. ) ‘ I L r US. Navy Diving Manual, Vo1une I

    MR. JEFFERSON’S CYCLOPSI A GIANT SKELETON UNEARTED AT ]3tTZZARD’S BAY. BuzzARD’s B. Mass., July 4.—Joseph Jeffer son, the actor, ha8 made an astonishing find ou the Summer place which ho has purchased hero near that of ox-President Cleveland. rn laying out the grouLds and making alterations it be. came necessary to remove a saudhill of large 1ze. The workmen, while doing this, found. the sloietoà of a man that filled them with astonishment from Its great sIze. When an attempt was made to lift ap the eke!. eton it crumbled away, all except the skull. A workman lay down by the aide of it, however, and it was estimated that It must have belonged to a man at least 6 feet 5 or G Luches in height. The moat peculiar thing was brought to light however, when the skull was taken te Mr. JetIersou and by him examined. It was ULte ordinary skulls, only iar.rer, except that It. had,. as far as eould be seen, no place where the eyes bad becu. There was one bole in the centre of the forehead. that mlghL have once served for one eye. This led Mr. Jetferson to believe that ho hsd, perhaps, dtecòvered the skeleton of a Cyclops. He said to Mr. Booth. who was paying him a visit, when he saw the wonderful skull, that ho and his brother actor had a chanco at hand to play” Hamlet” with a skull such as it bad never boon played with before. All the scien tific goutltwen in the neighborhood bave been as unable to rIve an explanation of the akuir as were Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Buoth. Mr. Jefferson will no doubt be glad to receive suggestions from men of solenco that may throw llghL on the matter. 1)c rW jork irne Published: July 5, 1891 Copyright @ The New York Times GIANT SKELETONS FOUND. Archaeologists to Send Expedition to ¡ Explore Graveyards in Ncw Mexico Where Bodies Were Unearthed. Sj’cciel lo The ¿‘eu’ )‘orl: Ti iii rs. LOS AXGELES, cal., Feb. 10.—OwIng to, the dIscovery of the remains of a race of giants in Guadalupe. N. M.. antiquarians and archaeologists are preparing an expedi tion further to explore that region. This determination Is based on the excitement that exists amog the people of a scope of country near Mesa Rico, about 200 miles southeast of La Vegas, where an old bur ial ground has been discovered that lias yielded skeletons of enormous size. Luiciana Quintana, on whose ranch the ancient burial plot is located, discovered ¡ two stones that bore curious inscriptions, and beneath these were found in shallow excavations the bones of a frame thai could not have been less than 12 feet in ‘ length. The men who opened the grave ( say the iorearm was 4 feet long and that in a well-preserved jaw the lower teeth ranged from the size of a hickory nut to I that of tbe largest walnut in size. The chest of the being is reported as hav ing a circumference of seven feeL Quintana, who has uncovered many other burial places. expresses the opinion that perhaps thousands of skeletons of a race of giants Ion extinct will be found. This supposition Is based on the traditions handed dorm from the early Spanish In vaslon thai. have detailed knowledge of the existence of a race of giants that inhabited the plains of what now Is Eastern New Mexico. Indian legends atd carvings also ii: the srne ,cection indicate the exístenco J of such a rtee. Published: February 11. 1902 Copyright © The New York Times GIANTS’ SKELETONS FOUND. Cave In Mexico Gives Up the Bones of an Ancient Race. Spccia So The.’ New York Timcs. BOSTON. May 3.—Charles C. Clapp, who has recently returned from Mexico, where he has been In charge of Thomas W. : Lawson’s mining interests, has calle.d the attention of Prof. Agassiz to a remarkable ; discovery made by him. Re found in Mexico a cave containing sorno 20(, skeletons of men each above eight feet in heìght. The cave was evi dently the burial place of a race of giants who antedated the Aztecs. Mr. Clapp arranged the bones of one of these skele tons and found the total length to be 8 feet il Inches. The femur reached up to his thigh, and the molars were big enough to crack a cocoanut. The head measured elhteen inches from. front to back. cu Ijork imc Published: May 4, 1908 Copyright © The New York Times

    n4crrì i- 1- leu ds cscidi-e’s ft)r Üre Lflk)Cì,ft4-iOfl vi- A-p. ii www. --rJox, e ryrntnu/e KLm.htj Fluoride: Commie Plot or Capitalist Ploy .Gburid by Joel Griffiths Reprinted with permission from Coven Action Quarterly, Fall, 1992, Number 42 Copyright notice and subscription information Cows crawled around the pasture on their bellies, inching along like giant snails. So crippled by bone disease they couldnot stand up, this was the only way they could graze. Some died kneeling, after givinu birth to stunted calves. Others kepton crawling until, no longer able to chew because their teeth had crumbled down to the nerves, they began to starve... .11) These were the cattle of the Mohawk Indians on the New York-Canadian St. Regis Reservation during the period 1960-75. when industrial pollution devastated the herd and along with it. the Mohawks’ way of life. Crops and trees withered, birds and bees tied from this remnant of land the Mohawk still call Akwesasne, “the land where the partridge drums.” Today,nets cast into the St. Lawrence River by Mohawk fishers bring up ulcerated fish with spinal deformities. Mohawk children,too, have shown signs of damage to bones and teeth. (2 ) In ¡980, the Mohawks filed a $150 million lawsuit for damage to themselves and their property against the companies responsible for the pollution: the Reynolds Metals Co. and the Aluminum Co. of America (ALCOA). But five years of legal costs bankrupted the tribe and they settled for $650.000 in damages to their cows;(3) the court, however, left the door open for a future Mohawk suit for damage to their own health. After alt commented human rights lawyer Robert Pritchard, “What judge wants to go down ‘n history as being the judge who approved ¡he annihilation of the Indians by fluoride emissionsT’(4) Many Akwesasnes Fluoride emissions? Fluoride, as in toothpaste? Well, yes. Fluoride was the pollutant primarily responsible for the Akwesasne devastation(S) For nearly 50 years. the U.S. government and media have been telling the public that tluoride is safe and beneficial--it is supposed to reduce cavities, especially in children. Manufacturers add it to toothpaste, municipalities put it in the public’s drinking water. The only people who question the safety of fluoride, says the government, are quacks and lunatics--particularly of the far-right-wing variety. But fluoride has another side the government never mentions. It is a toxic industrial pollutant one of the oldest and biggest of them all. For decades, U.S. industrial plants have rained heavy doses of waste fluoride on people, such as the Mohawks. The nation, however, has been successfùlly conditioned to think of fluoride solely as a benevolent substance and to dismiss as a crackpot, anyone who claims otherwise. In recent years, because of rampant environmental damage, some of the worst fluoride pollution plants such as those at Akwesasne have been forced to reduce their emissions, but not terminate them. At Akwesasne, cows still live only half their normal lifespan.(6) Nationwide, fluoride remains one of industry’s largest pollutants. By the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) last estimate, at least 155,000 tons a year were being released into the air by U.S. industrial plants.(7) Emissions into water lakes, rivers, and ocean have been estimated to be as high as 500,000 tons a year.(8) While people living near and/or working in heavy fluoride-emitting industrial plants have received the highest doses, the general population has not been spared either. Fluoride is not biodegradable; whatever

    comes around stays around, gradually accumulating in the environment, in the food chain, and in people’s bodies, where it settles in bones and teeth. 1f this general increase in fluoride dose were proved harmfùl to humans, the impact on industry which pollutes both air and water would be major. The nation’s air is contaminated by fluoride emissions from the production of iron, steel, aluminum, copper. lead and zinc; phosphates (essential for the manufacture of all agricultural fertilizers); plastics; gasoline; brick, cement, glass. ceramics, and the multitudinous other products made from clay, electrical power generation and all other coal combustion; and uranium processing. (9) As for water, the leading industrial fluoride polluters are the producers and processors of glass, pesticides and fertilizers, steel and aluminum, chemicals, and metals.( 10) The metal processing industries include copper and brass, as well as titanium, superalloys, and refractory metals for military use.( 11) The list of polluters extends across industry from basic to strategic. Industry and govennent have long had a powerilil motive for claiming an increased dose of fluoride is safe for the population. Maintaining this position has not been easy because, of industry’s largest pollutants, fluoride is by far the most toxic to vegetation, animais, and humans.( 12) In fact, it’s one of the most toxic substances known.( 13) “Airborne fluorides.” reports the U.S. Department of Agriculture, “have caused more worldwide damage to domestic animals than any other air pollutant.”(14) As for vegetation, as early as 1901. studies “found that fluoride compounds are much more toxic than the other compounds that are of significance in the industrial smoke problem. “(15) Fluoride pollution has caused aquatic damage of similar magnitude.( 16) In other words, there have been many Akwesasnes. “Man [sic] is much more sensitive than domestic animals to fluoride intoxication (the medical terni for poisoning].”( 17) Evidence that industrial fluoride has been killing and crippling not only cows but human beings has existed at least since the 193 Os. The government has not only dismissed the danger and left industry free to pollute. but it has promoted the intentional addition of fluoride most of which is recycled industrial waste to the nation’s drinking water. “It might be economically feasible to reduce industrial fluoride emissions further,” says Fred L. Metz of the EPA’s Office of Toxic Substances, “but eliminating them would probably be impossible. P1(18) Primal Poison Threatens industry Of the highly toxic elements that are naturally present throughout the earth’s crust--such as arsenic, mercury, and lead--fluoride is by far the largest in quantity.( 19) Normally, only minute amounts of these elements are found on the earth’s surface, but Industry mines its basic raw materials from deep in the earth and brings up vast tonnages--none in greater quantity than fluoride. Historically, perhaps no other pollutant has posed a greater threat to industrial expansion. As early as 1850, fluoride emissions from the iron and copper industries poisoned crops, livestock, and people. By the turn of the century, consequent lawsuits and burdensome regulations threatened the existence of these industries in Germany and England.(20) They saved themselves by introducing the tall smokestacks which reduced damage by dispersing the fluorides and other toxins into the upper air.

    In twentieth century America, however, enormous industrial plants and new technologies increased fluoride emissions so that even tall stacks could not prevent gross damage for miles around. Following the period of explosive industrial expansion known as “industry’s roaring 20s,” the magnitude of industry’s fluoride dilemma became starkly apparent. International reports of fluoride damage mushroomed in 1933 when the world’s first major air pollution disaster struck Belgium’s Meuse Valley; several thousand people became violently ill and 60 died. The cause was disputed, but investigations by prominent scientists, including Kaj Rohoim, the world’s leading authority on fluoride hazards, placed the blame on fluoride.(21) Here and abroad, health scientists were beginning to regard fluoride as a poison, pure and simple. The trend toward its removal from the environment was potentially disastrous from industry’s point of view. “Only recently, that is, within the last ten years, bas the serious nature of fluoride toxicity been realized,” wrote Lloyd DeEds, senior toxicologist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1933. “It is a well- established fact that chronic intoxication [poisoningj may manifest itself in man as recognized abnormalities only after constant, or at least frequent. exposure over many years.... The possibility of fluoride hazard should.. .be recognized in industry. ..where this element is discharged into the air as an apparently worthless by-product.”(22) It was abundantly clear to both industry and government that spectacular U.S. industrial expansion--and the economic and military power and vast profits it promised--would necessitate releasing millions of tons of waste fluoride into the environment. Furthermore, two large new industries would be adding to the dose fluorocarbon chemicals (the aerosol propellants and refligerants now depleting the ozone layer) and aluminum, slated for a crucial economic and military role during the upcoming Second World War. By 1938 the aluminum industry, which then consisted solely of ALCOA, had been placed on a wartime schedule. And fluoride was the aluminum industry’s most devastating pollutant.(23) U.S. future industrial expansion, then, would be accompanied by complaints and lawsuits over fluoride damage on an unprecedented scale--the most threatening aspect of which was harm to human health. Damage to animals and the environment might be tolerated and easily paid oft if, however, serious injury to people were established, lawsuits alone could prove devastating to companies, while public outcry could force industry-wide government regulations, billions in pollution-control costs, and evLn mandatory changes in high-fluoride raw materials and profitable technologies. Liability Into Asset This inter-war period saw the birth of the militarv-jndustrial complex, with its concomitant public disinformation campaigns. It also saw a federal blitz campaign to convince the public fluoride was safe and good for them. The kick-off was the 1939 announcement by ALCOA-funded scientist Gerald J. Cox: “The present trend toward complete removal of fluoride from water and food may need sorne reversaL “(24) New evidence of fluoride’s safety began emerging from research centers plied with industry’s largess. Notable among these was the University of Cincinnati’s Kettering Laboratory, whose specialty was investigating the hazards of industrial chemicals. Funded largely by top fluoride-emitters such as ALCOA, the Kettering Lab quickly dominated fluoride safety research. A book by Kettering scientist and Reynolds Metals consultant E.J. Largent, for example, written in part to “aid industry in lawsuits arising from fluoride damage,” became a basic international reference work.(25) The big news in Cox’s announcement was that this “apparently worthless by-product” bad not only been proved safe (in low doses), but actually beneficial: it might reduce cavities in children. A proposal was in the air to add fluoride to the entire nation’s drinking water. While the dose to each individual would be low, “fluoridation” on a national scale would require the annual addition of hundreds of thousands of tons of fluoride to the country’s drinking water.

    Government and rndustry--especially ALCOA--strongly supported intentional water fluoridation. Undoubtedly, most proponents were sincere in their belief that the procedure was safe and beneficial. At the same time, it might be noted that fluoridation made possible a master public relations stroke--one that could keep scientists and the public oft’ fluoride’s case for years to come. If the leaders of dentistry, medicine, and public health could be persuaded to endorse fluoride in the public’s drinking water, proclaiming to the nation that there was a “wide margin of safety,” how were they going to turn around later and say industry’s fluoride pollution was dangerous? As for the public, if fluoride could be introduced as a health-enhancing substance that should be added to the environment for the children’s sake, those opposing it would look like quacks and lunatics. The public would question attempts to point out its toxicity or its unsavory industrial connections. ALCOA Foils Accountability With such a powerful spin operating, fluoride might become a virtually “protected pollutant, ‘ as writer Bise Jerard later termed it.(26) One thing is certain, the name of the company with the biggest stake in fluoride’s safety was ALCOA--whose naine is stamped all over the early history of water fluoridation. Throughout industry’s “roaring 20s,” the U.S. Public Health Service was under the jurisdiction of Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon, a founder and major stockholder of ALCOA. In 1931, the year Mellon stepped down, a Public Health Service dentist named H. Trendley Dean was dispatched to certain remote towns in the West where drinking-water wells contained high concentrations of natural fluoride from deep in the earth’s crust. Dean’s mission was to determine how much fluoride people could tolerate without obvious damage to their teeth--a matter of considerable concern to ALCOA. Dean found that teeth in these high-fluoride towns were often discolored and eroded, but he also reponed that they appeared to have fewer cavities than average. He cautiously recommended further studies to determine whether a lower level of fluoride in drinking water might reduce cavities without simultaneously damaging bones and teeth, where fluoride settles in humans and other animals. Back at the Mellon Institute, ALCOA’s Pittsburgh industrial research lab, this news was galvanic. ALCOA- sponsored biochemist Gerald J. Cox (27) immediately fluoridated some lab rats in a study and concluded that fluoride reduced cavities and that: “The case should be regarded as proved.”(28) In a historic moment in 1939. the first public proposal that the U.S. should fluoridate its water supplies was made not by a doctor, or dentist, but by Cox, an industry scientist working tbr a company threatened by fluoride damage claims.(29) Cox began touring the country, stumping for fluoridation. Initially, many doctors, dentists, and scientists were cautious and skeptical, but then came World War II, during which industry’s fluoride pollution increased sharply because of stepped-up production and the extensive use of ALCOA aluminum in aircraft manufacture. Following the war, as expected, hundreds of fluoride damage suits were filed around the country against producers of aluminum, iron and steel, phosphates, chemicals, and other major polluters.(30) The cases settled in court involved only damage to livestock or vegetation. “Friends” of Children Many others were settled out of court, including those claiming damage to human health, thus avoiding legal precedents. In one case, for the first time in the U.S. an Oregon federal court found in Paul M. and Verla Martin y. Reynolds Metals (1955) that the couple had sustained “serious injury to their livers, kidneys and digestive fi.znctions” from eating “farm produce contaminated by fluoride] flumes” from a nearby Reynolds aluminum plant.(31) Soon thereafter, no less than the Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA) and six other metals and chemical companies joined with Reynolds as “friends of the court” to get the decision reversed. According to a local paper, a Reynolds attorney “contended that if allowed to stand, the verdict would become a ruling case, making every aluminum and chemical plant liable to damage claims

    simply by operating (emphasis addedj.”(32) Despite extensive medical testimony for Reynolds from Kettering Lab scientists, the Martins kept on winning. Finally, in a time-honored corporate solution, Reynolds mooted the case by buying the Martins’ ranch for a hefty price. The postwar casualties of industrial fluoride pollution were many--from forests to livestock to farmers to smog-stricken urban residents--but they received little more than local notice. National attention had been diverted by fluoride’s heavily publicized new image. In 1945, shortly before the war’s end, water fluoridation abruptly emerged with the ful force of the federal govemment behind it. In that year, two Michigan cities were selected for an official “15-yea?’ comparison study to determine if fluoride could safely reduce cavities in children, and fluoride was pumped into the drinking water of Grand Rapids. Other early experiments were performed, not only without publicity, but without the knowledge of the subjects. The scientific value of these experiment--and their ethics--were dubious in the extreme. In Massachusetts and Connecticut, for example, the first fluoridation experiments (1945-46) were conducted on indigent mentally retarded children at state-mn schools. According to the 1954 congressional testimony of Florence Birmingham, a trustee of the Wrentliam (Massachusetts) State School for Feebleminded Children, her schoors administration learned only by accident that fluoride was being put in the drinking water. (3 3 ) The trustees immediately voted to stop the fluoridation, Birmingham testified, “but to my shocked surprise, we were told by the [Massachusetts Department of Health] that it was not an experiment and the fluoridation continued on.... I found in the files a letter revealing that [a health department representative] had come to the institution school and in a conference with administration officials warned them that there should be no publicity on the fluoride program there...” The federally sanctioned experimenters did not seem concerned that these children might accidentally receive a toxic overdose of fluoride. “The method used in putting fluoride in the water,” said the president of the school employees’ union, “.. .is enough to cause panic at the institution... .A boy patient does it.. He knows what it is for he said, Come up with me and I can show you howl can take care of you if I get mad at you. “(34) Meanwhile, in 1946, despite the fact that the official 15-year experiment in Michigan had barely begun, six more U.S. cities were allowed to fluoridate their water. The fluoridation bandwagon had begun to roll. At this juncture. Oscar R. Ewing, a long-time ALCOA lawyer who had recently been named the company’s chief counsel with fees in the then-astronomical range of $750,000 a year (35)--arrived in Washington. Ewing was presumably well aware of ALCOA’s fluoride litigation problem. He had handled the company’s negotiations with the government for the building of its wartime plants.(36) In 1947, Ewing was appointed head of the Federal Security Agency (later HEW), a position that placed him in charge of the Public Health Service (PHS). Under him, a national water fluoridation campaign rapidly materialized, spearheaded by the PHS. Over the next three years, 87 additional cities were fluoridated including the control city in the original two-city Michigan experiment, thus wiping out the most scientifically objective test of safety and benefit before it was half over. The Father of All Spin Doctors The government’s official reason for this unscientific haste was “popular demand.” And indeed, these 87 cities had become so wild for fluoridation that the govemment claimed it wasn’t fair to deny them the benefits. By then, in fact, much of the nation was clamoring for fluoridtion. This enthusiasm was not really surprising, considering Oscar Ewing’s public relations strategist for the water fluoridation campaign was none other than Sigmund Freud’s nephew Edward L. Bernays,(37) “The Original Spin Doctor,” as a Washington Post headline recently termed him.(38) Bernays, also known as the “father of public relations,” pioneered the application of his uncle’s theories to advertising and government propaganda. The government’s fluoridation campaign was one of his most stunning and enduring successes.

    In his 1928 book, Propaganda, Bernays explained “the stmcture of the mechanism which controls the public mind, and how it is manipulated by the special pleader f i.e.. public relations counsel] who seeks to create public acceptance for a particular idea or commodity.....(39) Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country.. -our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of.,.” “If you can influence the Egroup] leaders,” wrote Bernays who had many conlidentiai industrial clients, “either with or without their conscious cooperation (emphasis added], you automatically influence the group which they sway... “(40) Describing how, as PR man for the Beech-nut Bacon Company, he influenced leaders of the medical profession to promote sales, Bernays wrote, “The new salesman [would) suggest to physicians to say publicly that it is wholesome to eat bacon. He knows as a mathematical certainty that large numbers of persons will follow the advice of their doctors because he understands the psychological relationship of dependence of men on their physicians. “(41) Substitute “dentists” for “physicians” and “fluoride” for “bacon” and the similarities are apparent. Almost overnight, under Bernays’ mass mind-molding, the popular image of fluoride--which at the time was being widely sold as rat and bug poison--became that of a beneficial provider of gleaming smiles, absolutely safe, and good for children, bestowed by a benevolent paternal government. Its opponents were permanently engraved on the public mind as crackpots and right-wing loonies. Right-Wing Association Fluoridation attracted opponents from every point on the continuum of politics and sanity. The prospect of the government mass-medicating the water supplies with a well-known rat poison to prevent a non-lethal disease flipped the switches of delusionals across the country--as well as generating concern among responsible scientists, doctors, and citizens. Moreover, by a fortuitous twist of circumstances, fluoride’s natural opponents on the left were alienated from the rest of the opposition. Oscar Ewing, as Federal Security Agency administrator, was a Truman “fair dealer” who pushed many progressive programs such as nationalized medicine. Fluoridation was lumped with his proposals. Inevitably, h was attacked by conservatives as a manifestation of “creeping socialism,” while the left rallied to its support. Later during the McCarthy era, the left was further alienated from the opposition when extreme right-wing groups, including the John Birch Society and the Ku Klux Klan, raved that fluoridation was a plot by the Soviet Union and/or communists in the government to poison America’s brain cells. It was a simple task for promoters, under the guidance of the “original spin-doctor,” to paint all opponents as deranged--and they played this angle to the hilt. For example, one widely distributed dossier on opponents “listed in alphabetical order reputable scientists, convicted felons, food faddists, scientific organizations, and the Ku Klux Klan. “(42) Actually, many of the strongest opponents originally started out as proponents, but changed their minds after a close look at the evidence. And many opponents came to view fluoridation not as a communist plot, but simply as a capitalist-style con job of epic proportions. Some could be termed early environmentalists, such as the physicians George L. Waldbott and Frederick B. Exner, who first documented government-industry complicity in hiding the hazards of fluoride pollution from the public. Waldbott and Exner risked their careers in a clash with fluoride defenders, only to see their cause buried in toothpaste ads. Exner’s voluminous files were a source of pivotal evidence in lawsuits decided against industry and against fluoridation promoters. In 1978, ftillowing his death, his files were destroyed in a mysterious fire. (43) But all the opponents, credible and cracked alike, were mn over by the fluoridation bandwagon. In 1950 the Public Health Service, along with leaders of dentistry, medicine, and practically everything else, officially endorsed fluoridation, and the transformation of fluoride’s ¡mage was complete. Since then, two-thirds of the nation’s reservoirs have been fluoridated, and about 143,000 tons of fluoride are pumped in yearly to keep them that way.(44) Meanwhile, the government continues to campaign for “universal fluoridation.” Which brings us to the last benefit to industry from fluoridation: Companies forced to reduce their emission can recoup some of the expense by selling the waste to cities for water fluoridation, And most of the fluoride added to drinking water has been recycled waste, particularly from the fertilizer industry.(45) Protected Pollutant Since the I 950s, fluoride as industrial toxin has remained largely unknown to the public, replaced by fluoride as children’s friend and creator of beautifiul smiles. The 1930s trend toward its removal from the environment has been reversed with a vengeance. For example, in 1972 the newly formed EPA did a survey of atmospheric fluoride polluters. It found that five of the top six typically didn’t bother to control their fluoride emissions at all and weren’t measuring emissions.(46) The most lax was the iron and steel industry, which, according to the report, was also the biggest fluoride emitter.(47) And why should these industries worry, as regulatory agencies have maintained--ever since water fluoridation--that industria] fluoride emissions are harmless to humans? As the EPA report stated: “The fluorides currently emitted [by industry] may damage economic crops, farm animals, and materials of decoration [i.e., flowers and ornamental plants] and construction ji.e. buildings, statuary and glass]... “...[H]owever. the potential to cause fluoride effects in man is negligible. “(48) Or, as another EPA report puts it, “It is clear that fluoride emissions from primary aluminum plants have no significant effect on human health. Fluoride emissions, however, do have adverse effects on livestock and vegetation. “(49) In other words, the stuff withers plants, cripples cows, and even eats holes in stone, but it doesn’t hurt people. Nature ever surprises. When ii comes to water pollution, of course, industry has even less reason to fear conviction for damage to human health. The government’s fluoridation studies have supposedly establishcd beyond a doubt that hundreds of thousands of tons of fluoride a year can be poured directly into the nation’s drinking water supplies with a “wide margin of safety” for humans. So industrial fluoride emitters only have to worry about the fish when they poison nearby bodies of water. The same concentrations added to human drinking water for cavity prevention can be fatal to freshwater fish.(50) Polluted Science When new scientific evidence threatens fluoride’s protected pollutant status, the government immediately appoints a commission, typically composed of several veteran fluoride defenders and no opponents; usually, these commissions dismiss the new evidence and reaffirm the status quo. When one didn’t in 1983, the government simply altered the findings. It’s an instructive tale. In 1983, the Public Health Service convened a panel of”world-class experts” to conduct pro forma review of safety data on fluoride in drinking water. A panel transcript of the private deliberations revealed its members discovering that much of the vaunted evidence of fluoride’s safety barely existed.(5 1) The 1983 panel reconunended caution, especially in regard to fluoride exposure for children,(52) but its chair, Jay R. Shapiro, then with the National Institutes of Health, was aware that recommendations which conflicted with government fluoride policy might mn into trouble. In an attached memo, Shapiro remarked, “[Bjecause the report deals with sensitive political issues which may or may not be acceptable to the PHS [Public Health Service], it runs the risk of being modified at a higher level....”(53) Shapiro was prescient. When Surgeon General Everett Koop’s office released the official report a month later, the panel’s most important conclusions and recommendations had been thrown out, apparently without consulting its members. “When contacted,” wrote Daniel Grossman, “.. members of the panel assembled by the Public Health Service expressed surprise at their report’s conclusions: They never received copies of the final—altered—version. EPA scientist Edward Ohanian, who observed the panel’s deliberations recalled being ‘baffled’ when the agency received its report. “(54)

    All the government’s alterations were in one direction and any conclusion suggesting low doses of fluoride might be harmfiul was thrown out. In its place, the government substituted this blanket statement: “There exists no directly applicable scientific documentation of adverse medical effects at levels of fluoride below 8 ppm (pans per millionj.”(55) This contradicted the panel’s final draft, which firmly recommended that “the fluoride content of drinking water should be no greater than 1.4-2.4 ppm for children up to and including age 9 because of a lack of information regarding fluoride effect on the skeleton in children (to age 9), and potential cardiotoxic effects [heart damagej...” All that, and more, was tossed out by the governnient.(56) To quote from the transcript of the panel’s meeting: Dr. Wallach: “You would have to have rocks in your head, in my opinion, to allow your child much more than 2 ppm.” Dr. Rowe: “I think we all agree on that.”(57) But in 1985, basing its action on the altered repon issued by Surgeon General Koop, EPA raised the amount of fluoride allowed in drinking water from 2 to 4 ppm for children and everybody else Bones of Contention What are the effects of the decades-long increase in fluoride exposure on the nation’s health? The best answer is, given the size and pervasiveness of the motive for bias and the extreme politicization of science on this question, no one knows. Recently, scientists have taken a new look, especially at the most likely place to find fluoride damage: human bones, where it accumulates. In the past two years, eight epidemiological studies by apparently disinterested scientists have suggested that water fluoridation may have increased the rate of bone fractures in females and males of all ages across the U. S.(58) The latest study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (SAMA) found that “low levels of fluoride may increase the risk of hip fracture in the elderly. “(59) These results, if correct, would also implicate industrial fluoride pollution. Mother group likely to show damage from fluoride is young males. Since 1957, the bone fracture rate among male children and adolescents has increased sharply in the U.S. according to the National Center for Health Statistics.(60) The U.S. hip fracture rate is now the highest in the world, reports the National Research Council.(61) “...Clearly,” wrote SAMA in an editorial. “it is now appropriate to revisit the issue of water fluoridation.”(62) Fluoride and cancer, too, have been linked by the government’s own animal carcinogenicity test.(63) Evidence that fluoride is a carcinogen has cropped up since at least the l940s, but the government has dismissed it all. A 1956 federal study found nearly twice as many bone defects (of a type considered possibly pre-malignant) among young males in the fluoridated city of Newhurgh, New York, as compared with the unfluoridated control city of Kingston; this finding, however, was considered spurious and was not followed up.(64) For a long time, the government avoided performing its official animal carcinogenicity test--which, if positive, would require regulatory action against fluoride. It had to be pushed into doing that. ¡n 1975, John Yiamouyiannis, a biochemist and controversial fluoridation opponent, and Dean Burk, a retired National Cancer Institute (NG) official, reported a 5 to 10 percent increase in total cancer rates in U.S. cities which had fluoridated their water supplies.(65) Whether scientifically valid or not, the paper did trigger congressional hearings in 1977, at which it was revealed, incredibly, that the government had never cancer-tested fluoride. Congress ordered the NCI to begin. Twelve years later, in ¡989, the study was finally completed. It found “equivocal evidence” that fluoride caused bone cancer in male rats.(66) The NCI was immediately directed to examine cancer trends in the U.S. population that might be fluoride-related. The NCI found that nationwide evidence “...of a rising rate of bone and joint cancer of ail ages combined, due mainly to trends under the age of 20, was seen in the ‘fluoridated’ counties but not in the ‘non-fluoridated’ counties.... The larger increase in males under the age of 20 seen in the aggregate data for all bone and joint cancers is seen only in the ‘fluoridated’ counties.”(67) The NCI also did more detailed studies focused on several counties in Washington and Iowa. Once again, “When restricted to percent under the age of 20, the rates of bone and joint cancer in both sexes rose 47 percent from 1973-80 to 1981-87 in the fluoridated areas of Washington and Iowa and declined 34 percent in the non-high fluoridated areas. For osteosarcomas [bone cancers] in males under 20 [emphasis added], the rate increased 70 percent in the fluoridated areas and decreased four percent in the non-fluoridated , areas. “(68) But after applying sophisticated statistical tests, the NCI concluded that these findings, like those in Newburgh in 1956, were spurious. It was commission time again. The new commission, chaired by venerable fluoridation proponent and U.S. Public Health Service official Frank E. Young, concluded in its final repon that “. ..its year-long investigation has found no evidence establishing an association between fluoride and cancer in humans.” As for the evidence on bone fractures, the commission merely stated, “flirther studies are required.” And finally, as always: “The U, S. Public Health Service should continue to support optimal fluoridation of drinking water. “(69) “If fluoride presents any risks to the public at the levels to which the vast majority of us are exposed,” intoned U.S. Assistant Secretary for Health, James G. Mason, when releasing the report, “those risks are so small that they have been impossible to detect. In contrast, the benefits are great and easy to detec*.”(70) That is, fewer cavities in children. Government Doubts There are signs, however, that 50 years of official unanimity on this subject may be disintegrating. Referring to the government’s animal study, James Huff, a director of the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, told a 1992 meeting he believes “that the reason these animals got a few osteosarcomas [bone cancers] was because they were given fluoride...Bone is the target organ for fluoride.” In other words, the findings were not “equivocal” but solid. “Perhaps we need to learn more about this chemical,” said Hufl’.(71) Others feel more than enough has already been learned. William Marcus, an EPA senior science adviser and toxicologist was indignant. “In my opinion,” he said, “fluoride is a carcinogen by any standard we use. I believe EPA should act immediately to protect the public, not just on the cancer data, but on the evidence of bone fractures, arthritis, mutagenicity and other effects.” Marcus adds that a still-unreleased study by the New Jersey State Health Department has found that the bone cancer rate is six times higher--among young males--in fluoridated communities.(72) “The level of fluoride the government allows the public is based on scientifically fraudulent information and altered reports,” charges Roben Carton, an EPA environmental scientist and past president of its employee union, Local 2050, National Federation of Federal Employees. The EPA union has been campaigning for six years against what it terms the “politicization of science” at the agency, citing fluoride as the archetypal case. “People can be harmed simply by drinking the water,” Carton warns. (73) ubcommittee headed by Congressman Ted Weiss (fl-N.Y.) is investigating the government’s handling of the evidence on fluoride’s safety. And there the matter rests--until the next commission. Mega-con Does fluoridation reduce cavities in children? Almost everyone feels certain that it does, but only because trusted authorities have told them so, and those authorities in turn received their information from leaders who, as the original spin-doctor noted, must be influenced if you want to make the public believe something. Actually, over the years, many health professionals--especially abroad—have decided the beneficial effects of fluoride are mostly hokum; but open debate has been stifled if not strangled. Repeatedly dentists and doctors who were regarded as paragons of professional excellence--when they supported fluoride--have been vilified and professionally ostracized after they changed their minds. During the early I 980s, New Zealand’s most

    prominent fluoridation advocate was John Colquhoun, the country’s chief dental officer. Then he decided to gather some results. “I was an ardent fluoridationist, you see. I wanted to show people how good it was... “When as chair of the Fluoridation Promotion Committee, I gathered these statistics. ..I observed that. ..the percentage of children who were free of dental decay was higher in the unfluoridated part of most health districts in New Zeaiand.”(74) The national health department refused to allow Colquhoun to publish these findings, and he was encouraged w resign. Now Colquhoun writes that “new evidence...suggests that the harmful effects of water fluoridation are more real than is generally admitted while the claimed dental benefit is negligible. “(75) A more recent example is Canadian physician Richard G. Foulkes, who is currently being accused by his former colleague, Brent Friesen, chief medical officer of Calgary, AB., of “a classical case of manipulation of information and selective use. ..to promote the quackery of anti-fluoridationists.” In 1973, as a special consultant to the health minister of British Columbia, Foulkes had authored a repon recommending mandatory fluoridation for the province. But, after reviewing the evidence, he has concluded that “fluoridation of community water supplies can no longer be held to be safe or effective in the reduction of tooth decay... .Even in 1973, we should have known this was a dangerous chemical. “(76) He adds that “there is, also, a not-too-subtle relationship between the objective (the promotion of fluoridation] and the needs of major industries... “(77) “I was conned,” Foulkes thinks, “by a powerfiul lobby.”(78) NOTE: Joel Grifliths is a medical writer who lives in New York City. Map [unavailablej: Department of Health and Human Services, “Fluoridation Census 1980, Summary,” February 1990. Additional states’ rankings: AX 88.3 #11, CT 86.7 #13, DE 70.5 #22,DC IOOEO#1, HI 13.0#5O, MASO.7 #18, MD95.7#6, NH2I.1 #46, NJ 15.2 #49, PR62.6#30. RI 74.0#2l, VT 54,4#34. References NOTICE: This article was reprinted/adapted from Covert Action Quarterly, (Fall, 1992, Number 42), 1500 Massachusetts Avenue #73 2, Washington, DC 20005, phone: (202) 331-9763, Internet Email: caqigc.apc.org. Annual subscriptions in the U.S. are $22; Canada $27; Europe $33 (U.S. Funds). SUBSCRIPTION INFORMATION FORM COVERT ACTION QUARTERLY: Please enter my order for: One Year (4 issues) U.S. $22/Canada & Mexico $27/ Latin America & Europe $33f Other areas $35. Two Years (8 issues) U.S. $38/Canada & Mexico $48? Latin America & Europe $59/ Other areas $63. IS THERE A FLUORIDATION PLOT? In the book “1 lAve Again’, by former Princess llena. of Roumaois. she relates how the Red Dictator of her country at that time told her that one ai the possible methods the Corn.’ maniais could ase its take over the United States would be through the water supplia. which could be destroyed or polluted simply sod easIly. - “Phiosidatlon Called Red Poison Plot” New York News (Westchester editIon) September 5, 1954. “The Red charge has been voiced all over Westchester County as well as In Yonkers (N. Y.) by Ms)or George R. Jordan. for. ser Alt Force officer. Liaison staff with the Russians in Great Falls, Montana. during World War 2. 11e procured large quso’ Utica of sodium fluoride for them. ‘they told him, he said. ‘that they wanted lito keep the people in their prison camps stupld’7 J. Edgar Hoover, accordIng to an. Associated Press dtspateh Feb. 27. 1951. warned the public to guard our “security” and to report to the P.13. L any attempt ai “polaoning of public watts supplies.” , This poisontag of water supplia could easily happen if some nIght lethal amounts cf the poison Sodium Fluoride (which ta colorless, tasteless and odorlesaf were put loto the reaervuirs of public drinkiag watar, . No Fluoridation — Better Children’. Teeth Front e N.Y. State Sureau of Health report (Oct’54)s School children’s teeth of Newburgh, N.Y., have app. fi) more dentad detect.. citer a tea year test period than those of the nearby city of lungston, which has bad no t’luortdatloo. Dentin due to heart trouble in ?4ewburgh reported to be highest in u.s., 583% of total deaths. — ¡94 LIS. Fublic Health Report Fluorides Dameqe Water Systems Knoxville, Iowa. one et the iowa cities financed by Federal Public Health iunds to put I’luoridation in their water, hua foined scverel other cities in the cuna in withdrawing irons f4iuoredaúon. k’lpes in Knoxville plugged and corroded so much that in ait months the Water Department put It up to the people cud Fluort.. dation was put CUIS FluoridatIon Ousted. Defeated or Refused ‘ By Many Cities According to Mrs. A. R. Robinson. Secretary Washington Stat. Antl4’luortdation League, App. 5(30 cities have defeated or refused Fluoridation and this iotais Into about hIJO “cornegiunflies”, -plus another 26 citéss, or 32 “conununities.” that have discarded fluori dation aher using It because ot the corrosive damage to equipment or because of the significant “inflamed mouths, burning ihroats and stomachs, and stilt Joints” among those who find theinselvea eus. ceptible to this deadly chemical. In the recent Nov-Dec. elections Fluoridation was defeated soundly in 26 out of 29 dtiea—.nd .3 of these cities. Saginaw. t%iich., Wichita t’alla. Texas. and Greensboeo N. C., had been using Fluoridation but voted to throw it out be cause of the illnesses of the people concernedl 8 cides have stated that Fluoridation is lii egnil crc. The U. S. Public Health Senfee. mnrined by thousmida of Federal Employees,, spending miilions of taxpayers money on propaganda through state, county and city otticiois, are trying to force You to drink this POISONI Otisens. arise with the spirit of ‘76”, Fret OUR COUNTRY from all tyranny. - ICitow the truth and “THE TRUTH SHALL. MAKE YOU $1ZES’ Combat propaganda with the Truth find the Facts. Distribute Ais pamphlet and help to defeat the Fluoridation Menace. FACTS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT FLUORIDATION

    -‘ Voters Reject Fluoridation Measure Beaten in Most Cities NEW YORK. Nov. 18 (AP)— fluoridated water went down the drain last week for most Communities voting on this controversial dental heaith is sue. . Sponsors of such legislation say that fluoride added to the water supply helps safely tó prevent tooth decay, while op ponents say the procedure is unsafe, or doubtful in results, represents mass medication, or raise other objections. An Associated Press survey found 14 communities on Nov 8 rejected proposals to fluori date water. The survey did not find any towns voting In favor. WAS DEFEATED The largest city defeating fluoridation at the polls was Cincinnati, where the measure failed 107,782 to 83,685. it was the second rejectión in seven years. fluoridation also failed of approval across the river in Kenton County, Ky., 17.690 to 10,621. As of Aug. 2 this year, public health officials reported near ly 44 1/3 million persons were cttlnking fluoridated water In 3,835 communities, compared with about 1¼ million in loo Communities 10 years earlier. • Fluorides had been added to the water in 1.932 communi ties serving 3¼ million per sons, while the rest had natur ally-fluoridated water. WAS DROPPED In the 10 years, 100 commu nIties have dropped f luorida. ‘tion once It was begun, with 13 later resuming again. Fluoridation usually has been begun at directive of city health and o t h e r officials, without submission to popular vote. Other communities rejecting fluoridation last week: Sacramento, Calif.. 40,529 to 31.868. Marin County, CalIf., 29,133 to 21,879. , Saginaw, MIch., 15,632 to 11,842 with 12,000 not voting. (Saginaw had begun fluorida tion In 1951 by directive of the city council, but It was defeat ed at the pools in 1954 by 238 votes.) OTHER RESULTS .Joplin., Mo., 8,251 to 6,742. Mapleshade, N.J., 2,450 to 2,278. . Freeport, IlL, 6,588 to 5,203, the third time fluoridation was rejected. Faribault, Minn., 3,073 to 2,41$. Faribault bad previously fluoridated water by city coun cil vote. Wilimar, Minn., 2,921 to 2,038. Waukesha, WIs., 5,712 to 3,612. Antigo. W is., 2.076 to 1.473. Weyauwega, Wts., 339 to 338, a margin of one ballot Montello,,WIs., 293 to 258, Wheree,. can be N. $,nd.n, wlth.t,t Sover.tg,py, ond . M Y WARD NEWS No S*VerelflIy withetis FrHdDM• lock t. ib. Republic .1 ib. F.undln lathe,., or els.l Võlc, No 15’. $3peryr -SOUTH HATWARD HEWS - Thursday, April14, 1960 tit A Dieddn.t he. wool Ynnkee4oodlp Journal o! Patriotism for Vigilant Consdsutienajo,4.jgg, . FPNST F. VMCh FOUMDATIOM Fo, Scientific Ren.,ck end D•eeiepmeet QueIUI.d .. e nonpnkh ecipenlian onde, be kw. el Neveda end Cailtenit Presents its own Independent 4!GUMT IN OPPOSITION TO FLUORtDATIOJ4 OF THE PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES Don’t be fooled I Fluorine is not a minerall It is a gasp being the most active of the chemical elements; combines readily with most Ienients except oxygen; reacts strongly with some elements forming fluorides; especially hydrogen to form hydrofluoric.acid, used to etch glass; highly injurious to external and internal tissues; combines with sodium to form sodium fluoride - the cheapest, most deadly, colorless, odorless, no antidote, no remedy, no hope, no cavities, no teeth, rat poison used tofluorkdate public water supplies. First identified by Chemists for Aluminum Company of America as cause of mottled or blackened (dead or dying) teeth in cnildren living in Company built town of Eauacite, Arkansas, named after principal aluminum ore; outlawed by California Department of Agriculture for use even in fertilizers because of its highly poisonous effect on plant life and soil, and the people and livestock feeding thereon: while spoke smap for Alameda County Health Department recommends fluoridation “witnout reservation” (sky’s the limit), spokesman for American Medical Association adroitly contends, “There is also complete agreement (?) that this proceedure (flu oridation) is not in any way harmfulp!Ÿyided the limit of one part of fluoride to two million parts of water is observed”; l5WMeeting of Delegates of 15, 000EAmericãù Physicians and Surgeons condemned “the addition of any substance to public water supplies for the purpose of affecting the bodies, or bodily and mental functions of consumers”, thus revealing the real purpose of fluoridation as something quite dif ferent from the prevention of dental carien in children’s teeth; corrosive action on plumbing fixtures compells Manufacturers to discontinne guarantees In fluoridated communities: increased incidence of mongolism, insanity, heart, and other diseases in fluoridated communities increases mortality losses of Insurance companies operat ing therein. Vote NO on Proposition to approve Y luoridation on ¡une 1, 1960 Primary Election Bailot, and live. Respectfully submitted, Ernest É Lynch, president Note: SydneH Foster, Secretary Reference material fully documenting each and every statement in above argument on file in the archives of the Ernest E Lynch Foundation for Scientific Research and Development, Inc.

    I Pop w. OUTN IL4YWARD NEWS Twnda 1 T PROMINENT CALIFORNIA CONSTITUTIONA TIONALISTS LAUNCH MOVE MENT FO& INDEPENDENT POLITICAL ACTION ON WELL ESTABLISHED PRINCIPLE OÝ INTER PO5ITION TO R,ESTORE STATE SOVER.EIONTY ANDtÕE VER FREE CALIFORNIANS FROM THE WITHERING RLJXGHT OF FÜJQRIDATION AÑD INTERNATIONALIZATION PETITION We, the undersigned Electors of the State of California, residents of - County, opposed to the fluoridation of our public water supply in any form or degree whatsoever, and particularly in the manner proposed to be submitted to the elector e in the approacting June 1, l9bO Primary Election, do hereby register our protest tnereto, and join with others of like persuasion in the formation of a voluntary as soc lation, to be known collectively as the ______________County Chapter, First National. Non-partisan Progressive Alliance tor lndepeñdent Political Action in Opposition to Fluoridation to propose tne following Amendment to the Constitution of the State of California predicated upon a willingness to renounce and forever abjure all instru ments and practices by ‘wnicn men exploit and oppress one-another, as follows: INITIATIVE MEASURE TO BE ?RESENTED TO THE LEGISLATURE It is nereby requested, and confidently expected, tat the Attorney General of tne State of California will summarize tnis proposed measure as follows: UNIFORM DECLARATION OF CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS providing for Equality of Opportunity and Equality of Responsibility through equal acces s to the commercial, educational, and financial resources and facilities of the State, uncontaminated and undeffled by politico-economic, racio-religious, techno logical and sociological despoliation of every kind and nature, from within or with out, to the end tnat the sovereign political rights, and the bodily and mental welfare . of California Citizens may be forever preserved. THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA DO ENACT AS FOLLOWS: There is aereby added to Article Il of the Constitution of the State of California a new section, to be known as Section ‘a’, to read as follows: No Legislative. E4ec.tive. or Judicial Bgdv’ of this State shall make. xecogniztt or aonrovç, anvjaw. or4er. rulinu. or directivp_wnicn grants, or authorizes any Public Agency or Publcfjjcial to yant. to one citizen of the State of California1 onroun of citizens. rlgnts and privile get denied tp anotner or wMch imvirs tne sovereign pgljtftal rights. or physical. or mental wejlbeing of any. California Citize#s and even law. r»1 or directive in rnnfl4t with this nrtwiqinn is hereby reuošanc d.isavQ;ed and rendered null void and of no force or ¿fect whatsoe,yer, by We. the people sovereign srf Name of Subscriber te State of California, L P.O. Address , f City I County I”!a SOUTH HAYWARD NEWS SOUTH HAYWARD NEWS . Vol 1, No 13.$3 per yr DON#T BE FOOLED, There le a school of thought now developing consIderable fol lowing th.t ftuorliaLlon is Corn munist-Inepired. Former Corn. munlet. have etated that finen dation ii known ‘to Communists a. e method of Red warfare. Considering the recently.expoeed infiltratlo. of the many depart- mente of our Federal Govern ment by CommunistS, it is not unreceonable to suppose thattba th,rld.tIon program could be subverelve, since the U. S. Pub’. Ile Henith Service iiu mothered the fluoridation program In the United State.. Herbert A. Phil bribk, noted ex-epy-Investlgetor, who went underground for mev. eral year. with the organization to get lirit.hand knowledge .f their activities, say. In the New York Herald-Tribune ef March 19, 19$St “The Communists, who have been publicly urghig that sodium Iluoride be pieced In our public water supply, are cur. reMly Intensifying their moi paign (or this measure.” EAST DAY COMMTTflE AGAINST FLUOMDT:OI1. INC. P.O. Box 38. DER1LiT t. CALiF. AIrneI, r. euNro. ,,.. tnw.. âf a WflLCY AVC,. 0Kt.*ND. VAI.W On March 13, i95S, The Ually Worker, the leading Communist newspaper, under the he.dflne “Ficta Spur Campaign for FIn.. eridatlon Here”, concluded the article with this statement: “Politiclanc in the CI ty Council (New York) and feud of EstS. mete are timid men who are catering to misguided sentiment, outmoded tradition sad back wud fssr. of the uneeisntlße. A wde.prcadediscaticaalcamp*Ign among both the po41t1e1as and people on the valse of the Rvczd of Health’s program for ftoddatton is certainly hidi catad.” Mmjor George Racey ¡ordin, USAF Ret., who bec testified before conienltteei of Congres. ralath. te Communist activities hi the United Statu, has statd that vest quantities of sodium fluoride ware chIpped to Rusel, during World War 11 fer me on prisoners to “m*ke them docile and subservient.” COL WM.C. SCALY UI5•r?.. II C4CS’CN CD. OmNeA CaLIF. DC. WILC’4 r Ma000NALO. sICY. 157e OAK ST.. eIIKCLCY e CAIS.. . Wher*ai. there con be N. Preidem without $,vsrstnty, and N. $eoe.iieIy without Fresdom, iii loch te the lopuhlle .1 ib. Fmmdla or did -SOU 1H HAY WARD NEWS- Thurndãy, ‘Mãh3I1O poetisa. s. , ‘JLT flZezi*’ A Lfled.Ln4hewooI Yank,re.doodEejoewrwl nf l’atviottq,ee ¡nr Vigil ant CoraUntdc - . The Of Uve of the Hn.tÅOnnl O-i’i’I’.ntlon Committee FIRST NATIOFAL SiftIT QF I:RFFDOM CRUSADE 9U9 Mr”Arih,ir Boulvcerd Oke’nd . CrdLlo»nia SA L. t! T r s Col William C Draly. U.S.A. Ret’d. - OR POISONEDI , ....- Hero .,,,vlvor of .Tapanae.. T’,fron Ctrí.r.’r (o1levIng sur— rencIr of Cor rrrtdo, eh.. ‘(o..gIiI or I,..,I to achieve andlor n.aintnte the tndepnndvn.e of t’’ United State, of Amc,ri:a’ Pth.t Cc.vci’rm...nI. nf. bY trnl 1er tho peopi. ,ntnht hot p.,viI, from tii. (seo overt Page two SOUTH HAY WARfl NtWS Freedom is Truth Onnma,d. naw.td ntakfla, t. din,, .1 tWa jewna C....,t eh, Sua ci Cahiempa. pa ..d te, eta Ca.an’ ea AI,m4 ttw.d Ou, sud pneqe tldHPeflud u HPf*IPPt, (.d..dnI p P ‘pmt eai .. BUT THE END IS NOT YETI .. It is not to be expected that the minions of evil who went to such unheardof and elaborate paine to discredit and smear the loyal and vigilant Americans, who, in the name of God Almighty, and the Country they loved, put up such a heroic fight against the force. of darkness, are going to lie down and abandon their elaborate scheme to take over the physical and material resources of the Nation without a fight. Such is not the mettle that the forces of oppression and de spoliation are made of. The struggle for the survival of individual and collective sovereignty. unimpaired and imdeffled by the Devil’s element - sodium fluoride- I. only just beginning in America. 7h11 battle must go on at all hazards until every possible vietage of opportunity for another ruthless onslaught against the health, the education, and the welfare of all American citizens is forever putlawedl . ! This is an absolute MUST if the sovereign independence of the American Citizen is to for long endure. Sut before any such end can be as cured, the American people are going to have to know and fully understand the nature of the evil thing against which they are being called upan to make a stand. To acquaint them of thie evil, and the purpose it is designed to serve, we print herewith, with permission of the American Mercury, an article received too late for publication prior to the June 7 Primary and printed in the November, 1959 issus of that fearless Defender of American Traditions and Meals, as follows: , . RED SCHEME FOR MASS CONTROL Som. sew idees en the fluesidetfen censpiracy H in is A C’VnecanAsu state ment «n ties tITeas of Bun ride, na dic human brain. ¡t is from flC of tite nacioess foremost in dustrial chemists, Charles Eliot Perkins. tt4wi was sent by the Unit- cd Stares Griveniment to help take chaste nf the giatit 1. G. Farben chemical shuts ¡et Gcrmany at the cud of Wnrlti War 1h. Tise statement is çakcn fruto a letter which Pet- kin, wrnqe dic Lee Foundadee for Nutritina’d Research, Milwaukee J, Wiscrunsin, Octnhcr 2, l9Mt •‘l have your letter of Septem ber 29 asking for further docu mentacánn regarding a statement made iii my brunit The Truth 4bosss T Vat, Flatsridatioss to the cITes that the’idea nf water flidation was brought ta Eng land fmm Russia by’the Russian Communist. Kseminofl. “In the 1930’s Hitler and the Gamin Nazis envisioned a world to he dominated and eon- (rolled by the Nazi philosophy of panGermanism. . “The Germait chemists worked out s very ingenious aoci far rsching ithan nf maa* control whIch was submitted to and adopted by the Germais General Stall. liii, plan was «s cnntrol ‘the poptulasious in any givers area throufl oteas medicatinu, of drinking water supplies. Bi’ shit method they canil narro? the popuLation ol whole tree,, redner ‘ population by water medication thus worth? produce ncrdirv in the women, and so on. In chis scheme of mass control. indium fluoride occupied a ¡imminent place. “We are cold by the fanatical ideologists who arc advocating the fluoridation nf water supplies in this country that their purpose is to reduce tooth deca; in chil dren, and it is the plmucihihicv nf this excuse, plus the gtulhiltilitv of the public and the cupidity of public oficiala that is responsible .- for the present spread of artificial water fluoridation in this coun try. “However—and ¡ want to make this very definite and very posi tive—the real reaaon behind tva ter fmid ion is not to benefit children’s teeth. If this were the real reason there arc many Ways in which it could he done that are much easier, cheaper and far more elïective. The real purpose behind rooter flrrorídasion is to , , reduce the resistuete of the mars. es tO do’ni,nssion tuaI control asad loss of libeny .. . ‘ , “In the rear occiput nf the left lobe of the brain there is a small area of braies tissue that is re- ‘ slsoluibk for the individuals power to resist domination. Re peated doses of infinitesimal amotusts of fluorine will in time gradually reduce the individwits co resist domination by bid poisoning ,n’td nareesising this area of bnein tisse and make blm submissive to the will of those who wish to govern 1dm ...When the NaiL under Hic 1er, decided to go mie Poland . . the German Generel Salt and the itnssisn General Stall ex changed seienti& and military idea,, plans and personnel, and the schessee of mass- consta? rhrosgh seater nsediessioe was sdred upes by sise Rutiáis Cons’ nsnnisrs benssssc is fitted ideally into their Wan to communist the wodd . . was soldat this entire scheme by a German chemise who was an oficial of the great Fsrben chemical industries ami was also proPuLneOt in the Nazi move- suent at the time ,..! say this with all the earnestness end sincerity of a scientist who has spent nearly 20 yeats’ research into the chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and pathology of flue-’ tine—any perses n’h. thinks r tifddy flss&aased water fer s period of one year r more will - never qá be the see penosa.’ mentally or physically..’ (“Western Minute Mess, U.SA.” J 5O’SFH HAYWARD NEWS idaS., Nanead 5*.. So.nu I j s..,, Th,sday ps,dn .anae s. Saab t4n—,.s Oapu* iv. Nad han asS n.a tis5ssd fl! d Yinôe Csds MSe.5’—»— a POas. l55,)bnd, 5.ösp ii. ti. Nasseai Idas. THE AMERICAN MERCURY 250 Weal 5751e St, Nsw Yo,k 19. N.Y. ‘ . Plais ad s nsbscripsion of Tb. Americes Menny t. ffis easresa. MesCtttv otder sisas aso w. sret sIr..’ ‘ ti.s. vs.s ut. av. ‘ . na -... . ‘ ea, s s..., ‘fllYer$IAIO Clt’a.’VSO QSVnn$lt50 O ReS.a.n Esefrssd O Ditta. tata “INI MOST VIGOROUS AND 5flSCTIVE MAQAZINS IN Otis counmr 5s.dsad suad 5 .,.Js payesaS lei espiad 5h. last. tes.sr *Waã Mysewdsn lisiada.. .t,., a 5ø le itfl s to ...- 0.4.55w . -—,-. - IWsa.dwsdubdøsnmbiasb.s. --- ., taa. . ‘ .14/e

    1 To Whom It May Concern: *fltJT)( HAT WARD NEWS mala t i Oliver Kenneth Goff, was a member of the Communist Party ‘and the Young Communist League, from May 2, 1936, to October 9, 1939. During this period of time, ¡ operated under the alias of John Keats and the number 18-B-2. My testimony before the Government is incorporated in Volume 9 of the Un-American Activities Report for the year 1939. While a member of the Communist Party,. I attended Communist underground training SChOOlS outside the City of New York; in the Bues Hail, and 113 East Wells Street, Milwaukee; WiÌconsl n. The East Wells Street School operated under the name of the Eugene Debs School. Here, under the tutoring of Eugene Dennis, M. Sparks, Monts Childs, Jack Kiing and others, we were schooled in the art of revolutionary overthrow of the established Government. We were trained on how to dismantle and assemble mimeograph machine s, to use for propa ganda purposes during the revolution; how to work on guide wires and fuel lines of airplanes so that. they would either burst into flames or crash to the ground because of lack of control; how to work on ties and rails to wreck trains; and also the art of poisoning water supplies. , We discussed quite thoroughly the fluoridation of water supplies and how we were using it in Russia ‘as a tranquilizer tri the prison camps. The leaders of our school felt that if it could be induced , into the American water supply, it would bring-about a spirit of lethargy in the nation; where it would keep the general public docile during a steady encroachment of Communism. We also discussed the fact that keeping a store of deadly fluoride near the water reservoir would be advantageous during the time of the revolution, as it would give us opportunity to dump this poison into the water supply and either kill off the populace or threaten then with liquidation, so that they would surrender to obtain fresh water. . We discussed in these schools, the complete art of revolution: the seizure of the main utilities, such as light, power1 gas, and water; but it was felt by the leadership, that If a program of fluoridating of the water could be carried out in the nation, it would go a long way toward thi advancement of the revolution. . The above statements are tue. COUNTY OF »APAIÌÖE ¿DtC ‘OliiørKõñnsth Qoff . fi OlIVER KENNETH GOFF, being first duty &crn upon hie oath, deposes end says that b. before me this pi, ,..ijdsy of_________ expires )Q0: ¡9 SOUTH HAYWARD NEWS )åa ffi N.a — nI .,- n..,,,,. a ,a d ha Mai—id Oar In N.e.t *flW ‘-o TfrsI tatetí SPIn .1 Fvnd.e Cvusid. • .,—,,ad qnn*.vcd” we.,, at Os Sawn, C.a’ a iM Su,, at Cdfle. a . twa ,t AlanO. . Qa an paepa. anaS., Manid. Qn AM,ed,,nwaaP 0, &,SatÑn’uS. $yda N. Pear. M.aaag Usar CONSTTV?IouATIO$ALLSIS WANT TO 8(0W,! fly esse yer Said Uns tata lasewat ata SNAM 5Afl1.*hnn.a ‘ . iauraaum1flflZU atente. nntucMu a 1*ørvsuaaatata —t. cat latentes . _nfl n ca i-ad .11 abet *55* tie bterebeiif “r. 51at l.a. O. t**flfl. aS OS T*SWN ta hA. Vn .C ‘L,,5, MWWUL ,..Iaa STATE OP COLO )ss w q true. has the shove sad foregoing instrument and knows the contents thereof, and tat the ass are true of his oJçpwledge except as to ébat matters stated on informatiuc and belief and as to thon he ,DL L 4. a, 1957, NO’7 ruptie 3 t EMZST E. 1.75CM. Pn.ldm*e CUiSKI. autto. Vk..Prnid.mt SYDNEY K. 0STZR. S.cn$u 1205 Sam tabla Av.... ISO Ilath Cant., Shad SISO HaeArihe. liad. Oakland 12. C.lU.s&a p..., Hand. 0.2nd 1. C.N.al. 054-2707 FA2.SSfl 511452$ 3 PNST E. LYNCh FOUNDATION . , Fn Scintille Research and O.nlepm.nt ; QaaIIKsd n. e a.n-p,.Nh caipesed.. .ada, th kw. .1 Wand. and C.WasI. April b, 19b0 . T; To the County Clerks of Alameda, Contra Costa, and Other California Communities considering Fluoridation of Their Public Water Supplies on June ‘ti, l9bO Primary Election. GreetIngs: , . ‘ We desire to submit herewith for inclusion in the June 1, 1960 Primary Election ¡ Ballot, the following ARGUMENT IN OPPOSITION TO FLUORIDATION OF THE PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES on’t be fooled t Fluorine is not a minerait It is a gas, being tne most active of the ¿f4iemical elements; combines readily wita most rlementsexcept oxygen; reacts strongly ,itli some elements forming fluorides; especially hydrogen to form hydrofluoric,acid, used to etch glass; highly injurious to external and internal tissues; combines ‘with sodium to form sodium fluoride - the cheapest, most deadly, colorless, odorless, no antidote, no remedy, no hope, no cavities, no teeth, rat poison used touluoridate public water supplies. First identified by Chemists for Aluminum Company cf America as cause of mottled or blackened (dead or dying) teeth in children living in Company built town of Bauxite, Arkansas, named after principal aluminum ore; outlawed by California Department of Ašriculture for use even in fertilizers because of its highly poisonous effect on plant life and soil, and the people and livestock feeding therepn; while spokesman for Alameda County Health Department recommends fluoridaticin “without re wervation” (sky’s the limit), spoke sman for American Medical Association adroitly contends, “There is also complete agreement (?) that this proceedure (flu oridation) is not in any way harmful pvided the limit of one part of fluoride to two million parts of water is observed”; Ig!S Meeting of Deleatãs of 15,000 American Phijskians ‘añd Surgeons céndemned “the addition of any substance to public water supplies for the purpose of affecting the bodies, or bodily and mental functions of consumers”, thus revealing the real purpose of fluoridation as something quite dif ferent from the prevention of dental caries in children’s teeth; corrosive action on plumbing fixtures compells Manufacturers’to discontinue guarantees in fluoridated communities; increased Incidence of mongolism, insanity, heart, and other diseases b In fluoridated communities increases ‘mortality tosses of Insurance companies operat ing therein. Vote NO on Proposition to approve Fluoridation on Sune1, 1960 PrImary Election Ballot, and live. , Respectfully submitted,, . Kinest ELynch, Preiident , ðA44s )Vz4zt , Note: Sidney H Fis ter, Secretary Reference material fully documenting each and every statement in abon argument on file in the arcnives of the Ernest E Lynch Foundation for Scientific Research and Development, Inc. H Whereas. hr. con b. SOUTH w. n.d,n wøhn. $.nnl,iøy, end HA AR NEWS K. bnfll5nIy wI’hnt f nades, y tu ii last 1 h. kpubfle .1 Ib, andins I W F.ih.n r .Ini Võit, No ¿4. $3 per ft -SOUTH HAYWARD NEWS- Thursday, June lb1 1960 ,..Is•a..a tn 4 Dfrd4a4Jn.wooI Vap,kea4eodla Jnurnd 4 Pairk’Usm for flj1wts Cn,tftuSanelien4Uu EAT 9F FLUORIDATION HNLED AS TRE$ENDUQÏJ VICTORY FOR WE TUEr PEOPLE S9VflEIGj OVER THE FORCES OF PARKNESS AND DESPOLIATION By the Grace of that Spirit of the Living God - our Father who art in Ne aven - who dwelleth within the Holy Temples of His children, which Temples ye are, and speaketh through the consciences of such of them as have the Faith of a mustard seed to believe on these things, and the almost super human efforts put forth by an army of God fearing Americans, led by a survivor of the fall of Corrigidor, where be fought or labored to achieve and/or maintain the Independence of the United States of America, that Govern ments of, by and for the people might not perish from this earth, and who has never been able to erase from his memory, conscious or otherwise, the unspeakable privations and inhuman treatment he there suffered at the hands of an enemy whose allies were even then making use of fluoride to condition the minds and bodies of their sub)ects to totalitarian control, coupled with the little help that Ye Editor and the Ernest E Lynch Foundation was able to give him in seeing to it that copies of the last twelve is sues of South Hayward New. went to the Pastor of every Church Organization, to the City Editor of every Newspaper, and to the Chief of every Police Department in the San Francisco Bay Area, fluoridation of the Marin County and East Bay public water supplies was at least temporarily defeated at the June, 1960 Primary by an overwhelmning margin of nearly two to one, It was indeed a victory for We, the people sovereign of phenominal scope and magnitude- a victory that augurs no good for the forces of darkness. For be it remembered that arrayed against us, commencing with the World Health Organisation - that unhõly fellow trave lot of the Communist dominated United Nations, were those who boas Led of the endorsement and support of such organizations as the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, with its retinue of State, County and local health organizations: Labor’s A F L-C I O, and its political mouthpiece, the Democratic Clubs of California, the P.T.A., and such other worth while organizations as the American Dental Association; American Hospital As soc iation; American Medical Association; American Nurses Association; American Society of Brewing Chemists; Commission on Chronic illness: National Research Council; American Academy of Pediatrics: American Society of Clinical Pathology; American Society of Dent istry for Children; College of American PathoLogists; Industrial Medicine Association; State and Territorial Dental Health Officers; American Association for the Advancement of Science; American Cancer Society; the Heads of Departments of Preventive Medicine in 9Z North American Universities; American School Health Association: Conference of State Sanitary Engineers: National Congress of Parents and Teachers; World Health Organ ization, Geneva; American Institute of Baking; American Institute of Canning; Association of Casualty and Surety Companies; American Legion; U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce; Federal Civil Defense Administration, etd., etc., ad ilbitum, ad nauseum, all apparently seeking the favors of, or cringingly bowing to the edicts of the International Plunderbund, at the expense of the health, the education, and the welfare,of We, the people sovereign. with nothing left for us to say, or do, so they thought, but to go Lo the polls and there Ap prove their hypocritical veil of altruism and solicitation in behalf of the welfare of child ren’s teeth, knd thereafter to pay through the nose in taxes the price of our own and our children’s degradation. . Yea, verily, if a fact was ever demonstrated beyond cavil, it was there so demonstrated that this dec don, called for the purpose of determining who and how control ovar the spirit ual and and material welfare and resources of the Nation would be exercised over the next four most critical years in human history, that “If any man defile the Temple of God, him will God destroy; for the Temple of God is Holy, which Temple ye are”, for it was here demonstrated in this Battle of God Almighty for the preservation of the minds and bodies of nm, and the material resources of God’s Commonwealth - the Constitutional Govern ment of the United States of America wherein We, the people sovereign live and have our being, that God is still in his Heavens, and will not be mocked I 2 TWENTY-FIVE REASONS WHY 1. Makes Men Easy tu “Control.” COMMUNI WATER SUPPLIES SHOULD NOT BE FLUORIDATED 1. A Randy Weapon for Saboteur,. frlüorine in water supplies is tasteless and odorless. The damage would be done before it was detected. The fluoride compounds are usu ally added to the water at the beginning of the distribution system. This would make it easy for the enemy to contaminate the entire supply. 2. More Dangenus than Atomle Bombs, The excess of fluorides added to water sup plies could wipe out entire communities with greater effectiveness than the atomic bomb. It would leave our buildings intact, to be occupied by the enemy when he takes over. For that reason, the Communists would prefer this method., , S. One Man fields Your Life in fils Hands, It makes the health and the lives of the peo ple of the community dependent upon one man or a few men, depending upon the size of the city. If that man became drunken or went ber seth, he could poison the entire community, Or, t saboteur could kill that man or render him temporarily unconscious while the enemy con taminated the water supplies. 4. MechanIcal Failure Might Destroy the CommunIty, The promoters of the scheme swear that there can be no mechanical failure in the ma chines that feed the fluorides to the water sup plies. However, common sense teaches us that man never made a machine that cant fall at some time or other. The mechanical monster could fail and over-dope the water, thus under mining the health or killing all the people In the community, Are you going to stake your lite on the supposition that a machine will never tail? L it MIght Harden All the Bones. If fluorides “harden the teeth.” what Is there to prevent them from hardening all the bonn In the body making them easy to break and too weak to support the body? ‘ The educational director for the National Psychiatric Reform Institute, Miami, Florida, suggests that such practices as “fluorinatioa wili make the human organism even more sus ceptible than it already is, for the induction of hypnosis” This prr.ves that the enemy considers this au easy method of overthrnwing our government 9. Army, Air and Naval Bases Are Targets. Isn’t it significant that some nl the first efforts to install fluoridation equipment have beer made in cities having army, air, or naval bases’ New York City, the strongest Commu&st center In the U.S.. bas flot yet proposed fluoridation However, the enemy co’iid easily store up water supplies for himself, to last until his desdlly work has been accomplished. lO. Some Cities Are Getting Rh! of it. Three cities in Wisconsin that had fluorida tion, have kicked it out: Stevens Point, Ply mouth. and Shawano. It was voted out by a three to one majority in Stevens Point IL Damages Brain and Nene Cells, Some chemists repon “damage to brain and nerve cells.” from fluorine. 12. fluorine Used to Etch Glass. Inorganic fluorine, the kind used in doping water supplies, is used to “etch liard substances, such as glass.” Such a powerful substance could do untold damage to the human body. xS. Danger el An Overdose. The Jan. 1951 issue of the “Journal of Am. Dental AsWn.” admits there is s real danger of such poison piling up in the body. It recom mends that “less fluorine” should be added to the water supplies in the summer time when persons drink more water. Since some persons drink 5 or 10 times more water than others, there is still danger of an overdose, :The work ingrnan who perspires pro fusely working under a hnt sun might drink snore water in a day than an office worker drinks in a week. What is to become of him? the cumulative toxic effeets of this continued dring of small amounts nf fluorine is dangerous. 14 Less Poisonous Agents Wanted, . The American Chemical Society at Cleveland, Ohio reported, according to the Associated Press, Apr. 10, 1951. that they discussed, “Safer Fluorine Method Told—Less Poisonous Than Present Agents.” Quite an admission, The mechaniani for fluoridation of water sup plies In any community would provide the per fect weapon for saboteurs, With large amounts ‘ ‘ of the fluorides in storage the enemy could “ ‘ ‘‘ dump these Into the water supplies and destroy all the people In the community. —‚.——. ê. It flresks Down the “Wills” of the People. The Weimar Regime in Germany, following World War 1, reportedly used fluorine in the water supplies to “weaken the health and wills of the people.” It Is reponed that in Russia, fluorine was added to the milk glve to babies In order to weaken their wills *nd make them , No ßenef In Sit Years. more amenable to dictatorship when they grew up. This method was used following the Revo- Grand Rapids, Micfr, had Its water supnlles lutlon in 1927. ‘ fluoridated in 1945. Recently the Mich. State Board of Health rePorted—’7fpefjg as we are we have noted nothing &gnlflcant In reduction of tooth decay among children.” An observer reported a lot of cripples in Grand Rapids but didn’t know the reason for It or the nature of it q is the American publie going to be “doped” Into submIssion to dictatorship here? ‘ One observer writes: “The enemy has been poisoning hearts and- minds with propsganda or years. Now they’ are poisoning the bodies and brains, apparently as a last step to deštroy ¡g, ‘q Not Eat Properlyt ‘ opposition and cinch Satanic dictatorship. How Satanic to work on little children who are help- Even the dentists admit there are no benefits leal” from fluorine that cannoi be derived by “cor-

    jj c’. —et—— ‘-.-— —‘—--—- .--—-- - . - ,‘ .., ! . . _.•4q•, 1. . ti. 3 z , * t I t recting the diet” Why “dupc’ :a entire cum munity because there are a few people too Ignorant oy too stubborn to edt rightly? 17. No Benefits to Adults. Even the promoters of the scheme admit there are no benefits to those ‘over ten years old. Why “dope” the peuple during all their lifetime? Why not lei the local dentist adminis ter small quantities ot fluorine to the children If they need it? Then they’ll know exactly how much they’re getting. They’ll never know ln’the doped water supplies. . 10. fio4lum Fluoride Is a “Rat Polson.’ Sodium fluoride is the deadly açent in rat p5qpj and insect, powders. 1f It lulls rodents aM insects, what effect will It bave on humans? 19, Wlneteen Persons Died of fluorine Pelsonlng. . ‘ A’ Philadelphia chemical engineer investi gated the Aeaths of- 19 persons in 3d hours, in Donare, PL wherein “fluorine was found in the blood of ail three examined.” who were hoe- ‘ pitallsed during that epidemic. “Evidence of thai poisonous áas wês found In vegetation, corrosion of metal, destruction of flint, and the presence of mottled enamel in children’s teeth. The gas is given off In the making of zinc and other metals.” If It can be alsorbed from the air, how much more when It Is In the drinking waterl 20. FluorIne Causes Breast Cancer. San Angelo, Texas delayed installing of fluoridation equipment when a staff member of the University BIochemical Institute discovered ‘that fluorine seemed “to feed malignant growths of the mammary glands of the female.” He aa been experimenting with mice but believes the fluorides could also promote cancer In hu mans. The report was kept “secret” for fear of a psøe, but the truth Is out now. The report ‘ wae made in the Tlmes-Standát’d, San Angelo, Texas, May 7, 1951: , . ‘ h, Dentists Do Not “I4pe” Their Own ChlldralL . One e.iit’r ‘comments: “Why let poijticians and crackpots piay doctor with auth deadly poisons? 23. Fluorine Destroys Life. , The ti. of New Mexico. in 1938 published a Bulletin entitled. ‘Tho Menace of Fluorine to Health.’ it says— “fluorine poisoning comes under the head of a public health problem because of the wide spread Occurrence of fluorine in many publie water supplies. “Cases ve on xecord which show that inges tion of smell amounts of fluorides Is fatal to l”oth man and oUiei animals. ‘ “Tappeiner describes the effects of fluorides on dogs. cats, rabbits, and guinea pip when given by oral ingestion. . . . The symptoms are as follows: A condition of drowsiness and weak ness; ‘cramps which may attack a single organ or the entire body, and are epileptic In charac ter; paralysis of Che .váo-motor centers: accel eration and deepening of the breathing with paralysis following; vomiting; secretion from the salivaryand tear glands: and finally death,” The Bulletin also states that “certain dental dssociatlorls have estimated that it would cost $1.000 for the dental care of the avenge person with mottled enamel, up to adulthood, at which time the natural teeth must usually be replaced by false.” (The mottling of the teeth Is caused by fluorides. This would make a nice, prufitable business for the dentists,) , “The teeth of chillren and adulte who have NOT been drinking the water containing fluor ine until their second set of teeth have erupted, show no mottling or visible effects of fluorine poisonIng. . . . Once the teeth are mottled dur ing childhood the mottling is permanent” HOW FLUOR LifE AFFEaS TEETH In varioui ars’ fluorine No NIOTTLIÑG4t ‘22, Ii Is “An Aol of’Dlctatorship,” ¡f man medicatiop of áater supplies can bTe famed upon the-American people againit their wills, then the way Is open. for Socialized Medi cine (Soviet stxleJ In’ which thé òlanners’ and plotte’ean “dope” the Thod and’ water .at will In order to nak*,the,p,eople amenable te dic tatorship. . Says Dr, Paul Manning of Sprlngflhld, Mass,, concernIng fluoridation: ‘Anyone4 who lends himself to that baseleSs and vicioas project is u guilty of wrong to his fellow men through out the World as was the mob that il1ed. the blood of poor Anastasia’s baby onj bet rain- drenched shawl In Rolland’s.’Deatlz o$a World,’ ‘De’not think the Goldeii’ Rule Is alleense to enter your neighbor’s body by any orMe, what ever. Ment’ offer your pretended or real rIches by aompulslon or tbre’,t. , . . Tqke -fluorina ftorn a bottle if you will and If your doctor Is also willing, and then only if a registered drug. gist will put It up for you,. , , And may. all insu, professional or non-professional, let their neighbors alone, exeept and until they are In vitad by those neighbors to act for them.” w w 4 Photogrch by ItV. and ‘idargsret C, Smith ‘tyicel ‘cas”Js of, mdttled enamel, showing deetruo’ rive effebt of, fluorine upon human teeth.” (Photo with comment Is reproduced from U. of New Meitlco Bulletin on “The Menace of fluorine te Heel& ‘ Courtesy of AIŒRICANISM BUlLETIN, .FARIBAUL1’ UINN. \ MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO Deliberate Contamination of Human Consumables with Toxic Halogen Compounds Fluoride Compounds Since the original material on Fluoride was published in the first volume of Matrix III, a lot more research has been done - probably as a response to the increase in £ propaganda by the American Dental Association and the Aluminum Trust (of which j Federal Reserve Chairman Greenspan is a member) gauged to offset the increasing public awareness about the lethal medical dangers of fluoride. As mentioned in the first volume, fluoride is in your toothpaste and in the water not because it is beneficial, but because Z’ someone decided that you should be medicated. In the first volume of Matrix ¡Ii, we saw that the same people in the United States who backed Germany’s rise to power (and saw Š their use of fluoride to behaviorally modify certain groups of people) are using fluoride in . the United States and other countries for the same purpose - to offset the questioning of authority and to create long-term medical problemsforfinancial gain of the medical and 4: pharmaceutical indusay. Many chemicals are added to the water supply “to counteract pollutants” (and some of these cause more harm to human physiology than good), but fluoride is an exception - it is put there intentionally to behaviorally modify the population. Let’s examine the nature of fluoride in a little more detail. More on the Nature of Fluorides One of several compounds is used to add fluoride ions to the public water supply. Sodium fluoride, the most frequently used, is one of the most lethal forms of what are called halogen saks. In some cities, the fluoride is added in the form of sodium : :ti. siicofluoride. Mother form of fluoride, calcium fluoride, is also used. Whatever the .: compound used, the purpose is add free fluorine íons “to act on the enamel of the teeth of children below the age of 12, ¡n an attempt to harden it against the invasion of decay.” As ? mentioned in volume one, this philosophy is based on erroneous information, and we will go into the background of this erroneous information in a little more detail in a little while. Sodium fluoride is a compound that has many industrial uses. Merck’s Index, the standard reference book of the pharmaceutical profession, lists the industrial uses of fluoride compounds as “an insecticide, particularly for roaches and ants.” Under the heading *Human Toxicity”, the Index says “Severe symptoms result from ingestion of 0.25 to 0.45 grams, and death results from ingestion of 4 grams. Sub-lethal symptoms are nausea and vomiting, abdominal distress, diarrhea, stupor and weakness, Lethal symptoms consist of muscular weakness, tremors, convulsions, collapse, dyspnea, respiratory and cardiac fhilure and death. Chronic symptoms are mottling’ of tooth enamel and osteosclerosis.” ‘Ming characterízes chronic fluoride poisoning of the teeth 282 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO Dental Fluorosis An article in the Journal of the American Dental Association2 revealed that Grajtj Rapids, Michigan, whose water supplies were fluoridated in 1945, showed 23% tooth mottling among children as the result of fluoridation. Allen London, Ð.D. S. stated “dental fluorosis now has the largest incidence of any waterborne disease in the United States. Since mottling is permanent disfigurement, and there is an unending accretion of r cases in all fluoridated water areas, it is only with time that we can witness the full tale of this affliction.”3 fluorides as a Toxic Protoplasmic Poison Fluoride has been described by Dr. Charles A. Brusch, former director of the Massachusetts Medical Center in Cambridge, as a “hjghly toxic protoplasmic poison that is 15 times stronger than arsenic.” The U.S. Dispensary, 24th edition (used by pharmacists) states further that “fluorides are violent poisons to all living tissue because of their precipitation of calcium. They cause a fall in blood pressure, respiratory failure and general paralysis. Continuous ingestion. olponfatal doses (as in the water supply asid fluoride in toothpaste) causes permanent inhibition of rrawth.” Calcium metabolism is also affected by fluorine. Since bone picks up 30 percent less cakium in the presence of fluorine, it produces an increasing level of osteoporosis. We will examine more about fluoride and the bones later. Fluoride is an insidious poison, toxic and cumulative in its effects, even when ingested in minimal amounts, and that fact remains unchanged no matter how many times it is repeated in print that the fluoridation of the water supply is safe. Why has the American Dental Association and the U.S. Public Health Service suppressed this information? I think you know the answer to that question by reading the previous volume of Matrix III, but let’s take a closer look at the history of the idea of fluoridation of the water supply. The Beginning of the fluoridation Movement For many years, the dental condition known as “mottled teeth” has been recognized in both human beings and in domestic animals in many parts of the American Southwest. In 1930, it was discovered that natural fluorine in the water was the cause. From 1930 to 1940, public health researchers and industrial engineers sought to devise methods for the removal offluorine or mitigation of its toxic effects from domestic water supplies. Odd that the U.S. “Public Health” Service would later campaign for its addition to the water supply, isn’t it? The explanation for that, as mentioned in volume one, was that a gentleman named Oscar Ewing ( a lawyer for Alcoa Aluminum, who was seeking ways to get rid of toxic fluorine by-products from. the manufacture of aluminum) was appointed director of the US Public Heath Service. A way was found to dump the toxic fluorides into the water supply by taking advantage of misinformation resulting from an 2 Journal of the American Dental Association, Vol, 68, 1962. ‘Journal of the Medical-Dental Committee on the Evaluation of fluorides, 1963. 283 4 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO that took place in Deaf Smith county Texas that was reviewed in the American in,gwal of Public Health in April 1925. Shortly before World War I, Hereford, Texas was heralded as the ‘town without a oothache” because of the excellent condition of the teeth of the children. An assumption t made that the natural fluorine in the water was responsible for this, despite the fact the teeth of many of the children were mottled in appearance. The possible effects of superior mineral content of the foods in the area and the fact that the region produced lot of citrus fruit high in vitamin C was ignored there were even studies done by MIT that proved that animals fed the food from the area developed only half as much tooth as those fed food from New England. The MIT study also found that riboflavin, a ,n-toxic B vitamin, was effective in preventing dental decay. The precipitous conclusion regarding the relation of fluorine to dental health quickly led to agitation (headed by Oscar Ewing and the Aluminum Trust) for mass application of artificial sodium fluoride to domestic water supplies in an effort to duplicate the supposedly “favorable effect” of the fluorine found in natural waters. The result was that millions of people are compelled to ¡nafre of toxic fluorine. While the strong affinity of fluorine for calcium results in deposition in dental tissues and increased hardness (brittleness), it is conducive to periodontal disease, Including gingivitis and pyorrhea. This is precisely why the American Dental Association promotes the use of fluoride - it helps to increase the profit margin of dentists. Remember that fluoride is a protoplasmic poison? There was a study by Dr. HIC Box, a periodontist of international reputation at the University of Toronto, who checked the status of a number of people who had been using naturally fluoridated water for several decades and found appalling periodontal (gum) disease, with marked morphological changes, such as enlargement of the roots and narrowing or closure of root canals and pulp chambers, ‘ indicating premature aging of the tooth structure, making extraction very difficult. Many of these cases had severe gum disease and premature need of dentures. Natural vs. Artificially fluoridated Water 3. The proponents of water fluoridation claim that water to which industrial fluorides t are added at one part per million (lppm) has the same effect as water in which fluorine is naturally present. They also maintain that a fluorine ion is a fluorine ion no matter where it comes from. All that is simply not the case at all. Leading water toxicologists and biochemists do not question the identity of the fluoride ion, but maintain that in naturally fluoridated water (calcium fluoride) there are other minerals which unite with it and affect its absorption and toxicity. The naturally occurring calcium-fluoridated water has been proven to be 85 times less toxic that sodium-fluoridated water. For obvious reasons, the effect on dental decay of other minerals in water has been denied by the proponents of Using industrial fluorine compounds in drinking water, One questionable premise upon » which the case for fluoridation has been built - that artificially fluoridated waters are •>r biologically identical to artificially fluoridated water - has been seriously questioned by 284 MATRIX Hi- VOLUME TWO many informed and responsible experts. In a 1957 AMA repon is was stated “It is t% early to know what the effects of artificial fluoridation will be. What is reported as reduction in dental decay may in fact be a delay in recognition of decay, and reasons give for believing that artificially fluoridated water will have the same effects as water with natural fluoride are not valid” The claim that fluoridation is one of “nature experimen is not valid, because the salts put into the water supply, sodium fluoride or süicofluorjd are industrial products never found in natural water or in organisms. They are notorious, toxic to the degree that they are used to poison rats and insects ... and humans. The Claim of Fluorine as a “Nutrient” One of the other tenets that the proponents of the use of industrial fluorine in the public water supply use is the assertion that ‘good teeth require fluorine supplements in the diet”. This rather bizarre thought pattern is in fact denied by a number of scientig who have conducted research on this very subject. An article by Drs.Mauer and Day in the August 1957 Journal of Nutrition, reported that animals in their laboratory in a highly purified fluorine-free diet showed no signs of a fluorine deficiency, much less any tooth decay. Decay-free teeth have been observed in areas where there is no fluorine in the water. On the other hand, the 1957 records for New Britain, Connecticut (where the use of industrial fluorides had been in use for 6 years) showed that some of the children’s teeth had been damaged beyond repair where the water is fluoridated, even when the percentage of industrial fluorine is kept at or below I ppm, mottling is produced in 10-15% of the children examined. Mottled teeth are teeth showing symptoms of fluorosis, and the enamel of mottled teeth is brittle and subject to mechanical injury which is difficult or impossible to repair. fluorine is classified as a trace mineral by nutritionists. Very small traces are deemed desirable, for some reason, in the diet. There is no such thing, however, as a “fluorine deficiency symptom.” Even in communities where the water is completely free of calcium fluoride (natural fluoride), residents get enojijuorine in their diet. An analysis of some common foods indicates the following average calcium fluoride content (keeping in mind that some areas medicate the drinking water with I ppm fluoride already): Food Parts Per Million Beef 2.0 ppm Beets 17.7 ppm Butter 1.50 ppm Cheese 1.62 ppm Corn 2.10 ppm Mackerel 26.0 ppm Peanuts 1.36 ppm Wheat 7.2 ppm Yams 8.2 ppm 205 I

    MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO in an article in the Belgian Denial Journal for March-April 1960, Dr. L.N. ._: said ‘Ninety percent of the enamel in human teeth consists of calcium phosphate with a trace of calcium fluoride, 4.5 percent of calcium carbonate and 1.5 percent of - sium phosphate. It is obvious that the double salt of calcium phosphate and calcium iu&ide is the most important part of the tooth structure. The calcium and phosphorus are well supplied to children by intake of milk products and the magnesium atoms the intake of vegatable and fruits. Owing to the present-day refining and processing of , it cannot be expected that there will be an adequate atomic packing of tooth 5, resulting in structures which are easily broken down by contact with refined r’ which are the main cause of dental decay. The author has no faith in adding norganic fluorides to the drinking water as a decay-preventing measure, but relies on a ‘y of fluorine from the complex organic molecules obtained from vegatables and fish.” ,, In fact, the most important cause of dental decay is a deficient diet, not a ¿eficiency in fluorine. Serious consideration should be given to the results of experiments conducted by Dr. A. Aslander in Stockholm in 1958 (Tooth Formation in the Light of . P1cm: Nutrition) that indicates that food supplementation with bone meal has a most profound decay protective effect in children. Bone meal is a wholesome food there is - evidence that fluorine is not an absolutely essential nutrient, One of the more interesting theories regarding the reason that some people are free of cavities is that the saliva itself : may coritaìn an antibacterial substance the research comes as a result of the work of Dr. Gordon E. Green of the Henry Ford Hospital that was presented at the ADA meeting in November 1962. According to Dr. Green, one percent of the US population is cavity free because of the nature of their saliva. “But a Small Amount of fluoride Can’t Hurt You ...‚ Claims made by the food industry that additives cannot harm humans or have any cumulative effects is also parroted by proponents of using toxic fluoride compounds in the . public water supply and toothpaste. For the food industry, according to the FDA, :. calculations of the amount of additive chemicals which may be added to food are based on the amount which is toxic “to the average person”. After the toxic amount is determined, it : is divided by 100 to determine the amount “which will be safe for almost everybody”. It is : unfortunate that this procedure, which uses aberrant logic, is not applied to the additioñ of toxic fluoride to substances human consume directly. Like some food additives, the fluorides from artificially fluoridated drinking water : build up in the body. Dr. Jonathan Forman, formerly a professor at Ohio State University and former editor of the Ohio Slate Medical Journal, explained this to the Medical-Dental Committee on Evaluation of Fluoridation. In the transcript of the meeting, Dr. Forman is quoted as saying “ft is now known that such vital organs as the kidneys, thyroid, the aorta, The issue is not just one of “concentration” - it is the substance itself. Viewed from another Scientifically valid perspective, fluorine has a certain “frequency” as a substance which is incompatible with biological organisms. 286 r MATRIX III- VOLUME TWO liver and lungs, as well as other: organs, can be the sites of unusually high fluoride build. up. No matter how small the amount of fluoride in the diet, a part of it tends to accumulate in the body. When the water supply is fluoridated, the intake of the individual is considerably increased and the accumulation in the body increases accordingly. Thee is no clear-cut pattern as to the degree of retention among individuals. Further, j accumulates in certain organs in an unpredictable way. Some individuals may store up to 100 times more fluoride in certain tissues than others. This has given rise, to .concenrn fluoride’s possible role in chronic disease. fluoride is an enzyme poison and gjj authorities recognize that disturbances of the enzyme system are a cause of disç.ç.” ir addition, it might be mentioned that fluoride in some drugs - calcium preparations, steroids, tranquilizers, vitamins and in certain baby foods exceeds by itself what is called “the safe daily dose”. In fact, fluorides are used in biological laboratories to block the action of enzymes, and can be used in this manner because it can interfere with so many different enzymes. fluorides switch off enzymes by attacking its weakest links - the delicately balanced hydrogen bonds surrounding the active site? fluorine Pollution in the Environment In urban areas, we regularly inhale almost 20% of the so-called “safe dose” on a daily basis. Dr. F.B. Exner of Seattle once published a heavily documented report, Economic Motives Behind Fluoridation, in which he lists ìnnumerable industrial uses of fluorides which result in fluoride air pollution. Superphosphate fertilizer is one of them, with chronic fluorine poisoning in the region of manufacturing plants commonplace. Insect spray may contain up to 7ppm of fluorine, and these are used on fruits and vegatables destined for human consumption. Although “fluoridationists” claim there is only 0.3 milligrams per day of fluorine in the average total diet, Dr. Exner quotes a Department of Agriculture (another criminally negligent agency) toxicologist, Dr. Floyd DeEds, as claiming that the daily intake of fluorine from baking powder alone might amount to more than 2.5 milligrams. Although aluminum is the chief culprit, the manufacture of practically all metal seems to produce fluorine wastes which are dumped into rivers as the easiest way to get rid of them. Wherever there is a factory creating pollution, people, animals and vegetation suffer for it. Crops coming from such regions assay as containing many times the I to 1.5 ppm that government authorities have stated as the “acceptable tolerance for fluorine”. According to Dr. Exners repon, there is a possibility that a large portion of the American population is already ingesting far too much fluorine in its daily diet, without any addition to its water supply. Thank you Alan Greenspan, for ruining our lives in as many ways as possible. Chemical and Engineering News, Vol 66, Aug 1, 1988, p.40. 267 a L fluorides and Cancer An article in an independent newspaper called The Tribune6 stated, “the biochemical basis of fluoride’s possible link to cancer has been demonstrated in a wide variety of experiments indicating that fluoride inhibits enzyme activity essential to protein fbnnation and the synthesis of DNA, the basic building block of genes. Fluorides are highly toxic, quite aside from the tendency to cause or promote cancer. A few grams will kill you.” In Great Britain, Dr. R.A.Holman of the Royal Instilute of Pathology discussed iluoride poisoning in an article in the April 15, 1961 issue of the British Medical Journal. Be noted that the long-term effects of sodium fluoride ingestion needed much more vestigation, and continued, “Fluoride is a welt -known inhibitor of several emyme systems, and can form spectroscopically recognizable compounds with the enzyme catalase, resulting in its inhibition. Catalase poisoning has been linked with the development of viruses and the causation of a number of diseases. including cancer. Many observers have suggested that the agents (fluorides and other toxic environmental pibstances) which decrease the catatase the cells may predispose those cells to tumor formation. Voisin has said, “the method most likely to solve the problem of cancer is to ask why the cancer cell is tacking in catalase and try to prevent its impoverishment from taking place. Did the American Cancer Society ever ask that? No. They are too busy stemming billions of dollars from under the nose of a dying public who doesn’t know anything. Now you do. A class action suit against the ACS for criminal negligence would be interesting to watch. Dr. Holmans article was questioned a short time after publication in a letter published in the same journal by Dr. A.). Dalzell-Ward, of the British Central Council for Health Education Dr. Dalzell-Ward’s objections were based on the fact that workers inhaling large amounts of fluorides in cryolite dust exhibited bone and gastric symptoms, but no “microscopically recognizable organic lesions apart from the bone changes”. Also, he noted that in the aluminum industry there were no figures (no studies were done) to link fluorides with cancer, even though the workers were proven to erçrete more than 9 milligrams offluorine daily. It is a comment typical of what you hear by those who have a loi to toose ¡f the truth comes out - that “there are no figures...” or “there are no studies”. Do you seriously think that they would undertake such studies? Of course not. What Dr. Daizell-Ward did not mention was the paradoxical effect noted by Schatz and Martin, in which calcium and fluorides sometimes interact to bring about opposite enzyme stimuli. According to their conclusions, “more work should be done on this matter before fluorides ire dismissed as a cause for cancer.” Current scientific research seems to indicate that fluorides contribute to the deteriorization of the body, and that this serves to promote disease. MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO ‘February 16, 1990.; Fluorides and Truth Decay. 288 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO cording to Dean Burt Chief Chemist Emeritus at the United States National ! Institute, “In point offact, fluoride causes more human cancer death, and causes , than any other chemical. “ Scientijfîc evidence indicates that fluoride causes , damage (one of many mutagenic substances). Mutagenic substances also tend to cancer- causing (carcinogenic). - Research on Fluoride-Induced Human Cancer M early as 1984, researchers in Japan were achieving some degree of erstanding about fluorides consumption and human cancer. Dr. Takeki Tsutsui of the ital College showed in 1984 that ‘fluoride caused not only genetic damage but also capable of transforming normal human cells into cancer cells.” In Dr. Tsutsui ‘s the level of fluoride used was the same level that the United States National j Institute suggested should be used in a study to determine whether fluoridation of water supplies causes cancer. The level offluoride deemed “safe” by the United in ¡ ppm. The researchers in Japan found that cells treated with fluoride produced —s The work in Japan was confirmed four years later in 1988 by researchers at the _anne National Laboratory, who also discovered that fluoride promotes and enhances ...s carcinogenicity of other cancer-causing chemicals in the food and environment. Iñterestingly, this work confirmed studies sponsored by the United States National Cancer Institute conducted back in 1963 by Herskowitz and Norton at Saint Louis University9. More than 30 years ago, these scientists showed that low levels offluoride increased the Incidence of melanotic tumors in living organisms from 12 to 100% - often these tumors were induced by fluoride over a period of days’° . These studies were further amplified by work done by the Taylor’s at the University of Texas which found that ¡ ppm fluoride in drinking water increased tumor growth rate in mice by 25%” . Fluoride, like mercury and lead, suppressed the immune system. According to John ¥iamouyiannis, Ph.D., studies in the United States and Canada have shown the cancer death rates from 4 to 40 percent higher in areas where the water is fluoridated than in areas where it is not’2 . Buik., Dean, testimony before Congress. Congressional Record, Dec 16, 1975. Takeki Tsutsui, et al, “Sodium Fluoride4nduccd Morphological and Neoplastic Transformation, Chromosonial Abcnaúons, Sister Chromaüd Exchanges, and Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in Cultured Syrian Hamster Embryo Cells”, Cancer Research, Vol 44, pp. 938-941, (1984). Herslcowiiz, I., et al, “Increased incidence of melanotic tumors following treatment with sodium fluoride”, Genetics, Vol 48, p307, (1963). IoTh Taylor, A., et al, “Effect of Fluoride on Tumor Growth”, Proceedings of the Society on Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol 65, p.252, (1965). 2Yiamouyiannis et al, “Fluoridation of Public Water Systems and Cancer Death Rate in Humans”, 67th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biological Chemists. June 1976. 290 MATRIX JIl - VOLUME TWO The Yiamouyiannis Study Based on all of this research, Dr.John Yiamouyiannis began a series of stut% relative to public water fluoridation and cancer. The study compared the cancer death rau of the ten largest fluoridated cities (Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Clevd Washington, Milwaukee, St.Louis, San Francisco, Pittsburgh and Buffalo) with the cancm rate of the ten largest non-fluoridated cities (Los Angeles, Boston, New Orleans, Seatth Cincinnati, Atlanta, Kansas City, Columbus, Newark and Portland) that had cornparal,h cancer death rates from 1940 to 1950, a period of time during which neither group of’ cities bad fluoridated water supplies. During the period from 1940 to 1950, the cancer’ rates of both groups rose identically. From 1952 to 1956, the cities on the “fluoridation list” began to fluoridate their water supplies. As the process of water fluoridation continued, the cancer death rate of the fluoridated cities began to far exceed the rate of the unfluoridated cities’3. By 1969, the fluoridated cities had an average cancer death rate of 225 per 100,000 people, while non-fluoridated cities had an average cancer death rate of 195 per 100,000. The dala indicates a fluoride-linked increase of cancer of 10% ¡n only ¡3-17 years. These figures were checked and confirmed in 1979 by the United States National Cancer Institute. The increase in cancer death observed in fluoridated cities occurred primarily in people ages 45 and over; this fact is explainable because both the immune system and the normal DNA repair process (the two major defense systems against cancer) decline with age.. . In i977, Congressional Hearings were held in which Dr. Yiamouyiannis and Dr.. Burk were able to show that the increase in deaths were due to water fluoridation’4 . At the conclusion of the hearings, Representative Fountain and his committee instructed the United States Public Health Service (well known by now for questionable and dangerous medical advisory practices which benefit the medical and pharmaceutical industries) to conduct animal studies to “determine whether or not fluoride causes cancer”. As a result, the USPHS retained Battelle Memorial Institute (also well known for NWO technical activities and is considered by many to be part of the cancer cover-up) to perform a study on mice and rats - unfortunately rodent physiology d4ffers considerably from humans, making the transfer of data between species relatively meaningless. Results of the Baftelle Study on Cancer and fluorides: Liver and Oral Cancer Despite the study by Battelle, which the USPHS thought would vindicate fluoride, interesting data about mice, rats and fluoride materialized. On February 23, 1989, Battelle released the results of the mouse study. The most curious result of the study, from the USPHS point of view, was that fluoride induced the occurrence of an extremely rare “Ibid. ‘ Bark, D., et at, 44fluoridatíon and Cancer: Age Dependence of Cancer Mortality Rttated to Artificial Fluoridation”, Fluoride, Vol 10, No.3, p102, (1977). 291 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO The Yiamouyiannås Study Based on all of this research, Dr John ¥iamouyiannis began a series of sttg relative to public water fluoridation and cancer. The study compared the cancer death of the ten largest fluoridated cities (Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, Milwaukee, St.Louis, San Francisco, Pittsburgh and Buffalo) with the canoes, rate of the ten largest non-fluoridated cities (Los Angeles, Boston, New Orleans, Seattle, Cincinnati, Atlanta, Kansas City, Columbus, Newark and Portland) that had compar cancer death rates from 1940 to 1950, a period of time during which neither group of cities had fluoridated water supplies. During the period from 1940 to 1950, the cancu rates of both groups rose identically. From 1952 to 1956, the cities on the “fluoridatioi list” began to fluoridate their water supplies. As the process of water fluoridatu,,, continued, the cancer death raie of the fluoridated cities began to far exceed the rate of the unfluoridated cities13. By 1969, the fluoridated cities had an average cancer death rate of 225 per 100,000 people, while non-fluoridated cities had an average cancer death rate of 195 per 100,000. The data indicates a fluoride-linked increase of cancer of ¡0% En only ¡3-17 years. These figures were checked and confirmed in 1979 by the United States National Cancer Institute. The increase in cancer death observed in fluoridated cities occurred primarily in people ages 45 and over; this fact is explainable because both the immune system and the normal DNA repair process (the two major defense systems against cancer) decline with age.. In ¡977, Congressional Hearings were held in which Dr. Iiamouyiannis and Dr.. Burk were able to show that the increase in deaths were due to water fluoridation’4 . At the conclusion of the hearings, Representative Fountain and his committee instructed the United States Public Health Service (well known by now for questionable and dangerous medical advisory practices which benefit the medical and pharmaceutical industries) to conduct anImal studies to “determine whether or not fluoride causes cancer”. As a result, the USPHS retained Battelle Memorial Institute (also well known for NWO technical activities and is considered by many to be part of the cancer cover-up) to perform a study on mice and rats - unfortunately rodent physiology thffers considerably from humans, making the transfer of data between species relatively meaningless. Results of the B attelle Study on Cancer and Fluorides: Liver and Oral Cancer Despite the study by Battelle, which the USPHS thought would vindicate fluoride, interesting data about mice, rats and fluoride materialized. On February 23, 1989, Battelle released the results of the mouse study. The most curious result of the study, from the USPHS point of view, was that fluoride induced the occurrence of an extremely rare ‘ Ibid. ‘ Burt D., et al, “Fluoridation and Cancer: Age Dependence of Cancer Mortality Related to Artificial fluoridation”, Fluoride, Vol lO, No.3, plo2, (1911). 291 MATRIX III- VOLUME TWO tt,w of liver cancer, called hepatocholanglo carcinoma, in fluoride-treated male and ‘ mice’5. Two months later in April of 1989, Battelle released the results of its study of - and rats. The study showed a dose-dependent relationship between the incidence of oral cancerous tumors and fluorides. It is interesting to note that mice and ats yielded different results with fluoride - different types of cancer. As a response to the t3 study, the National Cancer Institute from examined the incidence of oral cancer in fluoridated and non-fluoridated countries over the period from 1973 to 1987. The rational Cancer Institute study found that as exposure to fluoridation increases, so does “j incidence of oral cancer; sometimes as much as a 50% increase in oral cancer rates ccur in fluoridated areas - this translates to 8,000 new cases of oral and pharyngeal cancer per year, needless pain and suffering and a financial windfall to the medical and *jrmaceuticalfactions that concern themselves with treatment. 1f fluorides contribute to oral cancer, then why is it in toothpaste? In 1989 ,Dr.Yiamouyiannis used the Freedom of Information Act to obtain carcinogenicity studies conducted by Proctor and Gamble (one of the makers of fluoridated toothpaste) that were ;sthzniued to (and covered up by) the United States Public Health Service. Subsequent . studies showed dose dependent cell abnormalities caused by fluoride’6 . These results W’iœe reported in the February 22, 1990 issue of the Medical Tribune. Additional studies by Proctor and Gamble scientists confirmed the link between oral precancerous growth 4 and fluoride, as well as an increase in osteomas (bone tumors) and osteosarcomas (bone 7cancer). In fact, the National Cancer Institute found in ¡991 that the incidence of bone was 50% higher in men ages 0-19 years of age exposed to fluoridated water compared to those who were not. The continued use of fluorides in toothpaste is clearly •í:wmewhere between criminal negligence and genocide --- but the profits are immense and •:g: profits make strange bedfellows. It is estimated that over 10,000 people die each year due to fluoridation of public drinking water and from 30,000 to 50,000 deaths from various causes attributable to fluoridation ( which includes the 10,000 to 20,000 deaths attributable to fluoride-induced cancer each yearý7 . Because fluoride disrupts the DNA repair enzyme activity, causes ‘ genetic damage, causes cancer and damages the immune system, it can be seen that iii :: truth fluoridation is being promoted to deliberately accelerate the aging process in the pppulation and contribute to the welfare of the medical and pharmaceutical industries. t— Toit, .J.,”Sodium fluoride: Individual Animal Tumor Pathology”, Batelle Memorial Institute, 1989. W’usPus, “Dose determination and carcinogenicity studies or sodium fluoride in mice and rats”, Review iWO(Fluoride. Benefits and Risks, 199!. 4) Grandjean, et aI,”Mortalitv and Cancer Morbidity after Occupational Fluoride Exposure” American Joumal of Epidemiology, Vol. 121, 1985. dies rate md, ce :tle, ibie of ter ion ion ‘of ate ate in tes ies ‘he ‘us 292

    MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO United States Public Health Service Coverup of the Battelle, National Cancer Institute and Proctor & Gamble Studies In 1980, the United States Public Health Service contracted with the £ Research Institute to perform studies on fluoride and cancer. The study took an eight years. In 1988, the Battelle studies showed that fluorides cause a rare form of ft cancer, oral cancers and bone cancer. The U.S. Public Health Service covered up of the residts of the study and announced that ‘fluoride might cause bone cancer,» L. assigned former FDA Commissioner Frank Young to “reevaluate “fluoride. They thea declared to the public that ‘fluoride does not cause cancer.” The USPUS ironically had data from the National Cancer Institute, as well as toothpaste maker Proctor and Gambk, that indicated fluoride causes bone cancer, but also chose to cover up these studies. It is a case of pure criminal negligence. The Proctor and Gamble study showed that as little as 0.5 ppm fluoride in water causes genetic damage” , tumors and precancerous rowths”. Fluorides and Thyroid Problems A number of years ago, it was discovered that iodine deficiency contributed to a condition known as goiter. Because of the condition of the soil in the Midwestern United States, Europe and Switzerland, iodine was added to salt (check out Morton Iodized &zls in the grocery store) in an attempt to “overcome this shortage”. In portions of the United States where fluorine is being added to the water, it may represent an additional threat to the stability of the thyroid gland. Dr. D.T. Gordonoff, professor of pharmacology in Bern, Switzerland, did some marvelous research which indicates that fluorides decrease the function of the thyroid gland by 30 to 40 percent. The Effect of fluoride Consumption on Bone Growth The fact that fluorides can cause brittleness and malformation of bones in children is not disputed, even by the apologists for fluoridation, but the pro-flu oridationists deny that fluoride has this effect at the standard prescribed dosage. Unfortunately for the proponents of fluoridation, bodily storage of fluorides taken in drinking water or food takes place principally in teeth and bones. Amounts stored in other parts of the body vary per unit of time depending on the individuaL In a report on fluoridation to the Department of Biochemistry at the Nobel institute of Physiology and Medicine in Stockholm, Nobel prize winner Hugo Theorell stated: “even if the risks from the viewpoints of enzyme chemistry with water fluoridation up to ippm are not be exaggerated, the distance to toxic doses is so short that hesitation should be just y’iecL”° “M.J. Aardema et al, “Sodium fluoride-induced chromosome aberrations in different stages of the cell cycle: a proposed mechanism.” Mutation Research, Vol 223, p. 19 1-203, (1989). ‘93.Toft “Sodium fluoride: individual animal turnar pathology table for mice” Bottelle Memorial Institute, 1989 ; Proctor and Gamble, “Carcinogenicity studies with sodium fluoride” National Institute of Environmental Sciences, July 27, 1985 ; 3K. Marner et al, “Two year carinogenicity study of sodium fluoride in rats”, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol 82, p.1118, 1990. 20 RodaJe, J., Our Poisoned Earth and Sky, p.457, 1964, 293 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO osteoscierosis is one of the conditions that may be found in people who have ed for a number of years on water containing fluorides. Osterosclerosis is a disease the spinal column in which the tissues between the vertebrae harden. It may also affect joints and extremities. it is no surprise that in an era of premeditated medical genocide ‘etlmic cleansing”, that the water in South Africa contains up to ¡3ppm of sodium and that it is affecting growing children c4fferently from the way it affects The children are affected with pain in the legs, disturbances in bone growth and ny mottled teeth21. Their bones become chalky, white and porous. For those in consult the March 1956 issue of the Journal of the American Dental Association FtC. Hodge remarks, “skeletal deposition of fluoride is a continuing process in a considerable portion of the ingested fluoride, perhaps 25 to 5Ø%, is deposited in ikeleton.” When the long-continued ingestion of fluoride results in mottling of the teeth, it is niy logical to assume the existence of remote systemic effects, Such findings have been reported by Danish researchers among workers in cryolite mining who were inhaling fluorine in dust. Not only did these subjects exhibit dental defects (thickened roots and narrowed pulp chambers), but supercalcification was manifested in ostephyte (bony wth) formations on bones, osteoscierosis, calcification of tendons and fixation of the thoracic wall. These saine effects have been noted also in parts of Africa and India there the natives have long been using naturally fluoridated water. Associated inainutrition seems to accentuate the effects. 4!! Another study was done in England in 1948 where bone defects in three groups of school boys were studied. Two groups were from districts where the water supply was ractically free of fluorine. The third group was from the town of Launton, where the natural water supply contains ¡ppm of fluorine (the same as the level deemed “safe’ by the U.S. Public Health Service). X-ray examination revealed that 20 percent of the first two : groups had mild non-specific spinal irregularities. In the third group, the one consuming ¡ppm fluoride in their water, 64% were found to have spinal defects, and lesions were more severe. A study was done by Brandi and Tappeiner where very small amounts of sodium fluoride were fed to young growing puppies for 21 months. Their bones were then examined microscopically. Deposited in the bones were crystals of calcium fluoride. The soluble fluorine salts combine with the calcium of the bones, causing increased brittleness. The bones of the fluorine-fed animals were chalky, white and fragile, as were the teeth. The Consumption of fluorides and Pregnancy Studies of the effect of consumption of minute doses of fluoride salts and its effect on fetal development have not been done on humans, as yet, but only on animals. The ibid., p.458. 294 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO results of these studies confirm that the consumption of fluorides has a profound efteq cellular growth, chromosomal stability and a host of other factors. One such study was done in Japanthat involved examination of fluo deposition in the fetuses of dogs. ¡t was found that the quantity of deposited fluorine especially large in bones, largest in the cranial bone as well as the lower leg bone. quantity of fluorine deposition was parallel with the progression of the calcification. ‘m.5 also proved that the deposit offluorine on teeth and bones starts through the placenta early as the embiyo perio4 and then takes place through the mothers milk through di infancy perio4 and through foo4 as well as directly through the inside of the oral cai As fluorine is a known active enzyme poison, it is known to affect cell division (mitotic) ia the fetus, resulting in anatomical anomalies (teratism). Fluorides were used as an enzyme inhibitor in a study by J.D. Ebert that was published in 1959 on the metabolic pathways by which organs in an embryo are formed. in low concentrations, he found that sodium fluoride blocked almost completely the regj dstined to form muscle, primarily affecting the heart muscle, In higher concentrations1 it caused the entire embryo to disintegrate in a clear-cut pattern, starting with the heart. forming regiot? . Could there be a connection between these facts and the rise in still births in cities with fluoridation? In research conducted on the incidence of Mongolism in cities in Wisconsin, Illinois and the Dakotas publìshed in 1959 in the official publication of the French Academy of Medicine, it was found that as the percentage offluorides in the water rose, there was a parallel rise in the incidence of Mongoloid births the age of the mothers giving birth to Mongoloid babies also declined with rising fluoride levels. It is interesting that. in the first three years of fluoridation, New Britain, Connecticut experienced a 150% rise in still births, while in nearby Waterbury (unfluoridated), the stillbirth rate remained the same during the saine time period. Acceleration of Strontium 90 Absorption Due to Physiological Presence of Fluoride Salts As early as 1959, the knowledge existed that the presence of fluoride in human bodies hastens the absorption of radioactìve substances present in the environment, in a report to the Atomic Energy Commission’s Division of Biology and Medicine entitled “The Metabolism of Alkaline Earth Metals by Bone” by F.W. Lengemann, professor of chemistry at the University of Tennessee on March 23, 1959, it was scientifically shown that the presence of fluorine and other environmental substances such as lead and cyanide in the human body increased the ratio of strontium 90 to calcium in bone. Keep in mind that the U.S. Government, during this time period and for years afterward, conducted numerous above ground nuclear tests. ¡n addition, radioactive substances are routinely released into the atmosphere by nuclear power plants and other government facilities. What is the relevance of this? The presence offluoride in the water and food affects the 22 G.Minoguchì and Y. Iwamoto, Kyoto Medical School, 1960. Dept of Stomatology. ‘ Rodale,p.459. 295 4 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO of bones in children, and additionally causes accumulation of radioactive materia! from the environment which impacts the bone marrow, contributing to the rise childhood leukemia, which is already spurred on by ambient electromagnetic fields. A year earlier in 1958, another scientist arrived at an independent conclusion very ‘šmilar to Lengemann, but this time relative to the growth of cancers within the body. In October 1958, Dr. J.F. Montague, a medical doctor, published material reflecting his .. ‘ concern over fluoridation in the Journal of the International College of Surgeons the presence of fluorine in the human body to cancer. Also in 1958, an piece of work was done by Dr. James Kerwin, a dentist in which it was shown the simultaneous presence of fluorine and strontium 90 ¡n the human body may in a reater accumulation of both substances in which compounds like strontium are formed. Because of the low solubility of these substances, the body has a very . liard time getting rid of them. His repon was published in Dental Digest in February 1958. ,.. . Additional Data on the Effect of fluorides 4:’. on the Adult Human Body (‘ Two years after Kerwins’ report in 1960, the American Dental Association issued «a pamphlet for public consumption called Fluoridation Facts: Answers to Criticisms of Fluoridation, In defense of the use of toxic fluoride compounds in public water supplies (which is a grievous crime against humanity, since it means mandated involuntary public medication), they used the logic that “people have been known to live to a ripe old age” in t: areas where the water supply is fluoridated. Unfortunately, they neglected to mention that the addition of fluoride to the water supply correlated directly with the number of still births, mongoloid children. brittle teeth and enlarged dental root structures. adverse spinal conditions. osteomalacia (softening of the bones) and osteoporosis (abnormally porous and spaced structure inside bone) in the medicated population as opposed to control populations that were unmedicated (see Matrix III, VI). In other words, it contributes toward getting “to a ripe old age” rather quickly, well ahead of your time. Fluoride- Induced Collagen Breakdown, Arthritis, Defonned Teeth and Bones Fluoride at levels as low as I partepermilIion (ppm) in the drinking order give rise to an increase in the urine concentration of certain biological chemicals that signal the breakdown of collagen, as well as the irregular formation of collagen in the body. Collagen is important, making up more than 30% of the protein of the body. It is the most abdundant of all the proteins in the body, and serves as the major structural component of skin, ligaments, tendons, muscles, cartilage, bones and teeth. Fluoride disruption of the nature of collagen in the body results in premature wrinkling of the skin, weakening of ligaments, irreversible arthritis (as the collagen in cartilage is affected) and stiffliess of the joints. 296 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO Dissent on Fluoridation from within the American Dental Association Within any faction or group, as has been profusely illustrated in the Matrix -- there is always dissent from factions who do not agree with policy not ultimately in public interest. One such example that applies to the subject under discussion is that John R. Lilliendahl, D.D.S., who wrote a pamphlet in the 1960’s entitled My Reayo,,s Opposing Fluoridation. In this pamphlet, which discusses the issue of safety and fluoridation, Lilliendahi says: “Failing to demonstrate safety for fluoridation are the mortality statistic comparisons in the 32 paired cities (paired meaning fluoridated vs. unfluoridated) discussed in Public Health Reports in May 1954. In the case of the 32 cities, 5 more deaths per 100,000 observed in fluoridated areas was deemed ‘insignificant’, k the Illinois survey, 98 more deaths per 100,000 seemed ‘insignificant’ to evaluators. These ‘evaluations’ were discussed in a repon entitled Mortality in Fluoride and Non- Fluoride Areas subsequently published in Health and Statistical Bulletin 21 in 1952. Criticism eventually surfaced relative to this study in technical article in the Journal of the Maine Water Utilities Assn. in March 1956 by B.C. Nesin, which stated that “the erratic nature of these surveys is such that a death rate of 600 per 100,000 is deemed insignificant. We have noted that studies of naturally fluoridated areas prove nothing relative to artificially fluoridated places. Since mortality statistics rarely, if ever, list chronic fluorine intoxication as a disease entity, and since physicians generally know little of the symptomology of fluoride poisoning, the value of mortality statistics in proving anything about it seems slight.” In other words, there is an assertion by Dr. Lilliendahl here that not only are there no figures to prove conclusively that fluoridation is unsafe, but also there, are no figures which prove it is safe. Since the proponents of fluoridation are the ones asking for its use, the burden of proof should be on them, just as the burden of proof of the safety of a food — additive is on the processor who proposes it. In Canada, there were observations of this nature as early as 1959. In that sanie year, the Ontario Minister of Health. Dr. Dymoñd, announced that no further fluoridation would be permitted there, because “no one bows for sure what the effect is to penons given fluoride throughout a lifetime.” In the Edmonton Journal of the same year, Dymond was quoted as saying, “when I prescribe treatment for my patients, I prescribe a stated amount. It is not possible to prescribe a stated amount by introducing it into the water supply.” This is the case because of the technical difficulties involved in the water fluoridation process. 297 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO Technical Aspects to Water fluoridation Why a “standard dose” is 1m possible to achieve Many authorities have pointed out the difficulties involved in “ensuring equal doses fluorides” to all members of a community simply by adding the toxic chemical to water ::es. Some people drink more water than others. Some obtain more fluorine from j cooked in fluoridated water. Even if the population could be “persuaded” to take a y dose of a stated amount of water, the dosages would vary in different parts of the opulation. Problems also arise with fluoridation equipment. A good example of this arose ithe town of Red Deer, Alberta, Canada. in Red Deer, lppm was the intended dosage of ..i. Because of faulty mechanical operation of the fluoridation equipment, the fluoride levels in the first three months of 1961 fluctuated between .32 and 2.30 ppm. In United States, there was a problem in Morristown, New Jersey in the 1950’s when bñdation was first attempted. Fluoridation attempts were discontinued when it was ¡F: found that despite efforts to obtain a fluoridation level of I .2ppm, actual values taken at ; :. points in the city ranged from 0.0 to .41 ppm (fortunately for the population). Concord, . New Hampshire discontinued fluoridation after it was found that the sludge in the water flnaintaìns a concentration of fluorides ranging from 1,693 ppm to 4,491 ppm. In DeKaib $. COunty, Georgia, where the intended level was .7 ppm, actual concentrations were found . •r’O fluctuate between .7 and 1.0 ppm. t In 18 locations in West Virginia, fluoride concentrations were found to fluctuate . f: between .2 and 1.6 ppm. Milwaukee’s fluorine concentration, when examined, was found • over a period of 4 years to vary from .25 to 1.5 ppm. The New York State Department of Health study on this problem found that this problem happens in every location where !: fluoride is added to public water supplies. In the report of the proceedings of the 3rd ! Medical-Dental Conference on the Evaluation of Fluoridation, held on March 7, 1959 in New York City, the committee concluded that “It is apparent that the practice of fluoridation is not the simple is not the simple, trustworthy procedure that the promoting authorities have given the profession and the public to believe. Added to the lack of ‘ ] control of fluorides at the consumers tap are these major uncertainties: the gross variation —‘ ! in individual water consumption, the varied intake of fluorides in food and the fluoride ‘ 1 intake from atmospheric and occupational exposure. These unpredictable issues make z meaningless any talk about “controlled individual fluorine intake.” Most if not all of this f ‘ research has been buried by the authorities, who maintain glibly that “fluoride compounds , ¶: are safe in the water supply”. it is an absolute lie, a distortion of the truth and constitutes . criminal negligence. , 298

    MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO Use of Sodium Fluoride for Population Behavior Control It is a matter of record that sodium fluoride has been used for behavior control of populations. In an ‘Address in Reply to the Governor’s Speech to Parliament”24 , Mr. flarley Rivers Dickinson, Liberal Party Member of the Victorian Parliament for South Darwon, Australia made a statement on the historical use of fluorides for behavior control. . Mr. Dickinson reveals that, “At the end of the Second World War, the United States Government sent Charles Elliot Perkins, a research worker in chemistry, . biochemistry, physiology and pathology, to take charge of the vast Farben chemical plants ¡n Germany. While there, he was told by German chemists of a scheme which had been worked out by them during the war and adopted by the German General Staff This scheme was to control the population in any given area through mass medication of drinking water. In this scheme, sodium fluoride occupied a prominent place. Revealed doses of infinitesimal amounts of fluoride will in time reduce an individual c power to resist domination by slowly poisoninz ami narcotising a certain area of the brain, and will thus make him submissive to the will of those who wish to govern him. Both the Germans and the Russians added fluoride to the drinkinz water of Prisoners of war to make them stupid and docile.” The book Fluoride - The Freedom Flight also makes reference to the work of Perkins. The author, Dr. Hans Moolenburgh of Hanrlem, Holland, relates: “The story I read gave one the cold shivers. It told of a chemical engineer, Mr. Perkins, who related how immediately after the Second World War, he was the one the Americans put into the well-known I.G. Farben Company in Germany. There, he discovered that 1G. Farben had developed plans during the war to fluoridate the occupied countries, because it had been found that fluoridation caused slight damage to a specijic part of the brain. This damage had a very particular effect. It made it more difficult for the person affected to defend his freedom. He became more docile towards authority. Scientists in the camps of both proponents and opponents of fluoride have always dismissed this story as mere poppycock, but it had a life of its own and reared its head again and again. It fed the suspicions of many people that ‘there was more to fluoridation than meets the eye.’ As far as I know, there is no one who has done any serious research into whether the fluoridated person is really more docile, easier to rule, more impressed with authority than the non-fluoridated one. There is, however, one peculiar thing. Every Dutch doctor has a medical reference book for ¡984. One chapter is entitled ‘Tranquillisers. Looking at the heading Major Tranquillisers’, there are 27 compounds listed Seven of them are a fluoride compound One of those is called Semap, and it is one of the strongest anti-psychotic compounds we know. This means that 25% of the major tranquillisers are connected with fluoride.” 24 Victorian Hansard, August 12, 1987; Nexus, Aug/Sep 1995. 300 r MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO It is interesting that Dr. George Estabrooks, an advisor to the United Statm Government on hypnotism and psychological behavior control, later became chairmt Of the Department of Psychology at Colgate University. Internationally, Colgate was a remains today the most ardent producer and advocate for fluoridated toothpaste. The use of chemicals by the government to modify behavior of select populati groups is not new. During the first two World Wars, bromides were administered to service men to dim the libido in an attempt to inhibit forrays into local bordellos, Today, j Australia, the military fluoridates the drinking water of the soldiers, ostensibly to prot the teeth. However, since the mythical ability of fluorides ‘to prevent tooth decay” only exists for those under the age of 12, it is certain that the real purpose is less altruistic. In volume one of Matrix III, we discussed the role of Alcoa Aluminum in the production of fluoride, the role of Alcoa lawyer Oscar Ewing, who eventually gained control of what was to become the United States Public Health Service, his promotion of fluoridation and the use of advertising and false propaganda in an attempt to sell water fluoridation to an unsuspecting public. Interestingly, it turns out that Alcoa transferred its sodium fluoride production technology to Germany in 1939 under the Alted Agreement, and Dow Chemical Company transmitted its experience and technology to Germany during the same period. So, we have the ILS. transmitting technology to Germany before the., war that allows Germany to experiment on select elements of the Europç population, and then after the war Nazi scientï,,ss and the results of experiments are brought back to the United States under Operation Paperclip. Curious, isn’t it? A little research turned up the fact that 1.0. Farben developed organophosphate nerve agents, Zykion B cyanide-based extermination gas used on the Jews during the war, and many other interesting substances. 1.0. Farben, financially supported by the United States, was the first to develop and process heroin and cocaine. They also developed fluorinated nerve gases Surin and Sornan. Farben had many interconnections with companies in the United States and Britain. Consult the illustrative chart in this book. ¡n a letter abstracted from Fluoridation and Lawlessness, published by the Committee for Mental Health and National Security (with obvious implications) from the aforementioned Charles Perkins, U.S. appointed post-war head of 1G. Farben, to the Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, October 2, 1954, we read the following: ‘We are told by the fanatical ideologists who are advocating the fluoridation of the water supplies in this country that their purpose is to reduce the incidence of tooth decay in children, and it is the plausibility of this excuse, plus the gullibility of the public and the cupidity of public officials that is responsible for the present spread of artificial water fluoridation in this country. However - and ¡ want to make this very definite and positive - the real reason behind water fluoridation is nor to benefit children ‘s teeth. 1f this were the real reason, there are many ways in which it could be done which are much easier, 301 j — MATRIX III- VOLUME TWO 303 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO :.[cheaper and far more effective. The real puspose behind water fluoridation is to reduce ; Éhe resistance of the masses to domination, control and loss of liberty.” 1 Furthermore, ‘When the Nazis decided to go into Poland, the German General Staff and the Russian General Staff exchanged scientific and military ideas, plans and i personnel. The scheme of mass control through water medication was seized upon by the k Russian Communists because it fitted ideally into their plans to Communize the world. I say t.his in all earnestness and sincerity of a scientist who has spent nearly 20 years research into the chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and pathology of fluorides. Any person who drinks art4/ìcially fluoridated water for a per$od of one year or more will psn’er again be the same person, mentally or physically.” .: When Major General Racey Jordan was in charge of the massive lend-lease airlift perations from Great Fails, Montana to Russia, via Alaska, he queried the transshipment of considerable amounts of sodium fluoride. He was told frankly that it was to put into the drinking water of the prisoner of war camps to take away their will to resist.25 It is also interesting that former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who has a background in academic chemistry, initiated a program involving astronomical expenditures of UK revenue on afluoridation campaign in Northern Ireland. The United States as the Most Med icated Nation on Earth According to Chemical Engineering News in 1988, each year in the United States 80,000 tons of hydrofluosilicic acid, 60,000 tons of sodium silicofluoride and 3,000 tons of sodium fluorides are put into public water supplies26 . in view of ail known research, it would be safe and accurate to rephrase the previous sentence and say that each year the United States Government allows 143,000 tons of fluoride products to be added to public water supplies in order to numb, disempower, and render docile a large percentage of the population. Present estimates in 1995 mn about 200,000 tons annually. Now, why on Earth would any oligarchic group (a small group) want to do this to tens of millions of people, deliberately and knowingly? General Suppression of Scientific Research on fluorides All of these fluoride chemicals are by-products of the aluminum and chemical fertilizer industries that are considered to be hazardous wastes by the EPA. Robert J. Carton, an environmental scientist at the EPA, says the scientific assessment of the health risks of fluorides in 1985 ‘bmits 90% of the literature which suggests fluoride is a mutagen - causes cellular and genetic mutation.” 27 Several scientists in the United States Nexus, Vol2, No.27, Aug/Sep 1995, p.28. 27 Chemical Engineering News, Vol 66, Aug 1m 1988, p.3 9. Water Fluoridation: A Case of Truth Decay. t 4.;:,, t ‚-. 304 MATRIX Ill - VOLUME TWO and other countries who have done research or written reports questioning the benefits (j water fluoridation, or suggesting health risks, were discouraged by their employers from actually publishing their findings.28 In recent years, several dentists who have testified against fluoridation have be reprimanded by dental officers. The American Dental Association and the Unit States Public Health Service, who are . supposed to be scientifically, not politicagy motivated, have actively discouraged research into the health risks of fluoridation of public water supplies. Public funds have been spent to fight anti-fluoridation efforts. John A. Colquhoun, a former dental officer in the Department of Health in Auckland, New Zealand, did a study intended to show the advantages of fluoridation. Re carefully compared decay rates in fluoridated and non-fluoridated regions. Unfortunately, he failed to find any difference in decay rates between the areas studied. After his final report was written, his supervi ors refused lo let him publish it.29 Institutions Subject to Government Extortion on the Issue of fluorides W.B. Hartsfield, mayor of Atlanta, Georgia, stated in Dental Survey in 1961 that “no school, college or independent medical research institution dares to be critical of fluoridation because they receive rants from the U.S. Public Health Service. Likewise, no big food, beverage or drug company will dare speak critically of fluoride because they are under the supervision of the FDA, a branch of the USPHS. One brewery official told me that their own research indicated rave questions about fluoridation, but they dare not speak out. As you know, the Food and Drug Administration can bankrupt any national food, beverage or drug company with a little adverse comment.” Now, why would the truth be so threatening to institutions that are supposed to protect public health and safety? Because these institutions are involved in the overall genocide against the population of the United States. The proof is a matter of historical record. That the Food and Drug Administration is a suppressive organization is a matter of record. Massive Corruption, Collusion and Conflict of Interest The same individuals promoting the addition of fluorides to the water supplies also serve on the FDA Dental Products Advisory Board. Fluoridation equipment makers, fluoride suppliers, and federal and state health department staff serve on the American Water Works Association’s “Fluoride Standards Board.” The American Dental Association, who receives public funds, also receives hundreds of thousands of dollars from Proctor and Gamble, Lever Brothers, Colgate, Warner Lambert, Johnson & Johnson, and others in the fluoride business. After the American Dental Association endorsed “Crest” toothpaste in October 1960, it became known that the officials responsible for the endorsement of Crest toothpaste had personally profited financially from the immediate 2* Ibid. 29 Schenectady Gazette, “Suppressed Science, A Stain on Society”, Aug 5, 1989. 305 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO share in Proctor and Gamble Stocks.3° Take another look at the front of 21 book and e,cainine again the legal definition for criminal conspiracy and gross criminal tjcghgence :4;,’ Countries Outside the United States Reject fluoridation In 1977, the Minister of the Environment in Denmark recommended that water fluoridation not be allowed, primarily that no adequate studies had been carried out on its . a’ Iong-ter’ effects on both human organ systems and fresh water ecosystems. In 1978, the ï west German Association of Gas and Water Experts rejected fluoridatíon for legal reasons t and because ‘the so-called optimal fluoride concentration of 1 mm/L is close to the dose FI ,t which long-term damage to the human body is to be expected.” In France, the Chief Council of Public Health rejected water fluoridation after he decided in 1980 that it was dangerous. American fluoridation spokesmen go to great lengths to deny the fact that most of . the countries of medically advanced Western Europe have actively rejected fluoridation of : public water supplies and the use of fluorides altogether. Fluoridation in Western Europe is now down to less than 2%. To illustrate how misleading fluoridation promoters in the : United States can be, consider and article which appeared in the ADA News on January 23, .‘:: 1978. The ADA article, titled “Public Health Service (PHS) Refríes Claims of Fluoride Ban in Europe, “ discusses a pro-fluoridation resolution which was voted on in the World Health Organization in 1969. The article states, ïAmong the nations cited by anti fluoridationists as those which have banned fluoridation., West Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia, actually supported the 1969 WHO resolution,” What this 1978 ADA News article does not mention is that, subsequent to their 1969 vote supporting fluoridation, several of these countries reversed their stand, either by discontinuing fluoridation or by explicitly refis sing to fluoridate in the first place. For example, Sweden banned fluoridation in 1971 after 11 years of testing it; the Netherlands banned fluoridation in 1976 after 23 years of ‘xperimentation” involving 9 million people; Norway rejected a Parliamentary bill to introduce fluoridation in 1975, and West Germany discontinued all fluoridation in 1971. Nor does the ADA article point out that, by the time it was written in 1978, the only one of the countries listed that still had any fluoridation whatever was Switzerland, which maintains a single “experimental station.” This Swiss xperimental program,” which serves 4% of the population, constitutes the only fluoridation in Switzerland from 1959 to the present. Finland also’ has one small ‘xperimental program,” which has been operating since 1959, ‘šerving” about 1.5 % of the total population. In addition to all of the above, the countries of Holland, India, and Egypt pennit no fluoridation of their populations. 10 Tampa Tribune, Aug 4, 1960, Phillip E. Zanlágna, M.D.. F.A.C.A. 306 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO In the United States, however, the U.S. Public Health Service, long a pawn of the industries producing toxic fluorides certified by the EPA as hazardous waste, prematurely endorsed fluoridation of public water supplies in 1950. Since that time the PHS has criminally promoted fluoridation throughout the United States, and actively promotes water fluoridation worldwide. Using a twisted logic born out of a Nazi biomedical orientation, the PHS believes that, if other countries can be convinced, blackmailed or extorted into fluoridating their populations, it would help reduce the American public opposition to involuntary medication. This is, of course, consistent with PHS attempts to conceal the refusal of most European countries to fluoridate. How can the PHS ever dream of succeeding in their plans to intimidate other countries into compliance with the plans of global socialism to medicate the planet into compliance with a totalitarian planetary system of mie? International Fluoride Politics, Intimidation and Bribery The United States Public Health Service (USPHS), which historically has functioned in an Orwellian position exactly opposite to its title, exerts great influence on foreign countries through the World Health Organization (WHO), which it heavily funds, as well as through its numerous grants (bribes) to foreign Health Ministries, as well as to medical and dental researchers in those countries. For this reason, many European nations, desiring major research and healthcare grants from the United States, and unwiling to fund their own research, avoid explicitly banning fluoridation and antagonizing the United States medical oligarchy. Instead, such a country quietly refúses fluoridation for itself whenever the question comes up. This normal policy of European countries to reject fluoridation without overtly declarìng a ban on it has been deceptively used, on its face, by the ADA. For example, in the 1978 ADA article previously mentioned, the ADA refers to the ‘hústaken assumption by anti-fluoridationists that fluoridation has been banned in European countries.” While the article is technically correct in denying that many European countries have banned fluoridation, it fails to point out that g European countries can and do reject fluoridation without formally banning it, i.e., without expressly prohibiting it by law. The fact of the matter.is:that Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, West Germany, Greece, Holland, Italy, Luxemborg, Norway, Spain and Sweden do not fluoridate public water supplies. Mother very important fact never brough out by fluoridation spokesmen is that even those countries that introduce or vote in favor of a pro-fluoridation resolution in the World Health Organization will usually not permit fluoridation for their own people. In order to understand this apparent ‘paradox,” it is necessary to point out the following important fact. Always included, as part of the fluoridation resolution package, is the recommendation for WI-JO funthng to assist member states in their cavity-prevention program (which of course does not address the actual cause of dental caries, i.e., processed foods, etc.), even « they decide not to fluoridate. This means that a country could not gracefùlly accept such “assistance” unless it votes for the resolution package. 307 4 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO To cite another example of pressure techniques, it should be pointed out that wno has long-assisted member nations in improving their water supply systems, independently of any considerations relative to involuntary medication of populations through the water supply itself However, the 1975 WHO fluoridation resolution contained a reminder of the Water Supply Assistance Program (WSAP), with the suggestion that water fluoridation be tied to this program. A country receiving aid under WSAP, but not fluoridating, would at least feel obligated to vote for the pro-fluoridation resolution. Further, such pro-fluoridation resolutions, which the WHO voted on in 1969, 1975 and 1978, have always been “watered” down in an attempt to make them acceptable. For instance, the resolutions never state that fluoridation should be implemented, but countries are subjected to a continuing plea for consideration. In 1969, when the WHO first voted in favor of such a fluoridation resolution, fluoridation promoters hailed the vote as a ‘Unanimous endorsement” of fluoridation. In fha, the promoters did not publicize the fact that the vote was taken when only about 60 of the ¿000 delegates were present (shadows of the passage of the Federal Reserve Act in the United States). Out of the 60 members present, only 45 actually voted. Most of the member nations were, in fact, not represented at all. Neither did fluoridation proponents point out the economic inducements built into the resolution, for its weak non-committal wording. . The ADA News article, often referred to by proponents of mass fluoridation, infers that the European countries which reject fluoridation do so against the recommendations of their respective “health authoñties’ so that such rejections ‘tannot be interpretated as a confirmation that fluoridation poses health hazards.” The reply to this inference should be prefaced with the remark that, in any case, the scientific community should indeed not have the right to impose medication on the public hça...no ‘danger of contagion” is involved. But, as it turns out, an extensive examination of European medical and dental Journals shows the great majority of the European scienilf le community is in fact opposed to fluoridation, - -—-C Consider, for example, Sweden, which is one of the most medically advanced countries on the planet. Sweden banned fluoridation by Parliamentary vote in 1971. The fluoridation proponents erroneously claim that the Swedish scientific community opposed this ban. In an article written by two pro-fluoridationists in the British Dental Journal of July 18, 1972, the Swedish dental profession is attacked for not supporting fluoridation. The British government, who has a history of drugging populations in order to subjugate them, starting with the opium trafficking in the 17th century, have not lost their touch. The key fact remains that most medically advanced countries of Western Europe now have no fluoridation; not because they have neglected to consider it, but because of their own previous experiences with it or as a result of detailed and objective studies of the 308 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO scientific evidence of its hazards and biophysiological effect on both the human body and human behavior. In contrast to the United States, which is almosy 50% fluoridated, less than 2% of the population of Western Europe is subject to involuntary medication through their water supplies. The Goal of Global Socialism is PlanetaryFluoridation by the Year 2000 According to the Centers for Disease Control and the United States Public Health Service, the federal goal is ‘to have universal fluoridation of public water suoplies by the year 2000, This goal was detailed in the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Report on May 29, 1992 and the American Dental Association News on January 3, 1994. It is an interesting parallel that the political agenda dictates establishment of a New World Order by 2002, moved up two years on analysis of political setbacks. Political Suppression of Scientific Information on Fluorides in the United States by Medical Journals and Associations In 1974 Sohan Manocha, now a lawyer, and Harold Warner, professor emeritus of biomedical engineering at Emory University Medical School in Atlanta, submitted a repon summarizing a study of enzyme changes induced in monkeys by the consumption of water containing fluorine compounds for publication in the AMA Archives of Environmental Health. The editor passed thç report around for review. It did not take long before he wrote a letter of rejection back to the authors. One of the peer reviewers had written a comment, “ I would recommend that this paper not be accepted for publication at this time, because this is a sensitive subject and any publication in this areas is subject to interpretation by anti-fluoridation groups.”3’ After the rejection of their paper, Manocha and Warner were told by the director of their department, who had been warned by the National institute of Dental Research that the research “would harm the cause of fluoridation,” not to try to publish their findings in qjy other United States journal Eventually the authors were granted permission to publish in a foreign journal, as indicated in the footnote below. In 1979, the American Dental Association issued a White Paper which includes the following statement, “dentists nonparticipation in fluoride promotion is overt neglect of professional responsibility.” According to an ADA spokesperson, this is still the organization’s policy. Dentists who have a grain of conscience are reprimanded by their respective state dental officer.32 Chemical Engineering News, Aug 1, 1988, p.36. These same papen, however, were published in pretigious British journals, Science Progress (Oxford) and Histochemical Journal. 32 Ibid. 309 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO In 1980, a toxicologist Brian Dementi at the Virginia Department of Health, wrote a comprehensive report on “Fluoride and Drinking Water” that suggested possible health risks from fluoridation. The 36-page study has been purged from the department’s library even though it is the only one the department has prepared on the subject. Spokemen apparently say the report was “thrown away because it was old”, while maintaining that “the department will be preparing another report on the subject soon.” In 1982, John Coiquhoun, former principle dental officer in the Department of Health in New Zealand was told after writing a report that showed no benefit from fluoridation in New Zealand, that the department refused him permission to publish it. He now teaches the history of education at the University of Auckland, and notes that “the editorial policy of scientific journals has generally been not to publish material which overtly opposes the fluoridation paradigm.” According to Colquhoun, scientfftc journals employ a rçferee system of peer revinsš and when the overwhelming majority of experts in an area from which the referees are selected are committed to the shared paradigm of fluoridation (or any other paradigm), the system lends itself to preservation and continuation of the traditional belief that fluoridation is safe and effective. This results in a “sinjle-minded promotion (materialist reductionism), ¡fpoor-qualitv research, and an apparent inability to flexibly reassess in the presence of unexpected new data.”33 It is quite obvious that the same problem is apparent within the other paradigms (EMF effects, etc.) mentioned in Matrix III. In 1984, after receiving a letter for publication on fluorides from Geoffrey E. Smith, a dental surgeon from Melbourne, Australia, the editor of the New York State Dental Journal replied, Your paper was read here with interest, but it is not appropriate for publication at this time because the opposition to fluoridation has become virulent again.”34 After the WHO released its study on fluorines and fluorides in 1985, it immediately drew criticism from scientific circles. In a letter from Phillipe Grandjean, a professor of environmental medicine at Odense University in Denmark (see illustration page) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on June 6, 1985, Grandjean wrote, “information which could cast any doubt on the advantage of fluoride supplements was left out by the Task Group. Unless ¡ had been present myself, I would have found it hard to believe.” The 1985 WHO report was not the only thing under fire. Criticism of reports on fluorides authored by the EPA were also under scrutiny. According to Robert J. Carton, an environmental scientist at the EPA, the scientific assessment of fluorides health risks written by the agency in 1985 “omits 90% of the literature on mutagenicity, most of which suggests fluoride is a mutagen.”” ‘ Ibid. p.36 ‘ Ibid. p.31 Ibid. p.36 310 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO Tucson Study Finds fluoride Promotes Tooth Decay e 1992 Those promoting the concept of water fluoridation maintain that the presence of fluoride in the human diet, whether in public water supplies, food, beverages or from other sources, assists in the prevention of dental cañes (cavities). After conducting two years of research on the subject, contacting numerous organizations and pouring through mountains of scientific reports and documents, I could find no credible data supporting this conclusion. In fact, I found exactly the opposite was the case. It explains why the American Dental Association and the National Institute for Dental Research have always supported fluoridation of the population. Aside from the issues of cancer, mutagenicity, osteoporosis and behavior control, one of the results of fluoridation is that it actually creates more cavities in order to support the dental professE on. Where’s the proof? According to Cornelius Steelink, professor emeritus at the Department of Chemistry at the University of Arizona, who was intimately involved in the debate to fluoridate the water of Tucson, when the incidence of tooth decay versus fluoride content in a child’s drinking water was examined in Tucson, a city with discreate geographic areas of groundwater with both high fluoride content (0.8ppm) and low content (0.3 ppm), a positive correlation was revealed. Dental screening was conducted of 26,000 elementary school children. When the incidence of tooth decay was plotted against the fluoride content of the water, it was discovered that the more fluoridea child drank, the more cavities appeared in the teeth. The fluoride debate in Tucson started when the local county board of health, soon joined by state and federal “public health” organizations, requested that the city of Tucson add fluoride to the drinking water. The city referred the matter to the subcommittee chaired by Dr. Steelink. The subcommittee also discovered that a large population of poor children wo9ld get no benefit from optimum fluoride ¡n the water, as the largest factors in tooth decay (besides processed foods and sugar) were lack of access to dental facilties, poverty and poor oral hygiene. In it’s final repon, the subcommittee stated that ‘there was no obvious relation of fluoride content in municipal water to the prevention of tooth decay in Tucson” and ‘because there are multiple causes of tooth decay, a decision to fluoridate would still leave pockets of poor dental health.”3’ Furthermore, it was reponed that “children, who lived in a fluoridated community, had 11 tiznes the odds of developing fluorosis.”7 Studies of young males and fluoridated water have produced some interesting results. A February 1991 U.S. Public Health Service study linked fluoridated water to bone cancer in young males in Seattle, Washington and Iowa. A New Jersey Department of Health Study in November 1992 found bone cancer rates among young males to be six times higher in fluoridated than in non-fluoridated communities.3’ 36 Townsend Letter for Doctors, October 1994. „ Clinical Pediatrics, Nov 1991. ‘ Safe Water Coalition of Washington State. West 5615 Lyons Ct., Spokane, Wash. 509-328-6704. 311 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO Environmental fluoridation of Indian Tribes: A Case History It is of interest that many of the facilities producing environmental pollution containing significant amounts of fluorides are located in areas also inhabited by native peoples. Although an exhibit is included regarding this matter in Australia with the aborigine people [who operate in a different basal paradigm threatening to material scíentism, as do American native peoples and those in many Third World countries], it is necessary to illustrate a significant case in point relative to the United States. In 1980, the Mohawk tribe, located on the New York-Canadian St. Regis Reservation, filed a $150 million lawsuit for damage to themselves and their property against the Reynolds Metals Company and the Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA). Between 1960 and 1975, industrial pollution devastated the tribes cattle herd and the complete way of life of the tribe. The cattle were so crippled because of the fluorides that would settle on the land, that they would crawl around the pasture on their stomachs--a pitiful sight. Birth defects were common. After five years, legal costs bankrupted the tribe, and they settled for $650,000 in damages to their cows.’ The courts, however, allowed future action by the Mohawks for damage to their own health. The judge was apparently not in the mood to approve annihilation of the tribe by fluoride emissions--the same industrial toxic pollutant that is dumped into public water supplies as a convenience to escape complex EPA regulations for disposal of toxic wastes. This has been admitted by the EPA [see the exhibit provided in this booki. Today, the Mohawk tribe fishes in the St. Lawrence river. The catch is comprised of fish with ulcerated spinal deformities. Mohawk children also exhibit damage to their bones and teeth. No one outside the tribe seems to care. After all, hasn’t the most important consideration been the annihilation of indigenous people in support of the Darwinian-Malthusian mandate? fluorides as a Toxic Industrial Pollutant Impacting Human Physiology Although the main focus relative to the subject of fluorides is its direct administration to humans, an equally important and significant issue is the effect on humans from intentional2 and continuous exposure of the human population to airborne toxic industrial emissions, fluoride being the subject of immediate discussion. According to the EPk fluoride remains one of industry ‘s ¡artes! yollwanrs. In 1988, the EPA estimated at least 155,000 tons each year3 are being released into the year by United States industrial plants. Emissions into water (over and above fluoridation of public water supplies) have been estimated to be as high as 50OE000 tons a year. That’s a lot of ‘Roben Tomsho, “Dumping Grounds,” Wall Street Journal, Nov 29, 1990. It is intentional because the effects have been known for a great many decades and it is still being done with reckless negligence and abandon. ‘Sumniazy Review of Health Effects Associated with Hydrogen Fluoride and Related Compounds,” EPA Repon No. 600/8-291002F, December 1988, p.1-1. 312 r. MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO behavior modification--it would have made the Nazis proud, to have so many so obedient 51 and responsive to authority. Fluorides, by the way, are not biodegradable; with that in b’ mind it is both curious and understandable why the cumulative effect is never discussed. Environmental Sources of Fluoride Compounds • ti The atmosphere in the United States is contanunated by fluonde emissions from a the production of iron, steel, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, phosphates (the main source h for water fluoridation chemicals), plastics, gasoline, brick, cement, glass, ceramics and a clay products, electrical power generation, combustion processes, and uranium processing : t (a double whammy for uranium workers).4 a . ‘14 In terms of pollution of water, the leading industrial fluoride polluters are the producers and processors of glass, pesticides and fertilizers, steel and aluminum, chemicals and metals.’ Obviously, industry and government have a powerfùl motive for claiming, even falsely, that “increasing doses of fluoride are safe for the population,” despite the absolute fact that fluoride is by far the most toxic to vegetation, animals and humans.6 M a matter of fact, fluoride is one of the most toxic substances known.1 The United States Department of Agriculture, who has for years been involved in dosing both the population and the environment with neurotoxins [see pesticide discussion], ironically admits that ‘irbome fluorides have caused more worldwide damage to domestic animals than any other air pollutant.” How early did science and industry know that fluorides can negatively affect the environment? As early as 1901, studies found that “fluoride compounds are much more toxic that the other compounds that are of significance in the industrial smoke problem.”9 u So, evidence that industrial fluoride has been killing and crippling not only F animals but humans has existed at least since the ¡930 ‘s. Not only has the United States r government, as mandated by the basal paradign dgsd the danger and left industry 1 free to pollute [causing disease and medical profit], but it has promoted the intentional fi addition of fluoride [industrial waste] to the drinking water of the population. The ir problem of fluoride pollution of crops, livestock anct3ieople was known as early as 1ÂQ o because of the emissions of iron and copper industries. Because of this, lawsuits and ti regulation threatened the existence of these industries in Germany and England. Tall cr Engineering and Cost Effectiveness Study of Fluoride Emissions Control, U.S. EPA Repon. Volume 1, No. SN16893.000, Jan 1972, p.1-3, et seq. “Treatment and Recovery of fluoride Industrial Wastes,” EPA Repon No. PB-234447, Mar 1974,p.5. le 6 E. .lerard and J.B. Patrick, “The Summing of Fluoride Exposures.” International Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol 3, 1973, p,’43. G.1. (Dox, ‘New Knowledge of Fluorine in Relation to Dental Caries,” Journal ofAmerican Water Works Association, Vol 3 1:1926-30, 1939. it is interesting that 1939 ¡s the same period in which the Nazis were using fluorides for behavior modification of prisoner populations. S Air Pollutants Affecting the Performance of Domestic Animals, U.S.D.A. Handbook No.380, Aug 1970. ‘Kaj Rohoim, Fluorine Intoxication (London: H.K. Lewis & Co, 1937), pp.64-65. 313

    MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO smokestacks might have pushed the emissions into the upper atmosphere in the 1850’s, but the sheer magnitude of the emissions today have no solution. In the earlier, more honest days of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the senior toxicologist in 1933, Lloyd DeEds, was quoted as saying, ‘It is a well-established fact that chronic intoxication (with fluorides] may manifest itself in man as recognized abnormalities after constant, or at least frequent. exposure ... the possibility of fluoride hazard should be recognized in industiy, where this element is discharged into the air as an apparently worthless by-product.”° Aluminum had a critical role during World War II, and by 1938 the aluminum industry had been placed on a wartime schedule, producing an ever-increasing by-product of toxic fluorides. The cover-up of the effects of fluorides was necessary to allow the growth of U.S. industries and to suppress knowledge of the “benefit” of its behaviorally modifying qualities learnedfrom the Germans. With the birth of the military-industrial complex, mandated by the basal paradigm discussed at the beginning of this book, along with its concomitant public misinformation campaigns, there was understandably a blitz to convince the unknowing American public that “fluoride is safe, and good.” The realization by the military-industrial complex that knowledge about fluorides had to be suppressed was mirrored in the 1939 announcement by Gerald J.Cox, a scientist fUnded by the Aluminum Company of America, that “the present trend toward complete removal of fluoride from water and food may need some reversal.” Reversal? Yes, they knew the danger of fluorides and they had begun to plan the removal of fluoride wastes from the environment. Well, reversal was taken to the extreme. The first ‘fluoridation experiments” were undertaken between 1945 and 1946, in true Malthusian style, on indigent, mentally retarded children at state-run schools, one of which was the Wrentham State School for Feebleminded Children. The “experiment” was conducted by the Massachusetts Department of Health without the knowledge of the school administration. According to 1954 Congressional testimony of school ‘trustee” Florence Birmingham, “1 found in the files a letter revealing that a health department representative had come to the school, and in a conference with administration officials, warned them that there should be no publicity on the fluoride program there.” Well, we know where the Nazi expertise ended up after the war, don’t we, and the methodology remained the same. The same as at Hadamar, where the Nazi’s began their killing with the indigent and mentally retarded. Interesting coincidence, The same year, in 1946, the ‘bificial fluoridation expeñment” publicly slated to last 15 years and compare results with an unfluoridated city, began in Michigan. At the same time that this publicly-declared ‘txperiment” began, six other cities were fluoridated. o Lloyd DeEds, “Chronic Fluorine Intoxication,” Medicine, Vol.12, 1933, pp.1-60. ¡ 0.3. Cox, “Discussion,” Journal of the American Medí calAssoci ation, Vol. 113, 1938, p.1753. 12 Congressional Hearings, May 25-27, 1954, pp.4648. Birmingham’s testimony was confinned by John Small, Information Specialist. Fluorides and Health, National Institute of Dental Research, in 1992, 314 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO The ‘xperiment” was ended after two years, and the control city, which had been unfluoridated, was then fluoridated, making it impossible to prove that fluoridation had no effect on ‘preventing tooth decay,” the actual source of which was the sugar and processed food--but, of course, no one was made aware of that fact. In 1947, ex-ALCOA lawyer Oscar Ewing’3 was appointed head of the Federal Security Administration, which at the time was also in charge of the U.S. Public Health Service. Ewing, who was aware of the fluoride disposal problem of the aluminum industry, hired Edward Bernays. , , . The “Genius” of the Fluoridation Plan Bernays’4 was a public relations specialist who specialized in “programming the public mind,”5 and very soon a ‘bational fluoridation campaign” was introduced to the public, who at the same time were beginning to realize that decay problems with teeth (because of the processed food) were becoming rampant. It was a miracle solution. Feed the public fluorides, save money on processing hazardous waste, make the public more compliant and less resistant to authority by affecting their brains, and lastly, reap tremendous medical profits because of the genetic damage and general degeneration caused by the fluorides. The same rationale was applied to chemical wastes as food additives and the medical profits gained by the cancer industry, who periodically gained additional Rinds by soliciting the public in the ‘War against cancer.” All of it was a brilliant plan, and it was just the tip of the iceberg. It was the old Malthusian paradigm again--to increase the mortality rate of the non-elite. As with Hitter, nobody would believe anyone could do such a thing. But it was true, and we have more than demonstrated the proof of it. Why should it be any different--the paradigm was the same. One of the champions against fluoridation was Frederick Exner, who accumulated volumous files that were a source of pivotal evidence in lawsuits decided against industry and promoters of fluoridation. He was the first to document government and industry complicity in the suppression of the hazardous nature of fluorides. After his death in 1978, his files were destroyed in a very “mysterious” fire. Despite the fact that tens of thousands of people, government, and industry have lied to us for the last 60 years, remember that it is the paradigm that is the problem. They all bought into the paradigm. Do you? “ After his stint at the U.S. Public Health Service, Ewing invested his ill-gotten gains in the establishment of a government research facility in North Carolina, Research Triangle Park. ‘4 Bernays was a nephew of Sigmund Freud. See also Murder By Injection by Eustace Mullins. ‘ Bernays wrote Propaganda in 1928, and explained the ‘štnicture of the mechanism which controls the public mind, and how it was manipulated by the special pleader (public relations counsel), who creates public acceptance for a particular idea or commodity. According to Beniays, ‘those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible Kovernment which is the true power of our country.,.our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by mean we have never heard of, either with or without their conscious cooperation.” [Edward Bernays, Propaganda (New York: H. Liveright, 1928), p.18) Bernays also pushed other socialist control paradigms, such as nationalized medicine, Many recognized the socialism involved, but were dubbed “crazies” and ‘tommies”, which was ironic, because Communism is international socialism in an extreme form. 315 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO Last Minute Bullets on Fluorides fluorides Block Telepathic Reception in Humans I realize that the above statement is no less than amazing, but it is something J stumbled on in September 1995 quite by accident. I started out more than 25 years ago in the field of parapsychology, before I became interested in free energy devices and their suppression (which originally got me started on this whole adventure). One of the books I still have from that era, called Beyond Telepathy, by Andrija Puharich,’ relates a tremendous amount of scientific research to do with telepathic states. An incredible piece of work, and very well documented, Anyway, Andrija discusses that fact that telepathic transmission is dependent on the sympathetic nervous system, which is activated by adrenalin-like compounds. Thus the telepathic transmission state is called a state of adrenergia. Now, the state of telepathic reception is dependent on the parasympathetic nervous system, which released acetylcholine, and is called the cholinergic state. In September 1995, 1 was reading scientific papers on fluoride, and the statement was made that fluorides are çznti-cholinergic in nature. This, of course, means that a side function of fluoridation is suppression of telepathic reception in the population. i’m probably the only one who’s discovered this curious fact, but I thought I would pass it on to you. Presuming that development of telepathic functions in a population is itself a tùnction of the evolution of the morphogenetic field [Sheldrake, Matrix III Vol 1], and such development would be a threat to the current basal paradigm [as ¡ mentioned before with the vicious suppression in Canada of a drug that promoted telepathy], and the fact that developed drugs like telepathin, and native plants which have a cholinergic effect are suppressed in the paradigm, “it would make good sense” for the power elite to suppress the general awakening of the population that would occur as the morphogenetic field evolved. In a way, it sort of explains why the efforts to suppress the human brain have been inordinageh’ accelerated as we approach the interesting period ahead. Also, take a look at the rest of the information in the Matrix III volumes, match parasympathetic and sympathetic effects of various substances mentioned, and you will arrive at additional data relative to this curious and amazing discovery. More Comparisons Between Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Populations An interesting bit of news has come from the Netherlands comparing two cities, Tiel and Culemborg. On November 5, 1994, Dutch television broadcast an interview with Dr. Josephien van den Berg, a dentist, who related the following. Tiel was fluoridated in 1952, and a control city, Culemborg, was not fluoridated, No provisions were made to compare various health aspects of the two cities. In 1973, the High Court of the Netherlands, after 20 years, came to the conclusion that fluoridation of the water supplies had been an illegal act. Tiel then stopped adding fluoride to the drinking water. Van den Berg wanted to know it differences in health had occurred between Tiel and Culemborg after the 20 year period ending in 1973. She chose the people between 40 and 60 years of ‘ Andiija Puharich. Beyond Telepathy (New York: Anchor Press/Doublcdav. 1973) p.5. 316 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO Scc.,2act4 ad Rejetenca o &ö€o9dcat SÇjece4t q i.Ifluoride exposure disruDts the synthesis of collagen and leads to the breakdown of collagen in bone tendon,, muscle, skin., cartilane, lungs, kidney and trachea. AK. Susheela and Mohan iba, “Effects of Fluoride on Cortical and Cancellous Bone Composition”, JRCS Medical Sciences: Library Compendium, Vol 9, No.11, pp.1021 - 1022 (1981); YE. Sharma, “Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Collagen Cross-Link Precursors”, Toxocological Letters, Vol.10, pp97-1 00 (1982); A.K. Susheela and D. Mukerjee, “Fluoride poisoning and the Effect of Collagen Biosynthesis of Osseous and Nonosseous Tissue”, Toxocologiocal European Research, Vol 3, No.2, pp. 99-104 (1981); YE. Sharma., “Variations in the Metabolism and Maturation of Collagen after Fluoride Ingestion”, Biochemica et Bioiphysica Acta, Vol 715, pp.137-141 (1982);Marian Drozdz et al., “Studies on the Influence of Fluoride Compounds upon Connective Tissue Metabolism in Growing Rats” and “Effect of Sodium Fluoride With and Without Simultaneous Exposure to Hydrogen Fluoride on Collagen Metabolism”, Journal of Toxological Medicine, Vol. 4, pp.151-157 (1984), 2. fluoride stimulates Ennuie formation and oxygen consumption in white blood cells, but inhibits these processes when the white blood cell is challenged by a foreign aient in the blood. Robert A. Clark, “Neutrophil lodintion Reaction Induced by Fluoride: Implications for Degranulation and Metabolic Activation,” Blood, Vol 57, pp.913-921 (1981). 3. fluoride_depletes the energy reserves and the ability of white blood cells to prQperly destroy foreign agents by the process of phagocytosis. As little as 0.2 ppm fluoride stimulates superoxide production in resting white blood cells, virtually *bolishing phagocytosis. Even micro-molar amounts of fluoride, below lppm, may riously depress the ability of white blood cells to destroy pathogenic agents. John Curnette, et al, “Fluoride-mediated Activation of the Respiratory Burst in Human Neutrophils”, Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol 63, pp.637-647 (1979); W.L. GabIer and PA. Leong, ., “Fluoride Inhibition of Polymorphonumclear Leukocytes”, Journal of Dental Research, Vo. 48, No. 9, pp.1933-1939 (1979); W.L. Gabier, et al., “Effect of Fluoride on the Kinetics of Superoxide Generation by Fluoride”, Journal of Dental Research, Vol. 64, p.281 (1985); A.S. Kozlyuk, et aL, “Immune Status of Children in Chemically Contaminated Environments”, Zdravookhranenie, Issue 3, pp.6-9 (1987); 322 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO 4. fluoride confuses the immune system and causes it to attack the bodfl own tissues, and increases the tumor urowth rate in cancer prone individqah, Alfred Taylor and Nell C. Taylor, “Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Tumor Growth”, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Vol 119,p.252(l 965) Shiela Gibson, “Effects of Fluoride on Immune System Function”, Complementary Medical Research, Vol 6, pp.’11 -113 (1992); Peter Wilkinson, “Inhibition of the immune Syetem With Low Levels of Fluorides”, Testimony before the Scottish High Court in Edinburgh in the Case of McColl vs. Strathclyde Regional Council, pp. 17723-18150, 19328-19492, and Exhibit 636, (1982); D.W.AIIman and M.Benac, “Effect of Inorganic Fluoride Salts on Urine and Cyclic AMP Concentration in Vivo”, Journal of Dental Research, Vol 55 (Supplement B), p.S23 (1976); S. Jaouni and Ð.W. Allman, “Effect of Sodium Fluoride and Aluminum on Adenylate Cyclase and Phosphodiesterase Activity”, Journal of Dental Research, Vol.64, p.201 (1985) 5. fluoride inhibits antibody formation in the blood. 5K. Jam and A.K. Susheela, “Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Antibody Formation in Rabbits”, Environmental Research, Vol.44, pp.117-125 (1987). 6. Fluoride depresses Thyroid activity. Viktor Gorlitzer Von Mundy, “Influence of fluorine and Iodine on the Metabolism, Particularly on the Thyroid Gland,” Muenchener Medicische Wochenschrgft, Vol 105, pp182-186 (1963); A. Benagiano, “The Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Thyroid Enzymes and Basal Metabolism in the Rat”, Annali Di Stomatologia, Vol 14, pp.ÓOI-6l9n (1965);Donald Hillman., et aL, “Hypothyroidism and Anemia Related to Fluoride in Dairy Cattle,” Journal of Dairy Science, Vol 62, No.3, pp.416423 (1979); V. Stole and J. Podoba, “Effect of Fluoride on the Biogenesis of Thrroid Hormones”, Nature, Vol 188, No.4753, pp.855-856 (1960); Pierre Galleti and Gustave Joyet, “Effect of Fluorine on Thyroid Iodine Metabolism and Hyperthyroidism”, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology andMetabolisrn, Vol. 18, pp.1102-1110 (1958). 7. fluorides have a disruptive effect on various tissues in the body. T.Takamorim “The Heart Changes in Growing Albino Rats Fed on Varied Contents oif Fluorine,” The Toxicology of Fluorine. Symposium, Bern, Switzerland, Oct 1962, pp.125- 129; Vilber A.O. Bello and Hillel J. Gitelman., “High Fluoride Exposure in Hemodialysis Patients”, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 15, pp.320-324 (1990); Y,Yoshisa, “Experimental Studies on Chronic Fluorine Poisoning”, Japaneses Journal of industrial Health, Vol 1, pp.683-690 (1959). * 323 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO g. Flouride promotes development of bone cancer. J.K. Mauer, et al., “Two-year cacinogenicity study of sodium fluoride in rats”, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol 82, pp1118-1126 (1990); Proctor and Gamble “Carcinogencity studies with Sodium Fluoride in rats” National Institute of Environmenrtal Health Sciences Presentation, July 27, 1985; SE. Hrudley et al., “Drinking Water Fluoridation and Osteocarcoma” Canadian Journal of Public Health, Vol 81, pp.415-416 (1990); PD. Cohn, “ A Brief Repon on the Association of Drinking Water Fluoridation and Incidence of Osteosarcoma in Young Males”, New Jersey Department of Health, Trenton, New Jersey, Nov 1992; M.C. Mahoney et al.,”Bone Cancer Incidence Rates in New York”, American Journal of Public Health, Vol 81, pp.81, 475 (1991); Irwin Herskowitz and Isabel Norton, “Increased Incidence of Melanotic Tumors Following Treatment with Sodium Fluoride”, Genetics Vol 48, pp.3 07- 310 (1963); J.A. Disney, et al., “ A Case Study in Testing the Conventional Wisdom; School-Based Fluoride Mouthrinse Programs in the USA” Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, Vol 18, pp.46-56 (1990); Di. Newell, “Fluoridation of Water Supplies and Cancer - an association?”, Applied Statistics, Vol 26, No.2, pp.125-135 (1977) 9. fluorides cause jwemature ninp of the human body. Nicholas Leone, et al., “Medical Aspects of Excessive Fluoride in a Water Supply”, Public Health Reports. Vol 69, pp.925-916 (1954); .1. David Erikson, “Mortality of Selected Cities with fluoridated and Non-Fluoridated Water Supplies”, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol 298, pp.1112-1116 (1978); “The Village Where People are Old Before their Time”, Stern Alaganne, Vol 30, pp.107-108,111-112 (1978); 10. Fluonde inacition from mouthrinses and dentifrices in children is extremely hnardous to biological development, life span and teneral health. Yngve Ericsson and Britta Forsman, “Fluoride retained from mouthrinses and dentifrices in preschool children”, Caries Research, Vol.3, pp.290-299 (1969); W.L. Augenstein, et al., “Fluoride ingestion in children: a review of 87 cases”, Pediatrics, Vol 88, pp.907-912, (1991); Charles Wax, “Field Investigation report”, State of Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, March 19, 1980, 6lpp; George Waldbott, “Mass Intoxication from Over-Fluoridation in Drinking Water”, Clinical Toxicology, Vol 18, No.5, pp.531-541 (1981) 324 MATRIX III- VOLUME TWO Ó(m 9aa The contents of a family-size tube of fluoridated toothpaste is enough to kill a 25- pound child. In 1991, the Akron (Ohio) Regional Poison Center reponed that “death has been reported following ingestion of 16mg/kg of fluoride. Only 1/lo of an ounce of fluoride could kill a 100 pound adult. According to the Center, “fluoride toothpaste contains up to 1mg/grain of fluoride.’1 Even Proctor and Gamble, the makers of Crest, acknowledge that a family. sized tube “theoretically contains enough fluoride to kill a small child.” Fluorides have been used to modify behavior and mood of human beings. It is a little known fact that fluoride compounds were added to the drinking water of prisoners to keep them docile and inhibit questioning of authority, both in Nazi prison camps in World War II and in the Soviet gulags in Siberia. fluorides are medically categorized as protoplasmic poisons, which is why they are used to kill rodents. 1943 The Journal of the American Medical Association on September 18, 1943, states. “fluorides are general protoplasmic poisons, changing the permeability of the cell membrane by inhibiting certain enzymes. The exact mechanism of such actions are obscure.” fluoride consumption by human beings increases the lieneral cancer death rate. 1975 Dr. John ¥iamouyiannis publishes a preliminary survey which shows that people in fluoridated areas have a higher cancer death rate than those in non-fl uori dated areas. The National Cancer Institute attempts to reibte the studies, Later in 1975, Yiamouyiannis joins with Dr, Dean Burk, chief chemist of the National Cancer Institute (1939-1974) in performing other studies which are then included in the Congressional Record by Congressman Delaney, who was the original author of the Delaney Amendment, which prohibited the addition of cancer-causing substances to food used for human consumption. Both reports confirmed the existence of a fink between fluoridation and cancer. (Note: Obviously Dr, Burk felt free to agree with scientific truth only after his tenure at NCI ended, since his job depended on towing the party line). 325 MATRIX III- VOLUME TWO fluorides have little or no effect on decay prevention in humans. 1990 Dr. John Colquhoun in New Zealand is forced into early requirement in New Zealand after he conducts a study on 60,000 school children and finds no thfference in tooth decay between fluoridated and unfluoridared areas. He additionally finds that a substantial number of children in fluoridated areas szifferedfrom dental fluorosas. He makes the study public. There is no scientific data that shows that fluoride mouth rinses and tablets are safe for humanase, 1989 A study by J-Iildebolt, et al. on 6,000 school children contradicts any alleged benefit from the use of sodium fluorides. 1990 A study by Dr.John ¥iamouyiannis on 39,000 school children contradicts any alleged benefits from the use of sodium fluorides. 1992 Michael Perrone, a legislative assistant in New Jersey, contacts the FDA requesting all information regarding the safety and effectiveness of fluoride tablets and drops. After 6 months of stalling, the FDA admitted they had no data to show that fluoride tablets or drops were either safe or effective. They informed Pen-one that they will “probably have to pull the tablets and drops off the market.” The fact that fluoride toothpastes and school-based mouth rinses gre packed in aluminum accentuates the effect on the body. 1976 Dr. D.W.Allman and co-workers from Indiana University School of Medicine feed animals I pan-per-million (ppm) fluoride and found that in the presence of aluminum in a concentration as small as 20 parts per billion, fluoride is able to cause an even larger increase in cyclic AMP levels. Cyclic AMP inhibits the migration rate of white blood cells, as well as the ability of the white blood cell to destroy pathogenic organisms. Ref Journal of Dental Research, Vol 55, Sup B, p523, 1976, “Effect of Inorganic Fluoride Salts on Urine and Tissue Çyçjic AMP Concentration in Vivo”, (Note: It is no small accident that toothpaste (ubes containing fluoride are often made of aluminum) 326 MATRIX Hl - VOLUME TWO Letter from the National Federation of Federal Employees - 1991 On the EPA Abuses Connected with the Fluoride issue «r N Nthonál FIeralion of Nd .EmpIoy BOX 7S082 Local 2050 Hon. Willipn, . Reilly. Adrnini5tátOt.U.S. Environmental , ‘ ‘Protection Agency . Washington, D.C. 20460 JUN 2O;gg Dear Mr.’Reilly, ‚ tIFFE Local 2050 receñtly learned from an aiticle in Environment fltk, that theAgency ‘is establishing a panel of outside experts to advise you on the role of science at EPA. We note in particular that the Panel- is o !‘; . .work with EPA offices to, , accomplish this task.” ‘There isno stated intention to work with EPA professionals or their elected representatives where such representation exists. It is critical that,you instruct the Panel of its responsibility in this regard. If you expect this Panel to achieve its stated objectives, especially: “To enhance the stature of science within the Agency and among the many constituencies with which EPA deals”, the Panel must address te concerns of the professionals who do the scientific work in the program offices, the Office of Research and Development, the laboratories and the Regions. Allowing input solely from management officials will only perpetuate the abuses of scien and scientific personnel that have entrenched themselves in • over the last 20 years. Host management officials have by and large been pronoted on the basis of their sensitivity to pofltscal pressure and their ability to use the Civil Service persone1 systen to conly with a political agenda, rather than the ethical practice of science. It it extremely important that the Panel seriously investigate some of the major abuses of science and scientific personnel that have occurred, if it hopes to understand the dyntmics of science in a regulatory agency. 111FF Local 2050 offers the following exarples from their experiences at EPA Headquarters for their consideration: ) * the fraudulent use of science in the l85 -fluoride in drinking water, regulation. - , , * The’ failure to conduct a scientific investigation of the illnesses being caused by new carpeting at EPA headquarters and around the nation. - , , . * The intimidation and harassment of sõientists who-- express their professional ‘op’inion. . * The failurE to investigate and act upon the threat to public health and safety of flammable and explosive pesticide aerosol cans. , “ , * The rejection by EPA of the Code of Profássiánal Ethics , próposed by tIFFE Local 2050. (avER) - - 1 327 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO Letter from the National Federation of Federal Employees - 1991 On the EPA Abuses Connected with the fluoride Issue (continued) There are many more exaiples which professionals at EPA can and -Mill identify if asked tn if they are given ironclad guarantees that managers who engage in reprisals will be severely disciplined. This is an excellent opportunity for you to put the rhetoric of Total Quality Management into a visible and effective form, by negotiating with NFFE Local 2050 , the elected representative of the professionals at EPA Headquarters, on how the Panel should address the concerns of the 1100 professionals who work here. The Panel needs to address these concerns in a systematic, and most importantly, democratic process. To this end, we hereby request tmpact and Implementation bargaining on any plan to examine the role of science at EPA Headquarters. We ask that you send to the bargaining table individuals with the stature and ability to be able to negotiate for management on this. issue, and that the win—win bargaining technique be utilized for these negotiations. We would appreciate a response from you personally indicating that you agree with the necessity for win-win bargaining and for applying TQM principles to examining the role of science at EPA. Sincerely, J. William Hirzy, Ph.D. President NflE Local 2050 Hail Code UN-200 -t 328 MATRIX III - VOLUME TWO r lyjerry Crtzmnlsn Tara Stsn Wntn The dèaths of three kidney dial• ysis patients who used the same dialysis center operated by the University of Chicago Hospitals July 16 were caused by ecute ex posuñ to exs fluoride in the water used for the destinent a prallmin.ary Lnvestigahou bas de teanet U.,of C. officials announced that finding Friday In the midst of their Investigation being con ducted In cooperation with orn cals from the Centers for Disease Control arid the Illinois Depart- ment of Public Heafl , Three women died and sIr other kidney patients suffered an allergic reaction after- they un derwent dialysis July 16 at the U. of t.’ dialysis tenter at 1164 E. SSthSt - ‘ The levels of fluoride found In the dialysis water system at the By )erry Cilnunirts hacKs S’FuT WaiteR mite women died trlday after they received kidney dialysis treatments at in outpatient facili ty operated by the University of .h:cego Hospitals, and patients wo undergo dialysis there hive t’nn told lo use other sites, hospi ILl vrncals said. Five other patients, oui of a rnaJ of 20 who underwent kidney iaIysis Friday at the saine outpa tient center, at 1164 E. 55th SL, suiTered an allergic reaction de ,tribed es itching and hives. T1wy were admitted to the U. of C Hospitals for observation, said Stain Phillips, hospital vice pies- tnt “We ... wtlj be working around : clock to determine the cause center were “very high,” muh higher thais that found in Chi cago’; drinking water, hospital of ticials salt They said the system used to Cher fluoride out of the tap water used for dialysis appas’ ally had failed. The excess fluoride caused heart failure it the three who died because it interfered with the body’s electrical system, which makes the heart beat, said Susan Phillips. hospital vice pres ident. moie who suffered an allergic reaction were admitted lot ob- senador to the U. etC. Hospitals and subsequently released. ‘ Phillips said Chicago ana resi dents who drink tap water with a small amount of fluoride added to prevent tooth cavities have no reason to worry.. . A peson who drinks a lot of water might drink about two quarts a day, she said, or 3V. gal’ of this iragedy.’ said Ralph Mul 1er, president of the U. of, C. Ros pRaia - - ‘ .. . .fl naines of the women whd died were not released pendinj notiflation of (‘muy. The Cook County medical examiners otlce Is investigating the deaths, ‘A hospital statement said all three patients wb, died suffered from end-stage kidney disease and bad mu) jtple. additional corn’ plex medical condItIons, in-’ duding advanced heart disease. Two of the women who died re ceived their dialysis treatments between 6 and S am, and the third between t30 am. and 1:15 pm.. the statement sait’ - The first woman, age 78. died in the waiting room at the 55th Street dialysis center at lo a..n lons of water per week. IIi cot trast kidney dialysis patients us about 300 gallons of water pe weet she said. “fleanse dle.lysis patients av exposed to high volumes of watet these patients can aumulate pc tentialiy harmful amounts o fluoride if the waler is left un treated. Conaequentiy. dialysi water systems have special equip ment to luter out fluoride.” sait the hospital’s statement. But at the dialysis center on 55th Sheet, the filtering process for some reason did cot work, and instead high concentration, of fluoride were released into the water used by the patients, the statement said. “l’his tragedy has deeply affect ed every one of us et the hospi tals. and our heists go out to the familles of those patients who died,” said Ralph Muller. presi dent of the U. of C. Hospitals. The second, age S6,.returned home before she besan to feel Ill ‘and was taken to Jackson Park Hospital. where she died. The third, age 80, went Into heart fibrlliation in the embu- lana that takes hat to end from dialysis. She was pronounced dead at 4 p.m. b the emergency room at Bernait Mitchell Hospi tal. part of the U, of C. complet. hospital omcials said. People whose kidneys have stopped working undergo dialysis about three times a week to re movè accumuieted toxins from their blood. In the process, Phil lips said. e patient’s blood is run through s sertes of filien in the dialysis machine, and the blood 1-s essentially wished and goes back into the patitnt Chicago Tribune. Satwday.Juty3t. 1993 Section t is Fluoride blamed in dialysis deaths I- 3 U. of (]. kidney patients die -5 others have allergic reactiòns té dialysis treatment 329

    n4crrì i- 1- leu ds cscidi-e’s ft)r Üre Lflk)Cì,ft4-iOfl vi- A-p. ii www. --rJox, e ryrntnu/e KLm.htj Fluoride: Commie Plot or Capitalist Ploy .Gburid by Joel Griffiths Reprinted with permission from Coven Action Quarterly, Fall, 1992, Number 42 Copyright notice and subscription information Cows crawled around the pasture on their bellies, inching along like giant snails. So crippled by bone disease they couldnot stand up, this was the only way they could graze. Some died kneeling, after givinu birth to stunted calves. Others kepton crawling until, no longer able to chew because their teeth had crumbled down to the nerves, they began to starve... .11) These were the cattle of the Mohawk Indians on the New York-Canadian St. Regis Reservation during the period 1960-75. when industrial pollution devastated the herd and along with it. the Mohawks’ way of life. Crops and trees withered, birds and bees tied from this remnant of land the Mohawk still call Akwesasne, “the land where the partridge drums.” Today,nets cast into the St. Lawrence River by Mohawk fishers bring up ulcerated fish with spinal deformities. Mohawk children,too, have shown signs of damage to bones and teeth. (2 ) In ¡980, the Mohawks filed a $150 million lawsuit for damage to themselves and their property against the companies responsible for the pollution: the Reynolds Metals Co. and the Aluminum Co. of America (ALCOA). But five years of legal costs bankrupted the tribe and they settled for $650.000 in damages to their cows;(3) the court, however, left the door open for a future Mohawk suit for damage to their own health. After alt commented human rights lawyer Robert Pritchard, “What judge wants to go down ‘n history as being the judge who approved ¡he annihilation of the Indians by fluoride emissionsT’(4) Many Akwesasnes Fluoride emissions? Fluoride, as in toothpaste? Well, yes. Fluoride was the pollutant primarily responsible for the Akwesasne devastation(S) For nearly 50 years. the U.S. government and media have been telling the public that tluoride is safe and beneficial--it is supposed to reduce cavities, especially in children. Manufacturers add it to toothpaste, municipalities put it in the public’s drinking water. The only people who question the safety of fluoride, says the government, are quacks and lunatics--particularly of the far-right-wing variety. But fluoride has another side the government never mentions. It is a toxic industrial pollutant one of the oldest and biggest of them all. For decades, U.S. industrial plants have rained heavy doses of waste fluoride on people, such as the Mohawks. The nation, however, has been successfùlly conditioned to think of fluoride solely as a benevolent substance and to dismiss as a crackpot, anyone who claims otherwise. In recent years, because of rampant environmental damage, some of the worst fluoride pollution plants such as those at Akwesasne have been forced to reduce their emissions, but not terminate them. At Akwesasne, cows still live only half their normal lifespan.(6) Nationwide, fluoride remains one of industry’s largest pollutants. By the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) last estimate, at least 155,000 tons a year were being released into the air by U.S. industrial plants.(7) Emissions into water lakes, rivers, and ocean have been estimated to be as high as 500,000 tons a year.(8) While people living near and/or working in heavy fluoride-emitting industrial plants have received the highest doses, the general population has not been spared either. Fluoride is not biodegradable; whatever

    Abstract The present risk assessment study of fluoride salts was conducted by oral administration of three different doses of sodium and potassium fluorides (NaF, KF) and zinc fluoride tetrahydrate (ZnF2 •4H2O) to male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into control and nine experimental groups, to which oral injections of 0.5 mL distilled water and 0.5 mL of fluoride solutions, respectively, were given. The dosage of fluoride compounds was adjusted to contain 2.1 mg (low-dose group, LG), 4.3 mg (mid-dose group, MG), and 5.4 mg fluoride per 200 g rat body weight (high-dose group, HG) corresponding to 5, 10, and 12.5 % of LD50 values for NaF. The 24-h urine volume, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and creatinine clearance (Ccr) were measured as markers of possible acute renal impact. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined in serum samples as markers of acute hepatic impact. The levels of serum and urinary fluoride were determined to evaluate fluoride bioavailability. The results reveal that higher doses of NaF, KF, and ZnF2 induced renal damage as indicated by higher urinary NAG (p < 0.05 with ≥90th percentile of control). High doses of ZnF2 also induced a significant Ccr decrease (p < 0.05 with ≤10th percentile of control). Low doses of NaF and mid-doses of ZnF2 induced polyuria (p < 0.05 with ≥90th percentile of control) while medium doses of NaF and low doses of KF also induced liver damage, as indicated by a high level of AST (p < 0.05 with ≥90th percentile of control). These findings suggest that oral administration of fluoride is a potential, dose-dependent risk factor of renal tubular damage. KEYWORDS: Hepatotoxicity; Nephrotoxicity; Potassium fluoride; Risk assessment; Sodium fluoride; Zinc fluoride PMID: 26892107 DOI: 10.1007/s12011-016-0644-0 Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka's CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in drinking water and in the locally grown food in the affected areas are the culprits of CKD in Sri Lanka. Fluoride excretion rate is considerably lower in children than adults, leading to renal damage of children living in areas with high fluoride. Adults who had renal damage due to fluoride in childhood are vulnerable to CKD with continued consumption of water from the same source. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. High content of fluoride in groundwater paves the way to excess fluoride in local food crops, consequently adding more fluoride to the systems of the consumers. People who work outdoors for prolonged periods consume excess water and tea, and are subjected to additional doses of fluoride in their system. In the mid-1980s, the increase in water table levels of the affected areas due to new irrigation projects paved the way to adding more fluorides to their system through drinking water and locally grown foods. PMID: 25916575 PMCID: PMC4491063 DOI: 10.1007/s12199-015-0464-4 Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in the kidney of rats through caspase-mediated pathways and DNA damage. Long-term excessive sodium fluoride (NaF) intake can cause many bone diseases and nonskeletal fluorosis. The kidneys are the primary organs involved in the excretion and retention of NaF. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of NaF treatment on renal cell apoptosis, DNA damage, and the protein expression levels of cytosolic cytochrome C (Cyt C) and cleaved caspases 9, 8, and 3 in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups (control, low fluoride, medium fluoride, and high fluoride) and administered 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L of NaF, respectively, via drinking water for 120 days. Histopathological changes in the kidneys were visualized using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Renal cell apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry, and renal cell DNA damage was detected using the comet assay. Cytosolic Cyt C and cleaved caspases 9, 8, and 3 protein expression levels were visualized using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The results showed that NaF treatment increased apoptosis and DNA damage. In addition, NaF treatment increased the protein expression levels of cytosolic Cyt C and cleaved caspases 9, 8, and 3. These results indicated that NaF induces apoptosis in the kidney of rats through caspase-mediated pathway, and DNA damage may be involved in this process. PMID: 25158646 DOI: 10.1007/s13105-014-0354-z

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